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首页 经济学基础术语中英对照

经济学基础术语中英对照.doc

经济学基础术语中英对照

shen_qidu_tp5yu
2011-04-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《经济学基础术语中英对照doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

经济学基础术语中英对照经济学基础术语中英对照经济学词汇Aaccounting:会计accountingcost:会计成本accountingprofit:会计利润adverseselection:逆向选择allocation配置allocationofresources:资源配置allocativeefficiency:配置效率antitrustlegislation:反托拉斯法arcelasticity:弧弹性Arrow'simpossibilitytheorem:阿罗不可能定理Assumption:假设asymetricinformation:非对称性信息average:平均averagecost:平均成本averagecostpricing:平均成本定价法averagefixedcost:平均固定成本averageproductofcapital:资本平均产量averageproductoflabour:劳动平均产量averagerevenue:平均收益averagetotalcost:平均总成本averagevariablecost:平均可变成本Bbarrierstoentry:进入壁垒baseyear:基年bilateralmonopoly:双边垄断benefit:收益blackmarket:黑市blisspoint:极乐点boundarypoint:边界点breakevenpoint:收支相抵点budget:预算budgetconstraint:预算约束budgetline:预算线budgetset预算集Ccapital:资本capitalstock:资本存量capitaloutputratio:资本产出比率capitalism:资本主义cardinalutilitytheory:基数效用论cartel:卡特尔ceterispuribusassumption:“其他条件不变”的假设ceterispuribusdemandcurve:其他因素不变的需求曲线Chamberlinmodel:张伯伦模型changeindemand:需求变化changeinquantitydemanded:需求量变化changeinquantitysupplied:供给量变化changeinsupply:供给变化choice:选择closedset:闭集Coasetheorem:科斯定理CobbDouglasproductionfunction:柯布道格拉斯生产函数cobwebmodel:蛛网模型collectivebargaining:集体协议工资collusion:合谋commandeconomy:指令经济commodity:商品commoditycombination:商品组合commoditymarket:商品市场commodityspace:商品空间commonproperty:公用财产comparativestaticanalysis:比较静态分析compensatedbudgetline:补偿预算线compensateddemandfunction:补偿需求函数compensationprinciples:补偿原则compensatingvariationinincome:收入补偿变量competition:竞争competitivemarket:竞争性市场complementgoods:互补品completeinformation:完全信息completeness:完备性conditionforefficiencyinexchange:交换的最优条件conditionforefficiencyinproduction:生产的最优条件concave:凹concavefunction:凹函数concavepreference:凹偏好consistence:一致性constantcostindustry:成本不变产业constantreturnstoscale:规模报酬不变constraints:约束consumer:消费者consumerbehavior:消费者行为consumerchoice:消费者选择consumerequilibrium:消费者均衡consumeroptimization:消费者优化consumerpreference:消费者偏好consumersurplus:消费者剩余consumertheory:消费者理论consumption:消费consumptionbundle:消费束consumptioncombination:消费组合consumptionpossibilitycurve:消费可能曲线consumptionpossibilityfrontier:消费可能性前沿consumptionset:消费集consumptionspace:消费空间continuity:连续性continuousfunction:连续函数contractcurve:契约曲线convex:凸convexfunction:凸函数convexpreference:凸偏好convexset:凸集corporatlon:公司cost:成本costbenefitanalysis:成本收益分costfunction:成本函数costminimization:成本极小化Cournotequilihrium:古诺均衡Cournotmodel:古诺模型Crosspriceelasticity:交叉价格弹性Ddeadweightsloss:重负损失decreasingcostindustry:成本递减产业decreasingreturnstoscale:规模报酬递减deduction:演绎法demand:需求demandcurve:需求曲线demandelasticity:需求弹性demandfunction:需求函数demandprice:需求价格demandschedule:需求表depreciation:折旧derivative:导数derivedemand:派生需求differenceequation:差分方程differentialequation:微分方程differentiatedgood:差异商品differentiatedoligoply:差异寡头diminishingmarginalsubstitution:边际替代率递减diminishingmarginalreturn:收益递减diminishingmarginalutility:边际效用递减directapproach:直接法directtaxes:直接税discounting:贴税、折扣diseconomiesofscale:规模不经济disequilibrium:非均衡distribution:分配divisionoflabour:劳动分工distributiontheoryofmarginalproductivity:边际生产率分配论duoupoly:双头垄断、双寡duality:对偶durablegoods:耐用品dynamicanalysis:动态分析dynamicmodels:动态模型EEconomicagents:经济行为者economiccost:经济成本economicefficiency:经济效率economicgoods:经济物品economicman:经济人economicmode:经济模型economicprofit:经济利润economicregionofproduction:生产的经济区域economicregulation:经济调节economicrent:经济租金exchange:交换economics:经济学exchangeefficiency:交换效率economy:经济exchangecontractcurve:交换契约曲线economyofscale:规模经济Edgeworthboxdiagram:埃奇沃思图exclusion:排斥性、排他性Edgeworthcontractcurve:埃奇沃思契约线Edgeworthmodel:埃奇沃思模型efficiency:效率效益efficiencyparameter:效率参数elasticity:弹性elasticityofsubstitution:替代弹性endogenousvariable:内生变量endowment:禀赋endowmentofresources:资源禀赋Engelcurve:恩格尔曲线entrepreneur:企业家entrepreneurship:企业家才能entrybarriers:进入壁垒entryexitdecision:进出决策envolopecurve:包络线equilibrium:均衡equilibriumcondition:均衡条件equilibriumprice:均衡价格equilibriumquantity:均衡产量eqity:公平equivalentvariationinincome:收入等价变量excesscapacitytheorem:过度生产能力定理excesssupply:过度供给exchange:交换exchangecontractcurve:交换契约曲线exclusion:排斥性、排他性exclusionprinciple:排他性原则existence:存在性existenceofgeneralequilibrium:总体均衡的存在性exogenousvariables:外生变量expansionpaths:扩展径expectation:期望expectedutility:期望效用expectedvalue:期望值expenditure:支出explicitcost:显性成本externalbenefit:外部收益externalcost:外部成本externaleconomy:外部经济externaldiseconomy:外部不经济externalities:外部性FFactor:要素factordemand:要素需求factormarket:要素市场factorsofproduction:生产要素factorsubstitution:要素替代factorsupply:要素供给fallacyofcomposition:合成谬误finalgoods:最终产品firm:企业firms’demandcurveforlabor:企业劳动需求曲线firmsupplycurve:企业供给曲线firstdegreepricediscrimination:第一级价格歧视firstordercondition:一阶条件fixedcosts:固定成本fixedinput:固定投入fixedproportionsproductionfunction:固定比例的生产函数flow:流量fluctuation:波动forwhomtoproduce:为谁生产freeentry:自由进入freegoods:自由品免费品freemobilityofresources:资源自由流动freerider:搭便车免费搭车function:函数futurevalue:未来值Ggametheory:对策论、博弈论generalequilibrium:总体均衡generalgoods:一般商品Giffengoods:吉芬晶收入补偿需求曲线Giffen'sParadox:吉芬之谜Ginicoefficient:吉尼系数goldenrule:黄金规则goods:货物governmentfailure:政府失败governmentregulation:政府调控grandutilitypossibilitycurve:总效用可能曲线grandutilitypossibilityfrontier:总效用可能前沿Hheterogeneousproduct:异质产品Hickskaldorwelfarecriterion:希克斯一卡尔多福利标准homogeneity:齐次性homogeneousdemandfunction:齐次需求函数homogeneousproduct:同质产品homogeneousproductionfunction:齐次生产函数horizontalsummation:水平和household:家庭howtoproduce:如何生产humancapital:人力资本hypothesis:假说Iidentity:恒等式imperfectcompetion:不完全竞争implicitcost:隐性成本income:收入incomecompensateddemandcurve:收入补偿需求曲线incomeconstraint:收入约束incomeconsumptioncurve:收入消费曲线incomedistribution:收入分配incomeeffect:收入效应incomeelasticityofdemand:需求收入弹性increasingcostindustry:成本递增产业increasingreturnstoscale:规模报酬递增inefficiency:缺乏效率indexnumber:指数indifference:无差异indifferencecurve:无差异曲线indifferencemap:无差异族indifferencerelation:无差异关系indifferenceset:无差异集indirectapproach:间接法individualanalysis:个量分析individualdemandcurve:个人需求曲线individualdemandfunction:个人需求函数inducedvariable:引致变量induction:归纳法industry:产业industryequilibrium:产业均衡industrysupplycurve:产业供给曲线inelastic:缺乏弹性的inferiorgoods:劣品inflectionpoint:拐点information:信息informationcost:信息成本initialcondition:初始条件initialendowment:初始禀赋innovation:创新input:投入inputoutput:投入产出institution:制度institutionaleconomics:制度经济学insurance:保险intercept:截距interest:利息interestrate:利息率intermediategoods:中间产品internatizationofexternalities:外部性内部化invention:发明inversedemandfunction:逆需求函数investment:投资invisiblehand:看不见的手isocostline:等成本线isoprofitcurve:等利润曲线isoquantcurve:等产量曲线isoquantmap:等产量族Kkindeddemandcurve:弯折的需求曲线Llabour:劳动labourdemand:劳动需求laboursupply:劳动供给labourtheoryofvalue:劳动价值论labourunions:工会laissezfaire:自由放任Lagrangianfunction:拉格朗日函数Lagrangianmultiplier:拉格朗乘数land:土地law:法则lawofdemandandsupply:供需法lawofdiminishingmarginalutility:边际效用递减法则lawofdiminishingmarginalrateofsubstitution:边际替代率递减法则lawofdiminishingmarginalrateoftechnicalsubstitution:边际技术替代率lawofincreasingcost:成本递增法则lawofoneprice:单一价格法则leaderfollowermodel:领导者跟随者模型leastcostcombinationofinputs:最低成本的投入组合leisure:闲暇Leontiefproductionfunction:列昂节夫生产函数licenses:许可证lineardemandfunction:线性需求函数linearhomogeneity:线性齐次性linearhomogeneousproductionfunction:线性齐次生产函数longrun:长期longrunaveragecost:长期平均成本longrunequilibrium:长期均衡longrunindustrysupplycurve:长期产业供给曲线longrunmarginalcost:长期边际成本longruntotalcost:长期总成本Lorenzcurve:洛伦兹曲线lossminimization:损失极小化umpsumtax:一次性征税luxury:奢侈品Mmacroeconomics:宏观经济学marginal:边际的marginalbenefit:边际收益marginalcost:边际成本marginalcostpricing:边际成本定价marginalcostoffactor:边际要素成本marginalphysicalproductivity:实际实物生产率marginalproduct:边际产量marginalproductofcapital:资本的边际产量marginalproductofabour:劳动的边际产量marginalproductivity:边际生产率marginalrateofsubstitution:边替代率marginalrateoftransformation边际转换率marginalreturns:边际回报marginalrevenue:边际收益marginalrevenueproduct:边际收益产品marginalrevolution:边际革命marginalsocialbenefit:社会边际收益marginalsocialcost:社会边际成本marginalutility:边际效用marginalvalueproducts:边际价值产品market:市场marketclearance:市场结清市场洗清marketdemand:市场需求marketeconomy:市场经济marketequilibrium:市场均衡marketfailure:市场失败marketmechanism:市场机制marketstructure:市场结构marketseparation:市场分割marketregulation:市场调节marketshare:市场份额markuppricing:加减定价法Marshalliandemandfunction:马歇尔需求函数maximization:极大化microeconomics:微观经济学minimumwage:最低工资misallocationofresources:资源误置mixedeconomy:混合经济model:模型money:货币monopolisticcompetition:垄断竞争monopolisticexploitation:垄断剥削monopoly:垄断卖方垄断monopolyequilibrium:垄断均衡monopolypricing:垄断定价monopolyregulation:垄断调控monopolyrents:垄断租金monopsony:买方垄断NNashequilibrium:纳什均衡Naturalmonopoly:自然垄断Naturalresources:自然资源Necessarycondition:必要条件necessities:必需品netdemand:净需求nonconvexpreference:非凸性偏好nonconvexity:非凸性nonexclusion:非排斥性nonlinearpricing:非线性定价nonrivalry:非对抗性nonpricecompetition:非价格竞争nonsatiation:非饱和性nonzerosumgame:非零和对策normalgoods:正常品normalprofit:正常利润normativeeconomics:规范经济学Oobjectivefunction:目标函数oligopoly:寡头垄断oligopolymarket:寡头市场oligopolymodel:寡头模型opportunitycost:机会成本optimalchoice:最佳选择optimalconsumptionbundle:消费束perfectelasticity:完全有弹性optimalresourceallocation:最佳资源配置optimalscale:最佳规模optimalsolution:最优解optimization:优化orderingofoptimization(social)preference:(社会)偏好排序ordinalutility:序数效用ordinarygoods:一般品output:产量、产出outputelasticity:产出弹性outputmaximization产出极大化Pparameter:参数Paretocriterion:帕累托标准Paretoefficiency:帕累托效率Paretoimprovement:帕累托改进Paretooptimality:帕累托优化Paretoset:帕累托集partialderivative:偏导数partialequilibrium:局部均衡patent:专利payoffmatrix:收益矩阵、支付矩阵perceiveddemandcurve:感觉到的需求曲线perfectcompetition:完全竞争perfectcomplement:完全互补品perfectmonopoly:完全垄断perfectpricediscrimination:完全价格歧视perfectsubstitution:完全替代品perfectinelasticity:完全无弹性perfectlyelastic:完全有弹性perfectlyinelastic:完全无弹性plantsize:工厂规模pointelasticity:点弹性postHocFallacy:后此谬误prediction:预测preference:偏好preferencerelation:偏好关系presentvalue:现值price:价格priceadjustmentmodel:价格调整模型priceceiling:最高限价priceconsumptioncurve:价格费曲线pricecontrol:价格管制pricedifference:价格差别pricediscrimination:价格歧视priceelasticityofdemand:需求价格弹性priceelasticityofsupply:供给价格弹性pricefloor:最低限价pricemaker:价格制定者pricerigidity:价格刚性priceseeker:价格搜求者pricetaker:价格接受者pricetax:从价税privatebenefit:私人收益principalagentissues:委托代理问题privatecost:私人成本privategoods:私人用品privateproperty:私人财产producerequilibrium:生产者均衡producertheory:生产者理论product:产品producttransformationcurve:产品转换曲线productdifferentiation:产品差异productgroup:产品集团production:生产productioncontractcurve:生产契约曲线productionefficiency:生产效率productionfunction:生产函数productionpossibilitycurve:生产可能性曲线productivity:生产率productivityofcapital:资本生产率productivityoflabor:劳动生产率profit:利润profitfunction:利润函数profitmaximization:利润极大化propertyrights:产权propertyrightseconomics:产权经济学proposition:定理proportionaldemandcurve:成比例的需求曲线publicbenefits:公共收益publicchoice:公共选择publicgoods:公共商品purecompetition:纯粹竞争rivalry:对抗性、竞争pureexchange:纯交换puremonopoly:纯粹垄断Qquantityadjustmentmodel:数量调整模型quantitytax:从量税quasirent:准租金Rrateofproducttransformation:产品转换率rationality:理性reactionfunction:反应函数regulation:调节调控relativeprice相对价格rent:租金rentcontrol:规模报酬rentseeking:寻租rentseekingeconomics:寻租经济学resource:资源resourceallocation:资源配置returns:报酬、回报returnstoscale:规模报酬revealedpreference:显示性偏好revenue:收益revenuecurve:收益曲线revenuefunction:收益函数revenuemaximization:收益极大化ridgeline:脊线risk:风险satiation:饱和满足saving:储蓄scarcity:稀缺性lawofscarcity:稀缺法则seconddegreepricediscrimination:二级价格歧视secondderivative:阶导数secondordercondition:二阶条件service:劳务set:集shadowprices:影子价格shortrun:短期shortruncostcurve:短期成本曲线shortrunequilibrium:短期均衡shortrunsupplycurve:短期供给曲线shutdowndecision:关闭决策shortage短缺shutdownpoint:关闭点singlepricemonopoly:单一定价垄断slope:斜率socialbenefit:社会收益socialcost:社会成本socialindifferencecurve:社会无差异曲线socialpreference:社会偏好socialsecurity:社会保障socialwelfarefunction:社会福利函数socialism:社会主义solution:解space:空间stability:稳定性stableequilibrium:稳定的均衡Stackelbergmodel:斯塔克尔贝格模型staticanalysis:静态分析stock:存量stockmarket:股票市场strategy:策略subsidy:津贴substitutes:替代品substitutioneffect:替代效应substitutionparameter:替代参数sufficientcondition:充分条件supply:供给supplycurve:供给曲线supplyfunction:供给函数supplyschedule:供给表Sweezymodel:斯威齐模型symmetry:对称性symmetryofinformation:信息对称Ttangency:相切taste:兴致technicalefficiency:技术效率technologicalconstraints技术约束technologicalprogress:技术进步technology:技术thirddegreepricediscrimination:第三级价格歧视totalcost:总成本totaleffect:总效应totalexpenditure:总支出totalfixedcost:总固定成本totalproduct:总产量totalrevenue:总收益totalutility:总效用totalvariablecost:总可变成本traditionaleconomy:传统经济transitivity:传递性transactioncost:交易费用uncertainty:不确定性uniqueness:唯一性unitelasticity:单位弹性unstableequilibrium:不稳定均衡utility:效用utilityfunction:效用函数utilityindex:效用指数utilitymaximization:效用极大化utilitypossibilitycurve:效用可能性曲线utilitypossibilityfrontier:效用可能性前沿Vvalue:价值valuejudge:价值判断valueofmarginalproduct:边际产量价值variablecost:可变成本variableinput:可变投入variables:变量vector:向量visiblehand:看得见的手vulgureconomics:庸俗经济学Wwage:工资wagerate:工资率Walrasgeneralequilibrium:瓦尔拉斯总体均衡Walras'slaw:瓦尔拉斯法则Wants:需要Welfarecriterion:福利标准Welfareeconomics:福利经学Welfarelosstriangle:福利损失三角形welfaremaximization:福利极大化Zzerocost:零成本zeroelasticity:零弹性zerohomogeneity:零阶齐次性zeroeconomicprofit:零利润

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