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[android.开发书籍].Practical.Android.Projects.pdf

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简介:本文档为《[android.开发书籍].Practical.Android.Projectspdf》,可适用于IT书籍领域,主题内容包含JordanGreylingPracticalAndroidProjectsCompanioneBookAvailablePracticalAndr符等。

Jordan Greyling Practical Android Projects Companion eBook Available Practical Android Projects Trim: 7.5 x 9.25 spine = 0.8125" 424 page count 534ppi Building cool scripts, apps, and games for Android Smartphones Lucas Jordan | Pieter GreylingCOMPANION eBOOK SEE LAST PAGE FOR DETAILS ON $10 eBOOK VERSION US $39.99 Shelve in Mobile Computing User level: Intermediate-Advancedwww.apress.com SOURCE CODE ONLINE BOOKS FOR PROFESSIONALS BY PROFESSIONALS ISBN 978-1-4302-2629-1 9 781430 226291 54499 this print for content only—size & color not accurate CYAN MAGENTA YELLOW BLACK PANTONE 123 C SPOT MATTE Take a practical approach to becoming a leading-edge Android developer,learning by example while combining the many technologies needed to cre- ate a successful, up-to-date web app. Practical Android Projects introduces the Android SDK and development tools of the trade, and then dives into building cool-looking and fun apps that put An- droid’s amazing capabilities to work. Android is the powerful, full-featured, open source mobile platform that powers phones like Google Nexus, Motorola Droid, Samsung Galaxy S, and a variety of HTC phones and tablet computers. This book helps you quickly get Android projects up and running with the free and open source Eclipse, NetBeans, and IntelliJ IDEA IDEs. Then you build and ex- tend mobile applications using the Android SDK, Java, Scripting Layer for Android, and languages such as Python, Ruby, Javascript/HTML, Flex/AIR, and Lua. In Practical Android Projects you’ll work on real-world projects such as: • Hosting an Android BASIC interpreter • Extending your Java-based Android applications with embedded LUA • Scripting your Android device with SL4A • Adding Twitter and Facebook to your applications • Using 2D graphics and animations for casual games • Creating cross-platform apps with JavaScript/HTML and Flex with AIR Practical Android Projects is for any developer new to the Android platform who wants to learn to build mobile applications. Knowledge of the fundamentals of Java programming is assumed. ISBN 978-1-4302-3243-8 9 781430 232438 53999 For your convenience Apress has placed some of the front matter material after the index. Please use the Bookmarks and Contents at a Glance links to access them. D ow nl oa d fro m W ow ! e Bo ok < ww w. wo we bo ok .c om > iv Contents at a Glance Contents .......................................................................................................... v About the Authors ........................................................................................... x About the Technical Reviewer ........................................................................ xi Acknowledgments ......................................................................................... xii Preface ......................................................................................................... xiii Chapter 1: Android Fundamentals ................................................................... 1 Chapter 2: Development Tools in Practice .................................................... 49 Chapter 3: Roll Your Own Android Scripting Environment .......................... 105 Chapter 4: Embedding Lua in Android Applications .................................... 155 Chapter 5: Introducing SL4A: The Scripting Layer for Android ................. 193 Chapter 6: Creating a GUI with HTML/JavaScript and AIR .......................... 221 Chapter 7: Using REST with Facebook and Twitter ..................................... 251 Chapter 8: Using the Google App Engine with Android ................................ 275 Chapter 9: Game Development: Graphics .................................................... 311 Chapter 10: Game Development: Animation ................................................ 341 Chapter 11: App Inventor ............................................................................ 361 Index ............................................................................................................ 387 1 1 Chapter Android Fundamentals The Android platform is a very exciting yet relatively new player in today’s mobile device market. Beyond rating very highly in the number of cool features per device, Android- enabled smartphones are currently enjoying the highest percentage sales growth rate in the mobile industry. According to Gartner Research,1 worldwide sales of Android-based smartphones to end users have jumped from the number 6 spot in 2009 to number 4 by the end of the first quarter of 2010. This level of growth is expected to continue. In fact, Gartner has predicted that Android will become the number 2 worldwide mobile operating system in 2010 and will challenge Symbian for the number 1 position by 2014.2 We want to share with you some of the enthusiasm we have for this truly remarkable development platform. Throughout the course of this book, we will attempt to do this by showing the wide range of opportunities available at your fingertips when you choose to develop Android applications. Perhaps you are reading this book in order to gain more background understanding of the Android platform. Perhaps you plan to roll up your sleeves and join us in running and playing with the projects in the emulator or your own device. We want to get you up and running quickly and provide you with sufficient understanding of the Android platform and Android Development Kit (ADK) development environment to have success with your goals. With those goals in mind, this chapter aims to be as practical an introduction to Android development as possible. It also strives to cover a broad spectrum of required conceptual and theoretical background material in a concise and to-the-point manner. We will start with a short description of the Android platform and then jump straight into coverage of the installation of the Android SDK and supporting development tools. To fully round out our SDK setup study, we embark on a step-by-step test drive that 1 From Gartner press release: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1372013 2 From the Gartner press release: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1434613 1 CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 2 involves generating a bare-bones Android project and getting the resulting skeleton Android application up and running in the Android emulator. The next order of business will be a tour of the Android platform architecture. Here we will describe the Android platform stack; Android component architecture; and Dalvik, the Android runtime. With this knowledge in hand, we then cover working with the Java IDEs Eclipse, NetBeans, and IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition; plus spend some time learning how to equip them with Android programming capabilities via plugins. This means we have a lot of ground to cover, so let's get started. What Is Android? In a nutshell, Android is an operating system targeted at mobile hardware such as phones and other constrained computing devices such as netbooks and tablet computers. The concept and platform was the brainchild of Android Inc., a small startup company from Palo Alto, California, that was acquired by Google in 2005. Its stated goal was to create a small, stable, flexible, and easily upgraded operating system for handsets that would be highly attractive for device manufacturers and telephony carriers. Android platform releases 1.x through 2.x are aimed primarily at smartphone devices, whereas it is reported that Android release 3.x will be the first operating platform specifically designed with high-end support for tablet computers. The Android platform was originally unveiled in November 2007. The unveiling coincided with the announcement of the formation of the Open Handset Alliance, a group of companies that share the goal of promoting open standards for mobile device platforms such as Android. In October 2008, Android was released under the Apache 2.0 open-source license.3 This and the flexible component-based design of the platform present innovative and cost- effective opportunities for manufacturers and software developers alike. We aim to showcase some of these distinguishing platform capabilities during the course of this book. Installing the Android SDK We will start by installing the core Android SDK and tools. Our aim is to get the Android emulator with our own simple application up and running on an Android Virtual Device (AVD) as soon as possible. The experience gained will then serve as a basis for further discussion. 3 http://source.android.com/source/licenses.html CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 3 The examples and commands you will be shown were run on a mixture of Ubuntu GNU/Linux, Microsoft Windows, and Apple Mac OS X systems. All the tools, including the JDK and the Android SDK toolset, behave in a similar, if not identical, manner across the major supported computing platforms. Java Development Kit (JDK) To begin with, you should have a recent version of the Java SDK (JDK) installed on your particular system. It can be obtained either from your operating system distribution package install manager application or directly downloaded from the Internet.4 We assume that we do not need to go into the details for doing this. Suffice it to say that JDK5 or upward should be fine. This writing is based on JDK6. CHECKING THE JDK VERSION: To confirm that a compatible version of the JDK is installed and available to the environment, we usually do a quick check on the command line or console terminal, as follows: $ java –version java version "1.6.0_18" OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea6 1.8.1) (6b18-1.8.1-0ubuntu1) OpenJDK Server VM (build 16.0-b13, mixed mode) $ javac –version javac 1.6.0_18 If something goes wrong, you should consult the JDK configuration documentation for your particular platform. We will not cover debugging Java installations here. Android SDK and Target Platforms Assuming that our Java platform is ready, we now need to download the Android SDK starter package and use it to install our target Android platforms. The Android SDK starter package can be downloaded from the official Google Android SDK download site.5 Select the download appropriate for your development platform. The supported platforms currently include Windows, Mac OS X (Intel), and Linux (i386). In the case of having downloaded an SDK starter package archive for Linux or Mac OS X, unpack the downloaded archive into a directory of your choice. 4 https://jdk6.dev.java.net/ 5 http://developer.android.com/sdk/ CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 4 In the case of having downloaded the Windows installer (.exe file), run the installer and install into a directory of your choice. You could call this directory anything you like, but we recommend something similar to the following: Linux or Mac OS X system: ~/android-sdk-linux_x86 Windows system: C:\android-sdk-windows Make a note of this directory path name for later use. Within the root of the unpacked directory structure there should be a text file with a name like SDK Readme.txt. This has specific instructions for each platform. What is important to note here is that the downloaded archive does not include the complete SDK. The following note contains an extract from the readme shipped with the latest Android SDK as of this writing.6 READ THE SDK README! The Android SDK archive only contains the tools. It no longer comes populated with a specific Android platform or Google add-on. Instead, you use the SDK Manager to install or update SDK components such as platforms, tools, add-ons, and documentation. In order to start developing applications, you must install at least one version of the Android platform using the SDK Manager. This requires an Internet connection, so if you plan to use the SDK offline, please make sure to download the necessary components while online. At this point, it is recommended to add the Android SDK tools directory to the development environment system PATH variable. The tools directory can be found under the preceding unpacked root directory: <sdk>/tools/. Having the binaries and tools on the path will make it a lot more convenient to issue Android SDK commands from anywhere on the terminal console of your development system. As an example, after adding the appropriate entries to the shell user login script for my GNU/Linux development system, we receive the following output from listing it with the Linux cat command: $ cat ~/.bashrc ..... #-- google android dev tools -- export PATH="$PATH: ~/android-sdk-linux_86/tools" export PATH="$PATH: ~/android-sdk-linux_86/platform-tools" ..... 6 Android SDK release 8, Android 2.3 platform CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 5 SETTING THE PATH ON WINDOWS: From the desktop, right-click My Computer and click Properties. Alternatively, from Control Panel, double-click System. Both options open the System Properties dialog box. Now click the Advanced tab. In the Advanced section, click the Environment Variables button. In the Environment Variables window, select the PATH variable in the User- or System Variable section, depending on whether you want the setting applied for all users or just yourself. Click the Edit button. Add or modify the path. Directories are separated by a semicolon. Click OK when done. For confirmation, issuing the following command on your development system will print the current value of the system PATH variable to the terminal console window. Linux and Mac OS X: echo $PATH Windows: echo %PATH% Android Platform API Levels The API level targeted by your application is very important for reasons of device compatibility and the software development- and maintenance lifetime of your codebase. If it is not managed properly, the maintenance of your application could potentially become a nightmare, especially if it is deployed to multiple Android devices and operating platforms. It is also a good idea to become familiar with the folder structures of the Android SDK once it is installed. Again, this is especially valid if your applications will be built for multiple Android hardware targets. For a better understanding of the subject of API levels, it is well worth the effort of reviewing the documentation found on the official developer’s web site for Android API levels.7 The tie-in between API level numbers and their corresponding platforms are clarified in Table 1–1, which was current at the time of writing. 7 http://developer.android.com/guide/appendix/api-levels.html CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 6 Table 1–1. Android Platform Versions and API Levels Platform Version API Level Android 2.3 9 Android 2.2 8 Android 2.1 7 Android 2.0.1 6 Android 2.0 5 Android 1.6 4 Android 1.5 3 Android 1.1 2 Android 1.0 1 Android Platform Setup Here is a short list of dependencies for proceeding with the setup of SDK platforms: Android SDK starter package downloaded and unpacked. The JDK, ADK, and Ant tools are accessible on the environment path. We have a basic understanding of Android platform versions and API levels. Last but not least, we should be connected to the Internet. We can now install the SDK platform components using the Android SDK and AVD Manager programs. To start the SDK Manager on Linux or Mac OS X, execute the following command: $ android To start the SDK Manager on Windows, run the following program: SDK Manager.exe The main user interface of the Android SDK Manager on Linux should appear as in Figure 1–1. CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 7 Figure 1–1. The Android SDK and AVD Manager during initial SDK setup on Linux WINDOWS USB DRIVER FOR ANDROID DEVICES: It is worth showing the equivalent Android SDK and AVD Manager for the Windows platform (see Figure 1–2). It contains an important addition, the Windows USB Driver package for Android devices. This will become necessary when you develop, debug, and deploy directly in conjunction with a physical Android phone or other Android hardware device attached via USB cable to a Windows computer. CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 8 Figure 1–2. The Android SDK and AVD Manager during initial SDK setup on Windows Note that in both cases we have selected the Android 2.3 platform, API level 9, plus the relevant additions such as documentation and SDK samples. Now click Install Selected. The appropriate SDK resource bundles will now be downloaded and installed into the SDK directory structure where we unpacked the SDK starter archive. In order to maintain and update your SDK over time, an update session can be directly initiated from the command line by executing the following commands: In a terminal session on Linux/Mac OS X: $ android update sdk Besides the option of simply running SDK Manager.exe again, the same can be achieved from the Windows command prompt with the following: C:\> android.bat update sdk CHAPTER 1: Android Fundamentals 9 Again, we assume that the Android tools can be found on the system path. Further information about managing your Android SDK installation can be found on the Android Developers “Adding SDK Components” page.8 Extra Tools: Apache Ant There are some development tools that no Java developer should do without. One such an indispensable utility is Apache Ant, which is a build tool that is Java's rough equivalent to make. make is traditionally used in C/C++ development environments. Ant also differs from make in that it uses XML to specify build steps and actions. The Android SDK extensively uses Ant for its compilation, build, and deployment infrastructure. We will use it to test drive our core tools in the next section. So if it is not already installed on your system, we recommend you grab a copy and install it. If necessary, you can find installation instructions and more information about Ant on the official Ant web site.9 SOME IDES ALREADY CONTAIN ANT: If you will be using an IDE exclusively, installing a stand- alone instance of Apache Ant might not be necessary. IDEs such as Eclipse and NetBeans come packaged with an Ant distribution that they invoke behind the scenes during the build process. If you are planning to work through the examples that follow, ensure that Ant is on the system environment path once it is installed. Android SDK Test Drive We will now take our SDK and platform installation for a comprehensive test drive to complete the installation of runtime components and to confirm that everything was set up correctly. We will also get to know the environment better. This is a central part of this chapter and will form the basis of further subjects covered. Initially, we will do the work from the terminal console, command line, or command prompt, whichever terminology is appropriate for your system or personal preference. 1. Create an application project directory to work in and call it HelloAndroidSdk. From within a parent- or home directory of your choice somewhere on your system, issue the following commands: On Linux or Mac OS X: $ mkdir HelloAndroidSdk $ cd HelloAndroidSdk 8 http://developer.android.com/sdk/adding-components.html 9 http://ant.apache.org/ D ow nl oa d fro m W ow ! e Bo ok < ww w. wo we bo ok .

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