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首页 言灵术及其他(英文版).pdf

言灵术及其他(英文版).pdf

言灵术及其他(英文版).pdf

shakui 2011-04-05 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《言灵术及其他(英文版)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含SectionMAGICINNAMESANDINOTHERTHINGSrorFn^ivJf)^MAGICINNAkE*^^'^'^"'^ANDINO符等。

SectionMAGICINNAMESANDINOTHERTHINGSrorFn^ivJf)^MAGICINNAkE*^^'^'^"'^ANDINOTHERTHINGSBYEDWARD'CLODDAUTHOROFTHECHILDHOODOFTHEWORLD,'"THESTORYOFCREATION,"ETC"Toclassifythingsistonamethem,andthenameofathing,orofagroupofthings,isitssoultoItnowtheirnamesistohavepowerovertheirsoulLanguage,thatstupendousproductofthecollectivemind,isaduplicate,ashadowsoul,ofthewholestructureofrealityitisthemosteffectiveandcomprehensivetoolofhumanpower,fornothing,whetherhumanorsuperhuman,isbeyonditsreach"FMCoRNFORD,FromReligiontoPhilosophy,pINEWYORKEPBUTTONCOMPANYPrintedinGreatBritainPREFATORYNOTETheworldwidesuperstition,examplesofwhichformthestapleofthisbook,hasscarcelyreceivedtheattentionwarrantedbytheimportantpartwhichithasplayed,andstillplays,insavageandcivilizedbeliefandritualThebookisanenlargementofalectureon"MagicinNames,"deliveredattheRoyalInstitutioninMarchThereareincorporatedintoitsomeportionsofanEssayonSavagePhilosophyinFolklore,whichwaspublishedinThebookhasbeenlongoutofprint,andIbegtothankMessrsDuckworthandCoforpermissiontomakeextractstherefromIhavealsotothankmywifeforhervaluedhelpinthetediousworkofrevisionofproofsheets,EGStraffordHouse,Aldeburgh,SuffolkCONTENTSCHAPIMagicandReligionIIIIVVManainTangibleThings(a)manainblood{b)„HAIRandteeth(c)„SALIVA(d)„INPORTRAITManainIntangibleThings(a)manainshadowsid)(e)()(g){h)(i)ii)REFLECTIONSANDECHOESPERSONALNAMESNAMESOFRELATIVESBIRTHANDBAPTISMALNAMESINITIATIONNAMESEUPHEMISMSNAMESOFKINGSANDPRIESTSNAMESOFTHEDEADNAMESOFGODSManainWords(a)CREATIVEWORDS(b)mantrams(c)PASSWORDS{d)CURSES(e)spellsandamulets()curecharmsTheNameandtheSoulIndexTAOUVllMAGICINNAMESCHAPTERIMAGICANDRELIGIONInanarticleon"magic"contributedtoHastings'sEicyclopcediaofReligionandEthics,DrMarettsaysthat"theproblemofitsdefinitionconstitutesaveritablestormcentreintheanthropologicalliteratureoftoday"Inthisdisturbedzonethequestionsof()theoriginandelementsofmagic,and()itsplaceintheorderofman'sspiritualevolution,arediscussedUponeachoftheseonlybriefcommentisherenecessaryAstothefirstquestion,onesetofcombatantscontendthatmagicis"pseudoscience"^"thephysicsofthesavage,"asDrAdolfBastiandefinesit"Itcannot,"saysSirAlfredLyall,"bedoubtedthatmagicisfoundedonsomedimnotionofcauseandeffectwhichisthenecessarybasisofallhumanreasoningandexperience"^PrimitiveCulture,bySirEBTylor,VolIpp,(ThirdEdition)AsiaticStudies,ndSeries,pBMAGICINNAMESInagreementwiththis,SirJamesFrazersaysthat"theanalogybetweenthemagicalandthescientificconceptionsoftheworldiscloseInbothofthemthesuccessionofeventsisperfectlyregularandcertain,beingdeterminedbyimmutablelaws,theoperationofwhichcanbeforeseenandcalculatedpreciselytheelementsofcaprice,ofchance,andofaccidentarebanishedfromthecourseofnature"^TothisanoppositeschoolrepliesthatthetheoryassumesahigherstageofmentalitythansavageraceshavereachedTheyareunabletoconceiveofconstantrelationsbetweencauseandeffectThehowandwhyofthingsisalateconceptioninhumandevelopmentWliatappearstorulethelifeofmanathislowest,andtopersistinoftenunsuspectedformthroughouthishistory,isthesenseofavague,impersonal,everacting,universallydiffusedpowerwhich,borrowingthewordforitcommontothewholePacific,iscalledmanaToquotefromtheclassicalworkonthesubject,"Manaisnotfixedinanything,andcanbeconveyedinalmostanythingItworkstoaffecteverythingwhichisbeyondtheordinarypowerofmen,outsidethecommonprocessesofnature,itispresentintheatmosphereoflife,attaches^TheGoldenBough^,"TheMagicArt,"VolIpArt"Mana,"Hastings'sEncyBeligionandEthics^VolVIIIppMAGICANDRELIGIONitselftopersonsandtothings,andismanifestedbyresultswhichcanonlybeascribedtoitsoperation^Wizards,doctors,weathermongers,prophets,diviners,dreamers,allalike,everywhereintheislands,workbythispower"^Manaisthestuffthroughwhichmagicworksitisnotthetrickitself,butthepowerwherebythesorcererdoesthetrickTotheOmahaIndians,wakondais"thepowerthatmakesorbringstopass,"andthelikemeaningisattachedtotheIroquoisorendaoroki,totheAlgonkinmanitou,tothekutchioftheAustraliannatives,totheagudoftheTorresStraitsIslanders,tothebunissioftheBantuandtotheri'gaoftheMasaiEquatingmanawithwhattheMilesianscalledphysis(phyo,"tobringforth"),MrCornfordsaysthatitis"thatveryliangstuffoutofwhichdemons,godsandsoulshadslowlygatheredshape"^Thisfallsintolinewiththetheory,basedonevidenceastothecontinuityofmentaldevelopment,thatAnimism,orthebeliefinpersonalspiritseverywhere,inthenonlivingaswellasintheliving,isasecondarystageinthegrowthofreligion,beingprecededbyNaturism,orbeliefinimpersonalpowersAsanexample,tothejungledwellersofChotaTheMelanesians,p,bytheRevRHCodringtonlb,pFromReligiontoPhilosophy,pMAGICINNAMESNagpurtheir"sacredgrovesaretheabodeofequallyindeterminatethings,representedbynosymbolsandofwhoseformandfunctionnoonecangiveanintelligibleaccountTheyhavenotyetbeenclothedwithindividualattributestheylingeronassurvivalsoftheimpersonalstageofreligion"^Cognateexamplesaboundhere,passingfromIndiatoAfrica,itsufficestoquoteonegivenbyMrHollisinhisbookonTheMasaiHesaysthatintheirwordengaiwehavethatwhichexpresses"theprimitiveandundevelopedreligioussentimentwherethepersonalityofthegodishardlyseparatedfromstrikingnatui'alphenomena"^Onthesameplaneisthe"unseenpoweroftheancientRomancultsseatedin,oftenunnamed,andvisibleonlyinthesenseofbeing,orinsomesensesymbolizedby,treeorstoneoranimal^InhisReligionofNumaMrCartersaysthat"itrequiredcenturiestoeducatetheRomanintotheconceptionofpersonal,individualgods"*"Theideaofthesupernatural,"saysMEmileDurkheim,"asweunderstandit,datesonlyfromtoday"^Itcouldariseonlyafterbeliefinanatural,unbrokenorderofthingswasestablished,and^PeopleofIndia,p,bySirHRisley,pxix^TheRomanFestivals,p,byWWardeFowlerp^ElementaryFormsoftheReligiousLife,pMAGICANDRELIGIONisnottobeconfoundedwiththatfeelingofthemarvellousbegottenbythesurprisingortheunusualinphenomenaAgesweretopassbeforespeculationsaboutspiritualbeingsshapedthemselvesincreedsanddogmaswhoseformulationhasbroughtcountlessevilsonmankindAsMontaigneshrewdlysaid,"Nothingissofirmlybelievedasthatwhichisleastknown,"andinthedegreethatthematterindisputeisincapableofproof,thepassionsofmenindefendingithavebegottenthefoulbroodofhatredandslaughter^whichwarrantedtheterribleindictmentofLucretius:"Tantumreligioiiotuitsuaderemalorum"^("sogreattheevilstowhichreligioncouldprompt")Astothesecondquestion,oneschoolcontendsthatmagicprecedes,andisantagonisticto,religionthatthesorcerercomesbeforethepriestintheorderofthaumaturgistsArmedwithmanaincommonphrase,withhis"bago'tricks,"thesorcererworksasonewhocompelsorconstrainsormanipulatespersonsandpowers,bothseenandunseen,toattainmentofhisends,whetherthesebetohelportoharmHisapparatusisgrossandmaterial:^"Nonsensedefendedbycruelty,"Gibbon,DeclineandFall,chIxivp(Biiry'sEdition,)BkIInhisLucretius,EpicureanandPoet,p,MrMassonsays:"ThisHnemayberendered:'Thereisnothingsodangerousastherehgiousconscience'"MAGICINNAMESheenchainsandsubduesbyhismagicartsanddevicesItisnotsowiththepriest,whobeheveshimselftobethechannelofcommunicationsbetweengodsandmen,andwhosemethods,therefore,arenotcarnal,butspiritualHisfunctionscomeintoplayonlyasmanattainstoconcreteconceptionsofinvisiblepowers(envisagingtheseasmadeinhisownimage),sothatmoredirectappealtothemispossibleBut,intruth,nohardandfastlinescanbedrawnbetweenpriestandsorcererThesesharpdivisionsaretobeavoidedtheyassumeaconsistencyofsequenceinbarbaricbeliefsandpracticeswhichdisqualifiesusforunderstandingthemSymmetricaltheoriescarrytheirowncondemnationAdistinction,whichhasacertainvalidity,hasbeendrawnbetweenreligionandmagicInprimitivegroups,theindividualdoesnotcountthecommunityiseverythingHence,amongalllowerraces,everyinstitutionissocialEvenreligion,whichweareapttothinkofonlyintermsofsect,iscollectivist:thereisnosuchthingasaprivatereligionDancesandfestivals,andotherchannelsofreliefoftheemotionsruledthecommunallifeaughtelsethatweassociatewiththeterms"religion"and"worship"wasamuchlaterdevelopmentMagic,ontheotherhand,isantisocialandMAGICANDRELIGIONdisruptiveThesorcereractsaloneheworksforhisownendsNowandagainheservesthecommonweal,aswhen,byhisspells,heinspiresthetribeagainstthefoe,ormakesbelievetocontrolthewindandweatherBut,practically,hisartsaredirectedagainsttheindividualToquoteMDurkheim,"BetweenthemagicianandtheindividualswhoconsulthimtherearenolastingbondswhichmakethemmembersofthesamemoralcommunitycomparabletothatformedbythebelieversinthesamegodortheobserversofthesamecultthemagicianhasaclienteleandnotaChurchThereisnoChurchofmagic"^TruebuttherearenoChm'cheswithoutitThepriest,incontrastwiththesorcerer,assumesdirectrelationswithinvisibleandsupernaturalpowers,butforthesustainingofthese,asforhisinfluencewiththosepowers,hereliesonmagicBeliefsvanishbeforetheadvanceofknowledgetheheterodoxyoftodaybecomestheorthodoxyoftomorrowButritualabidesasavehicleofmagic,andhereinthemedicinemanandthesacerdotalistmeettogether"Magic,sacramentandsacrificearefundamentallyallone"^Thecontinuitybetweentheseisrecognizedinarecentbookbya"priestoftheCatholicChurch"(thatis,ofitsEnglishbranch,theordersofwhichareinvalidatRome)^pThemis,p,JaneEHarrisonMAGICINNAMESIntheinitiationceremoniesaccompanyingtheadmissionofyouthstomembershipofthetribeonattainingpuberty,heseesanticipationoftheriteofconfirmationandofthepreparationforthe"CommunionoftheSaints"IntheuniversalbarbaricbehefthattheeaterabsorbsthequaUtiesandvirtuesofthethingeaten,headmitsafundamentalconnectionwiththemostsacredandmagicalofChristianrites,"thesacramentalelementbecomingmoreandmorepronounced,tillatlastintheEucharistwhereinmandwellsinChristandChristinmanitfindsitsconsummation"Inthepurificationandlustrationcustomsattendingwomenatchildbirthandthenewlyborn,especiallyintheIsisriteofbaptismwithwater,hefindspreparation"fortheproclamationoftheonebaptismfortheremissionofsins"^TheChristianmagician,hecontends,issuccessfulasoneof"apriesthoodpossibleonlywhereadefiniterelationshipexistsbetweenthedeityandthecommunity,sincetheofficeofthepriestistopropitiatethegodsoractastheirmouthpieceByvirtueofhisinitialordination,hebecomesinvestedwithDivineauthorityandisthereforeregardedasasacredperson"!Allthelowerreligions,intheviewofthiswriter,havebeen*'schoolmasterstobringustoChrist"forhimiPrimitiveRitualandBelief,p,RevEOJamesMAGICANDRELIGIONtheirvalueliesonlyinthedegreethattheyareanticipatoryoftheChristianreligion,withitsmonopolyofaDivineprocessandpurposewhichisfortheadvantageofahandfulofmankind,andofwhichthemajorityhaveneverheardMrJames,whohasundergone"afullanthropologicaltraining"underDrMarettatOxfordthecourseincludingastudyofthelowerreligions,coollyignorestheexistenceofthegreatreligionswhichclaimtheadherenceofathousandmillions,whereasChristianity,rivenintoamyriad"jarringsects,"can,onthemostelasticreckoning,claimbarelyhalfthenumberThis,surely,istoimportintotheChristianreligionanantisocial,evenantihuman,element,tomakedisruptivewhatissaidoriginallytomean"binding"(religare,"tobind")Inthedegreethatithasbecomeindividualisticithaslosttouchwithacommonhumanity^Selfregardfulnessimpelsthecry,"WhatmustIdotobesaved"*Ontheoriginofanxietyastothefateoftheindividualsoul,seeJBCarter'sReligiousLifeofAncientRome,pp,CHAPTERIIMANAINTANGIBLETHINGSThebranchofMagicwhichnowcomesundersurveyplaysanimportantpartinmodernbehefandcustomTobringhomethefactofthissurvivalmaycausesurprisetosome,akintothatfeltbyMJourdainwhenhelearnedthathehadbeentalkingproseallhislifewithoutknowingitMagic,forthepresentpurpose,isdefinedasthemanabywhichthesorcererpretendsto(insomecaseshonestlybelievesthathecan)obtaincontroloverpersonsandtheirbelongings,totheirhelporharm,andalsocontroloverinvisiblebeingsandtheoccultpowersofnatureMagicworksintwowaysasblackormaleficent,andaswhiteorbeneficentTheblackpredominates,becauseofthelargerfieldofmentalitywhereinitworksNomatterhowcivilizedhemaybe,manhasnevershakenoffthefeararousedbytheunknownortheunusualwhichheinheritsfromhisprotohumanancestryAscreaturesofemotion,wearehundredsofthousandsofyearsoldasreasoningbeings,wearebutofyesterdayDespiteassertionstoMANAINTANGIBLETHINGSthecontrary,anddespitewhatisprofferedinsupportofthem,themassofevidenceinfavourofthesayingofStatins,^primusinorbedeosfecittimor,isoverwhehningTheemotionoffear,undiscipUnedbyknowledge,hasbegottenacrowdofdreadedbeings,fromghoststogodsNoneofthemarereasonedproductsofthemind"Fearinsoothtakessuchaholdofallmortals,becausetheyseemanyoperationsgooninearthandheaven,thecausesofwhichtheycaninnowayunderstand"^BothblackandwhitemagicoperatethroughtangibleandintangiblethingsTheconditionofnervousinstability,theconfusionbetweenpersonsandthingsandbetweenobjectiveandsubjective,inotherwords,betweenwhatisexternaltothemindandwhatisintheminditself,allfosterbeliefinthesavagethatthesorcerercanworkeviluponhimbyobtainingdropsofhisblood,clippingsofhishairornailsrefuseofhisfoodhissaliva,sweat,excretahisportraitanypieceofhisclothingthathashissmellinit,eventheearthtakenfromaman'sfootprintbecauseithascomeintocontactwithhisbodyAllalikebecomevehiclesofmanaHence,beforedealingwiththemainsubjectofthisbook,thewarrantforfillingafewpageswithThehais,BkIII^DeRerumNatiira,BkIMAGICINNAMESexamplesoftheplayofmanaintangiblethingsTheyarechosenfromavastnumber,andthereaderisaskedtoacceptthemontheprincipleoftheoldmotto,exunodisceomnes^fromoneexamplejudgeoftherest"Brevity,"saysLucianinhisWaytoWriteHistory,"isalwaysdesirable,andespeciallywherematterisabundant"{a)ManainBloodTousbloodisonlythevehicleoflife:tothesavageitisthelifeThebeliefisprimitiveandpersistentAmongthenativesofNewBritainthesmallestquantityofbloodfaUingonthegroundisatoncegatheredupanddestroyed:^theIgalwaofWestAfricastampoutbloodfromacutinthefingerorfromafitofnosebleeding:^inBengalbloodfromawoundiscoveredup,spatupon,andthrownawaytopreventanymischiefbeingdonetothewoundBasutosorcererssecuredropsofbloodfromtheirintendedvictimwherebytoworkblackmagiconhim^AparalleltothisissuppliedbytheancientPeruviansorcerers,whosoughttodestroytheirvictimthroughbloodtakenfromhim,theknowledgeoflossofwhichwouldcausehimtodieofsheerfunk*TheequationofbloodwithlifehasMelanesiansandPolynesians,p,RevGBrownTravelsinWAfrica,p,MaryKingsleyLegendofPerseus,VolIIp,ESHartland,LLD*PrinciplesofSociology,p,HerbertSpencerMANAINTANGIBLETHINGSexampleintheIliadwherethesoulofHyperenorisdescribedashaving"fledhastilythroughthestrickenwound"^thephilosopherEmpedoclestaughtthat"thebloodroundtheheartisthethoughtofman"^theArabsbelievethatthelifeofaslainman"flowsonthespearpoint,^andtheirkindredSemitesbelievedthat"thebloodisthesoul,"notmerely"Ufe,"astranslatedinDeutxii(b)ManainHair,Teeth,etcInSouthernIndiahumanhair,nailcuttingsandpowderedeartharemixedtogether,wavedthreetimesbeforeasickchildasacharmagainsttheevileye,andthenburntPossessedofalockofhishair,paringsofhisnails,andafewshredsofhisclothing,theSinghalesesorcererworkstheseintoanimageofhisvictim,andthrustsnailsintoitwherethejointswouldbeThat,especiallyifthevictimknowswhathasbeendone,settleshisfateHisjointsstiffen,hisbodyisscorchedwithfeverthespelldoesitsfatalwork*BishopCallawaysaysthattheAmazulusorcerersaresupposedtodestroytheirvictimsbytakingsomeportionoftheirbodies,orsomethingthattheyhaveworn,addingtotheseBkXIVFragments,EarlyCheekPhilosophy,p,ProfJBurnetReligionoftheSemites,p,WRobertsonSmith*GoldenBough^,"TheMagicArt,"VolIpMAGICINNAMEScertain"medicine,"whichmixturetheysecretlybury,sothatasitdriesupthelifeofthevictimmaywitheraway^TheMaorisorcerergetsalockofhisvictim'shair,paringsofhisnails,fragmentsofhisgarment,allwhichheburies,chantingoverthemspellsandcursesAsthethingsdecay,sodecaysthepersontowhomtheybelonged^Whenthemaesnakecarriedawayafragmentoffoodintotheplacesacredtoaspirit,themanwhohadeatenofthefoodsickenedasthefragmentdecayedThenativesofNewBritainbelievethatthesorcerercaninjureamanbysecuringsomethingthathehastouchedwithhismouth,hencetheycarefullydestroyyampeehngs,bananaskins,andsuchlikerefuse*AmongsomeNorthAmericantribeseventhewaterinwhichtheirsoiledclotheshavebeenwashedisthrownawa

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