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首页 GRE_Argument_补充范文-Wei.pdf

GRE_Argument_补充范文-Wei.pdf

GRE_Argument_补充范文-Wei.pdf

上传者: jjune 2011-04-06 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《GRE_Argument_补充范文-Weipdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜ARGUMENT范文[Topic]Thefollowingisamemorandumfromthedirec符等。

<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜ARGUMENT范文[Topic]ThefollowingisamemorandumfromthedirectorofpersonneltothepresidentofGetAwayAirlines"Sinceourmechanicsareresponsibleforinspectingandmaintainingouraircraft,GetAwayAirlinesshouldpaytosendthemtotheQualityCareSeminar,atwoweekseminaronpropermaintenanceproceduresIrecommendthisseminarbecauseitislikelytobeawiseinvestment,giventhattheautomobileracingindustryrecentlyreportedthattheperformanceofitsmaintenancecrewsimprovedmarkedlyaftertheircrewshadattendedtheseminarThesemaintenancecrewsperformmanyofthesamefunctionsasdoourmechanics,includingrefuelingandrepairingenginesThemoneywespendonsendingourstafftotheseminarwillinevitablyleadtoimprovedmaintenanceandthustogreatercustomersatisfactionalongwithgreaterprofitsforourairline"[SampleEssay]ThedirectorofpersonnelforGetAwayairlineshasnotmadeaverypersuasiveargumentforsendingthecompany'semployeestotheQualityCareSeminarinhisorherlettertothepresidentofthecompanyMaybethepersonneldirectorhasnotthoroughlyinvestigatedthisparticularseminar,asthereareholesinthelogicusedtotrytopersuadethepresidenttopaytosendthemechanicstothistwoweekseminarFirstofall,thepersonneldirectorhasstatedthattheseminar"islikelytobeawiseinvestment"butthenbasesthatassumptiononareportfromtheautomobileracingindustrythattheirmaintenancecrews'performanceshadimprovedafterattendingtheseminarTheletterdoesnotstateexactlywhattheseminarentailsorwhetheritisspecifictothepropermaintenanceproceduresofanyparticulartypeofmachineItwouldbehelpfulhadthepersonneldirectorexplainedinmoredetailthecontentoftheQualityCareseminarandwhetheritisaimedatautomobilesorwhetheraircraftareincludedatallThemechanicsmustlearnsomethingofvaluethatwillhelptheminspectandmaintaintheairline'sfleetofaircraftFortheseminartobeawiseinvestment,thenetproductivityandincomegainsmustoutweighthecostoftheseminarThereisnoevidencetoshowthatthisisthecaseSecondly,becausethepersonneldirectorrefersonlytoareportbytheautomobileracingindustry,itseemsprobablethattheseminarisspecifictoonlythathighlyspecializedindustryItislikelythattherewouldbenoclearcorrelationbetweenthedutiesofthemaintenancecrewsofanairlineandthemaintenancecrewsofanautomobilebuiltforracingThefundamentalpurposesbehindthetwotypesofmaintenancecrewsareclearlydifferentAnautomobileracingmaintenancecrew<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜strivestocreateandmaintainthefastestmachinepossibletoenableitsdrivertocrossthefinishlineinfirstplaceAnaircraftmaintenancecrewisdevotedtoensuringthattheairplanecanflysafelyinanefficientmannertotransportpeopleandcargocrewfromoneplacetoanotherSpeedisthemainfocusoftheracecarindustrywhilecostandsafetyarethemainfocusesofanairlineAdditionally,thepersonneldirectorsuggeststhattheautomotiveracingindustrymaintenancecrewsperformmanyofthesamefunctionsasdotheairline'smechanics,"includingrefuelingandrepairingengines"Althoughinnamethesefunctionsaresimilar,theyareinactualityperformedinverydifferentmannerswithdifferentpurposesinmindForexample,refuelingintheracingindustryisdoneasquicklyaspossibleinordertogettheracecardriverbackonthetrackimmediatelyCertainlycareistakentoensuresafetybutagainitisspeedthatisthenumberonepriorityRefuelinganairplanedoesnothavetobedoneintheshortesttimepossibleThesafetyofpassengersandcargoisthetopprioritySimilarly,therepairingofenginesdiffersinthatthefaultyrepairofacarenginemayleadtolosingtherace,butthefaultyrepairofanairplaneenginemayresultinanaircraftfallingfromtheskywithdisastrousconsequencesChancesorshortcutsthatmightbetakenwithanautomotiveenginecannotbeperformedonanaircraftengineFinally,thepersonneldirectorreferstotheinevitabilityofimprovedmaintenancethusleadingtogreatercustomersatisfactionandthereforegreaterprofitsThisisapossiblechainofevents,certainlynotaninevitableprogressionInadditiontothepreviouslynotedflawsinlogic,merelyspendingmoneytosendthestafftotheseminarwillnotguaranteethestated"inevitable"benefitsItispossiblethateveniftheseminardirectlyaddressesaircraftmaintenanceandrepair,thecompany'smechanicsmayalreadyknoweverythingthatispresented,thusnoimprovementinmaintenancewillbegainedMaybethemechanicswillspendmoretimeatthenightclubsintheareaandnotlearnanythingfromtheknowledgethatispresentedFurthermore,thereisnodirectcorrelationbetweenimprovedmaintenanceandincreasedcustomersatisfaction,letaloneanincreaseinprofitsAircraftmaintenanceisnecessarilya"behindthescenes"activitythatcustomersrarelynotice,barringsomecatastrophicfailureItisdoubtfulthatimprovedmaintenancewouldleadtoanyrecognizableincreaseincustomersatisfactionAdditionally,customersmayalreadybecompletelysatisfiedwithGetAway'sservices,thusnogreaterprofitsarepossiblefromincreasingcustomersatisfactionItisentirelypossiblethatthepersonneldirector'scommitmenttosendtheairlinecompany'smechanicswouldindeedleadtothebenefitsthatheorshehasstatedinthelettertothepresidentIftheseminardoesdirectlyaddressmaintenanceandrepairissuesthatactuallywouldhelpthemechanicstoimprovetheperformanceoftheirworkduties,itispossiblethattheairlinewouldseeanincreaseintheirefficiencyandproductivityButbarringsomeextrinsicevidencethatisnotincludedinthepersonneldirector'sletter,therearenotenoughfactsstatedtoallowthepresidentofGetAway<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜AirlinestomakeaninformeddecisiononwhethertosendthemechanicstotheQualityCareseminar(words)ARGUMENT范文TopicThefollowingisalettertotheeditorofanenvironmentalmagazine"ThedeclineinthenumbersofamphibiansworldwideclearlyindicatestheglobalpollutionofwaterandairTwostudiesofamphibiansinYosemiteNationalParkinCaliforniaconfirmmyconclusionInthereweresevenspeciesofamphibiansinthepark,andtherewereabundantnumbersofeachspeciesHowever,intherewereonlyfourspeciesofamphibiansobservedinthepark,andthenumbersofeachspeciesweredrasticallyreducedThedeclineinYosemitehasbeenblamedontheintroductionoftroutintothepark'swaters,whichbeganin(troutareknowntoeatamphibianeggs)ButtheintroductionoftroutcannotbetherealreasonfortheYosemitedeclinebecauseitdoesnotexplaintheworldwidedecline"SampleEssayInthisargument,thewriteroftheletterconcludesthatglobalpollutionofwaterandairhascausedadeclineinthenumberofamphibiansworldwideTosupporthisorherconclusion,thewritercitestheresultsoftwostudies,seventyfiveyearsapart,thatpurportedlyshowthatthenumberofamphibiansinoneparkinCalifornia,YosemiteNationalPark,havedrasticallydeclinedAdditionally,thewritercastsasideagivenreasonforthedecline,statingthattheintroductionoftrouttothepark(whoareknowntoeatamphibianeggs)doesnotexplaintheworldwidedeclineinthenumberofamphibiansThisargumentdefiessimplelogicandsuffersfromseveralcriticalfallaciesFirstofall,theargumentisbasedononlytwostudiesinonespecificpartoftheworld,YosemiteNationalParkinCaliforniaItisimpossibletopinpointaworldwidetheoryforthedeclineofamphibiansbasedonanynumberofstudiesinonlyonespecificlocationintheworldthespecificvarietiesofamphibians,geographicalconditionsandotherlocationspecificvariablesprohibitsuchasweepinggeneralizationOneveryspecificlocationcannotbeusedasamodelforallotherlocations,evenwithinoneparticularcountry,letalonetheentireworldThewriterprovidesnoevidencedwhatsoeverthatlinkstheYosemitestudywithanypurportedeffectsanywhereelseintheglobalenvironment<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜Secondly,thetwoseparatestudiesweredoneseventyfiveyearsapartThereisnoevidencethatthetwostudieswereconductedinasimilarmanneroverthesamedurationoftimeorevenoverthesameexactareasofYosemiteNationalPark,orthattheexactsamestudymethodswereusedForexample,perhapsthefirststudylastedoveranentireyearandwasconductedbytwentyfiveexpertsinamphibiousbiology,resultinginthefindingofsevenspeciesofamphibiansinabundantnumbersBycontrast,perhapsthesecondstudywasconductedoveraperiodofoneweekbyalonehighschoolstudentasaschoolscienceprojectThewriteroffersnobasisonwhichtocomparethetwostudies,leavingitopenastowhetherthetwoaretrulycomparableintheirbreadth,scopeandexpertiseFinally,thewriternotesthatthedeclineintheamphibianpopulationhasbeenblamedontheintroductionoftroutintothepark'swatersin,butthendismissesthatargumentonthepurelyspeciousbasisthatitdoesnotexplaintheworldwidedeclineThispartoftheargumentblithelydismissestheveryrelevantfactthattroutareknowntoeatamphibianeggsThisattemptto"proveanegative"isthelastresortofthoseinsearchofsomevainattempttoprovethetruthofthematterthattheyareassertingItisbasicallyimpossibleto"proveanegative"thisisanattempttoshifttheburdenofproofbackontothenonbelieversoftheargumentTheglobalenvironmentalsituationandthatofYosemiteNationalParkarenotperfectlycorrelated,andthefactthatthetroutmayverywellberesponsibleforthedeclinecannotsimplybedismissedwithoutfurtherproofInsummary,thewriterfailstoestablishanycausalrelationshipbetweenglobalairandwaterpollutionandthedeclineofamphibiouslifeworldwideTheevidencepresentedisextremelyweakatbestandnarrowlyfocusesononetinyareaoftheglobe,aswellasputtingforwardasprooftwostudiesaboutwhichalmostnothingisknownForastrongerargument,thewriterwouldneedtodirectlyputforthevidenceassociatingairandwaterpollutionwithnotonlythedeclineatYosemitebutalsothroughoutotherareasoftheworld(words)ARGUMENT范文TopicThefollowingisalettertotheeditoroftheAtticusCitynewspaper"FormerMayorDurantowesanapologytothecityofAtticusBoththedamagetotheRiverBridge,whichconnectsAtticustoHartley,andthetrafficproblemswehavelongexperiencedonthebridgewereactuallycausedyearsagobyDurantAfterall,heistheonewhoapprovedtheconstructionofthebridgeIfhehadapprovedawiderandbetterdesignedbridge,onwhichapproximatelythesameamountof<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜publicmoneywouldhavebeenspent,noneofthedamageorproblemswouldhaveoccurredInstead,theRiverBridgehasdeterioratedfarmorerapidlyoverthepastyearsthanhasthemuchlongerDerbyBridgeuptheriverEventhoughthewintershavebeensevereinthepastseveralyears,thisisnoexcuseforthenegligenceandwastefulnessofDurant"SampleEssayTheauthorofthisletterconcludesinhisorherargumentthatformerMayorDurantshouldapologizetothecityofAtticusbecauseheisatfaultfordamagethathasoccurredoveratwentyyeartimespantotheRiverBridgeTheauthoralsoblamesMayorDurantforlongtimetrafficproblemsonthebridge,statingthatDurantactuallycausedtheseproblemstwentyyearsbeforebecauseheapprovedtheconstructionofthebridgeanddidnotapproveawiderandbetterdesignedbridgeThearguermayhaveapersonalvendettaagainstMayorDurantbuttheelementsstatedintheargumentdonotsupportsuchanaccusationFirstofall,theauthorsquarelyplacesblameonMayorDurantforthesimpleactofapprovingtheconstructionofthebridgeThereisnoevidencepresentedthatmerelyapprovingthebuildingofthebridgehadanythingwhatsoevertodowiththedamagethathasoccurredorthetrafficproblemsonthebridgeItisentirelypossiblethatMrDurantsimplyapprovedtheideaofconstructingthebridgeandnotthedesignofthebridgeorthecontractorthatbuiltitSimplyapprovingtheconstructionofthebridgedoesnotinandofitselfcausedamagetothatbridgeoranyresultingtrafficproblemsInaddition,thearguerconcludesthatifMayorDuranthadapprovedawiderandbetterdesignedbridgethattherewouldbenodamageortrafficproblems,anargumentforwhichthereisnobasisofproofofferedItisawellknownfactthatbridgesaresubjecttodeterioration,particularlyoveraperiodoftwentyyears,nomatterhowwelldesignedtheymaybeTheauthoralsofailstoofferanysupportingevidencetoshowthatamoredurablebridgewithfewertrafficproblemscouldhavebeenbuiltforapproximatelythesameamountofpublicmoneyItseemslikelythatawiderbridgewouldhavemoredamageproblemsratherthanfewer,andprobablywouldhavecostmoreaswell,whetherpublicorprivatefundswereusedFurthermore,thearguermentionsthattheRiverBridgehasdeterioratedmuchmorerapidlythanthemuchlongerDerbyBridgeuptheriverThisgroundlessargumentfailstotakeintoaccountotherpossiblereasonsforthediscrepancyinthedeteriorationofthetwobridgessuchastrafficloads,locationandotherenvironmentalvariablesItispossiblethattheDerbyBridgewasmuchmoreprotectedfromtheelementsandrarelyusedbyheavytrucktraffic,forexampleTheauthorgivesnobasisforadirectcomparisonbetweenthetwobridgesotherthanhisorherpersonalopinion<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜Finally,theletterwriterreferstothe"negligenceandwastefulness"ofMayorDurantTheonlyactioncitedbytheauthoristheapprovalofthebridgeinthefirstplace,whichprovesneitherneglectnorwastingofanythingThesentenceitselfcontainsanonsequiturfirstlydiscussingtheseverewintersofthepastseveralyears,andthenaccusingMrDurantofwasteandneglectThisaccusationisunwarrantedaswellasunsupportedintheauthor'sargumentInsummary,theauthorsimplymakesgroundlessaccusationswithoutprovidinganyrealsupportforhisorherargumentTomaketheargumentconvincing,theauthorwouldhavetoprovideevidencethatMayorDurantapprovedafaultybridgedesignoranunqualifiedconstructioncompanythatcausedthebridge'sdamageandtrafficproblemsTheauthorshouldhavealsoprovidedsupportingdetailsthatshowthatthedamagetothebridgeisoutoftheordinaryanddirectlycausedbyMayorDurant'sdecisiontouseinadequateconstructionmaterialsorapoordesignWithoutmoresupport,theauthor'spointofviewisunconvincingandnotwellreasoned(words)ARGUMENT范文TopicThefollowingisfromaneditorialintheMidvaleObserver,alocalnewspaper"Eversincethe's,whentelevisionsetsbegantoappearintheaveragehome,therateofcrimescommittedbyteenagersinthecountryofAltahassteadilyincreasedThisincreaseinteenagecrimeparallelstheincreaseinviolenceshownontelevisionAccordingtoseveralnationalstudies,evenveryyoungchildrenwhowatchagreatnumberoftelevisionshowsfeaturingviolentscenesdisplaymoreviolentbehaviorwithintheirhomeenvironmentthandochildrenwhodonotwatchviolentshowsFurthermore,inasurveyconductedbytheObserver,overpercentoftherespondentswereparentswhoindicatedthatprimetimetelevisionprogramsthatareshownbetweenpmandpmshouldshowlessviolenceTherefore,inordertolowertherateofteenagecrimeinAlta,televisionviewersshoulddemandthattelevisionprogrammersreducetheamountofviolenceshownduringprimetime"SampleEssayTheauthorofthiseditorialstatesthattherateofteenagecrimeinthecountryofAltahasincreasedalongwiththeincreaseinviolenceshownontelevision,beginningwiththe'swhentelevisionwasintroducedintheaveragehomeInaddition,theauthorstatesthatseveralnationalsurveyshaveshownthatyoungchildrenwatching<上海新东方学校>GRE作文补充材料叶炜violenttelevisionprogramsaremorepronetoviolencethanchildrenwhodonotThewritealsosaysthatasurveyindicatedthatninetypercentofparentsrespondingsaidthatprimetimeprogramsshouldshowlessviolenceFinally,theauthorcomestotheconclusionthattolowertherateofteenagecrimeinAlta,televisionwatchersshoulddemandareductioninviolenceshownduringprimetimeThisargumentsuffersfromseveralcriticalfallaciesFirstly,thewriterequatestherateofincreaseinteenagecrimeinAltatotheincreaseinviolenceshownontelevisionbutgivesnocausallinkageotherthanthesimilartimeperiodsTheauthormakesnodistinctionbetweentypesofcrimeswhethertheyareviolentornonviolentcrimesbyteenagersFurthermore,thereareseveralpossiblealternativecausesfortheincreaseinteencrimesForexample,perhapsalltypesofcrimeshaveincreasedforallages,ormaybethepolicearenowdoingabetterjobofcatchingteenagecriminalsthantheywerebeforePerhapsthereasonfortheincreaseissimplyanincreaseintheoverallpopulationandthatasapercentageofthepopulation,teencrimeisevenlessthanitwasbeforeWithoutrulingouttheseandothercauses,theargumentfailstoconvincebyshowingnocausallinkagebetweentelevisionviolenceandteenagecrimeSecondly,theauthormentionsnationalstudiesthatshowthatyoungchildrenthatwatchviolentprogramsshowmoreviolentbehaviorathomethanchildrenwhodonotwatchsuchprogramsThisargumentfailsontwolevelsonebyassumingthatchildrenandteenagersareequallyaffectedbytelevisionprogramsandtwobyagainassumingthatthereissometypeofcauseandeffectrelationshipbetweentelevisionviolenceandteenagecrimeYoungchildrenandteenagersarenotthesameanditshouldnotbeassumedthatmoreviolentbehaviorwithinthehomeleadstocrimesoutsideasthesechildrengrowintoteenagersThirdly,theauthoroffersasurveyshowingthatninetypercentoftherespondentswereparentswhoindicatedthatprimetimetelevisionprogramsshouldshowlessviolenceThesurveymethodsarenotdiscusseditispossiblethatthesamplewasimproperlychosenorsomehowpredisposedtoincludeparentsthatareverymuchopposedtotelevisionviolenceAdditionally,itispossiblethatsuchparentsarefarmorevocalintheiropinionsthanthosewhocarelittleornotatallaboutprimetimetelevisionviolence,againskewingtheresultsofthesurveyEvenassumin

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