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首页 英语语言学练习题

英语语言学练习题.doc

英语语言学练习题

芳芳
2011-03-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语语言学练习题doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

英语语言学练习题英语语言学练习题SupplementaryexercisesChapterIntroductionⅠDecidewhethereachofthefollowingstatementsisTrueorFalse:LinguisticsisgenerallydefinedasthescientificstudyoflanguageLinguisticsstudiesparticularlanguage,notlanguagesingeneralAscientificstudyoflanguageisbasedonwhatthelinguistthinksInthestudyoflinguistics,hypothesesformedshouldbebasedonlanguagefactsandcheckedagainsttheobservedfactsGenerallinguisticsisgenerallythestudyoflanguageasawholeGenerallinguistics,whichrelatesitselftotheresearchofotherareas,studiesthebasicconcepts,theories,descriptions,modelsandmethodsapplicableinanylinguisticstudyPhoneticsisdifferentfromphonologyinthatthelatterstudiesthecombinationsofthesoundstoconveymeaningincommunicationMorphologystudieshowwordscanbeformedtoproducemeaningfulsentencesThestudyofthewaysinwhichmorphemescanbecombinedtoformwordsiscalledmorphologySyntaxisdifferentfrommorphologyinthattheformernotonlystudiesthemorphemes,butalsothecombinationofmorphemesintowordsandwordsintosentencesThestudyofmeaninginlanguageisknownassemanticsBothsemanticsandpragmaticsstudymeaningsPragmaticsisdifferentfromsemanticsinthatpragmaticsstudiesmeaningnotinisolation,butincontextSocialchangescanoftenbringaboutlanguagechangesSociolinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageinrelationtosocietyModernlinguisticsismostlyprescriptive,butsometimesdescriptiveModernlinguisticsisdifferentfromtraditionalgrammarAdiachronicstudyoflanguageisthedescriptionoflanguageatsomepointintimeModernlinguisticsregardsthewrittenlanguageasprimary,notthewrittenlanguageThedistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformancewasproposedbyFdeSaussureⅡFillineachofthefollowingblankswithonewordwhichbeginswiththelettergiven:Chomskydefines“competence”astheidealuser’skoftherulesofhislanguageLanguereferstothealinguisticsystemsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunitywhiletheparoleistheconcreteuseoftheconventionsandapplicationoftherulesDisoneofthedesignfeaturesofhumanlanguagewhichreferstothephenomenonthatlanguageconsistsoftwolevels:alowerlevelofmeaninglessindividualsoundsandahigherlevelofmeaningfulunitsLanguageisasystemofavocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationThedisciplinethatstudiestherulesgoverningtheformationofwordsintopermissiblesentencesinlanguagesiscalledsHumancapacityforlanguagehasagbasis,butthedetailsoflanguagehavetobetaughtandlearnedPreferstotherealizationoflangueinactualuseFindingsinlinguisticstudiescanoftenbeappliedtothesettlementofsomepracticalproblemsThestudyofsuchapplicationsisgenerallyknownasalinguisticsLanguageispinthatitmakespossibletheconstructionandinterpretationofnewsignalsbyitsusersInotherwords,theycanproduceandunderstandaninfinitelylargenumberofsentenceswhichtheyhaveneverheardbeforeLinguisticsisgenerallydefinedasthesstudyoflanguageⅢTherearefourchoicesfollowingeachstatementMarkthechoicethatcanbestcompletethestatement:Ifalinguisticstudydescribesandanalyzesthelanguagepeopleactuallyuse,itissaidtobeAprescriptiveBanalyticCdescriptiveDlinguisticWhichofthefollowingisnotadesignfeatureofhumanlanguageAArbitrarinessBDisplacementCDualityDMeaningfulnessModernlinguisticsregardsthewrittenlanguageasAprimaryBcorrectCsecondaryDstableInmodernlinguistics,speechisregardedasmorebasicthanwriting,becauseAinlinguisticevolution,speechispriortowritingBspeechplaysagreaterrolethanwritingintermsoftheamountofinformationconveyedCspeechisalwaysthewayinwhicheverynativespeakeracquireshismothertongueDAlloftheaboveAhistoricalstudyoflanguageisastudyoflanguageAsynchronicBdiachronicCprescriptiveDcomparativeSaussuretooka(n)viewoflanguage,whileChomskylooksatlanguagefromapointofviewAsociological…psychologicalBpsychological…sociologicalCapplied…pragmaticDsemantic…linguisticAccordingtoFdeSaussure,referstotheabstractlinguisticsystemsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunityAparoleBperformanceClangueDLanguageLanguageissaidtobearbitrarybecausethereisnologicalconnectionbetweenandmeaningsAsenseBsoundsCobjectsDideasLanguagecanbeusedtorefertocontextsremovedfromtheimmediatesituationsofthespeakerThisfeatureiscalled,AdisplacementBdualityCflexibilityDculturaltransmissionThedetailsofanylanguagesystemispassedonfromonegenerationtothenextthrough,ratherthanbyinstinctAlearningBteachingCbooksDbothAandBⅣDefinethefollowingterms:LinguisticsPhonologySyntaxPragmaticsPsycholinguisticsLanguagePhoneticsMorphologySemanticsSociolinguisticsAppliedLinguisticsArbitrarinessProductivityDisplacementDualityDesignFeaturesCompetencePerformanceLangueParoleⅤAnswerthefollowingquestionsascomprehensivelyaspossibleGiveexamplesforillustrationifnecessary:LanguageisgenerallydefinedasasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationExplainitindetailWhatarethedesignfeaturesofhumanlanguageIllustratethemwithexamplesHowismodernlinguisticsdifferentfromtraditionalgrammarHowdoyouunderstandthedistinctionbetweenasynchronicstudyandadiachronicstudyWhydoesmodernlinguisticsregardthespokenformoflanguageasprimary,notthewrittenWhatarethemajordistinctionsbetweenlangueandparoleHowdoyouunderstandcompetenceandperformanceSaussure’sdistinctionbetweenlangueandparoleseemssimilartoChomsky’sdistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformanceWhatdoyouthinkaretheirmajordifferencesDoyouthinkhumanlanguageisentirelyarbitraryWhyChapterPhonologyⅠDecidewhethereachofthefollowingstatementsisTrueorFalse:VoicingisaphonologicalfeaturethatdistinguishesmeaninginbothChineseandEnglishIftwophoneticallysimilarsoundsoccurinthesameenvironmentsandtheydistinguishmeaning,theyaresaidtobeincomplementarydistributionAphoneisaphoneticunitthatdistinguishesmeaningEnglishisatonelanguagewhileChineseisnot语言的普遍特征:任意性arbitrariness双层结构duality既由声音和意义结构多产性productivity移位性displacement:我们能用语言可以表达许多不在场的东西文化传播性culturaltransmission。语言的功能:传达信息功能informative人济功能:interpersonal行事功能:Performative表情功能:Emotive寒暄功能:Phatic娱乐功能recreatinal元语言功能metalingual语言学linguistics:包括六个分支语音学Phonetics音位学phonology形态学Morphology句法学syntax语义学semantics语用学pragmatics现代结构主义语言学创始人:Ferdinanddesaussure提出语言学中最重要的概念对之一:语言与言语languageandparole语言之语言系统的整体言语则只待某个个体在实际语言使用环境中说出的具体话语语法创始人:NoamChomsky提出概念语言能力与语言运用competenceandperformanceWhichofthefollowingstatementscanbeusedtodescribedisplacementoneoftheuniquepropertiesoflanguage:awecaneasilyteachourchildrentolearnacertainlanguagebwecanuseboth'shu'and'tree'todescribethesamethingcwecanuselanguagetorefertosomethingnotpresentdwecanproducesentencesthathaveneverbeenheardbeforeWhatisthemostimportantfunctionoflanguageainterpersonalbphaticcinformativedmetallingualThefunctionofthesentence"Aniceday,isn'tit"isainformativebphaticcdirectivedperformativeThedistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformanceisproposedbyasaussurebhallidaycChomskydthepragueschoolWhoputforwardthedistinctionbetweenlanguageandparoleasaussurebchomskychallidaydanomymous第二节语音学发音器官由声带thevocalcords和三个回声腔组成辅音consonant:thereisanobstructionoftheairstreamatsomepointofthevocaltract辅音的发音方式爆破音completeobstruction鼻音nasals破裂音plosives部分阻塞辅音partialobstruction擦音fricatives破擦音affricates等辅音清浊特征voicing辅音的送气特征aspiration元音vowel分类标准舌翘位置舌高和嘴唇的形状双元音diphthongs,有元音过渡vowelglidesArticulatoryphoneticsmainlystudiesathephysicalpropertiesofthesoundsproducedinspeechbtheperceptionofsoundscthecombinationofsoundsdtheproductionofsoundsThedistinctionbetweenvowelsandconsonantsliesinatheplaceofarticulationbtheobstructionfairstreamcthepositionofthetonguedtheshapeofthelipsWhatisthecommonfactorofthethreesounds:p,ktavoicelessbspreadcvoiceddnasalWhatphoneticfeaturedistinguishthepinpleaseandthepinspeakavoicingbaspirationcroundnessdnasalityWhichofthefollowingisnotadistinctivefeatureinEnglishavoicingbnasalcapproximationdaspirationThephonologicalfeaturesoftheconsonantkareavoicedstopbvoicelessstopcvoicedfricativedvoicelessfricativepisdivverentfromkinathemannerofarticulationbtheshapeofthelipscthevibrationofthevocalcordsdthepalceofarticualtionVibrationofthevocalcordsresultsinaaspirationbnasalitycobstructiondvoicing第三节音位学phonology音位学与语音学的区别:语音学着重于语音的自然属性主要关注所有语言中人可能发出的所有声音音位学则强调语音的社会功能其对象是某一种语言中可以用来组合成词句的那些语音。音位phoneme:最小语音单位音位变体allophones:读音差别对比性分布:如果两个音段出现在同一个语音环境中而且产生了两个不同的单词互补性分布如果两个基本相似的音段绝不会出现在相同的语音环境中那么它们之间就是互补性分布的关系如送气p绝不会出现在s之后不送气的p绝不会出现在词首音节syllable分为节首onset节峰peak节尾coda辅音群:一般作为音节节首的辅音群不能超过三个福音节尾不能超过个最小语音对minimalpairsIIntroductionWhatisLanguageLanguageisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationWhatisLinguistics(语言学)LinguisticsisthescientificstudyoflanguageSomeBasicDistinctions(区分)inLinguisticsSpeechandWritingOnegeneralprinciple(原则)oflinguisticanalysisistheprimacyofspeechoverwritingWritinggiveslanguagenewscope(范畴)andusesthatspeechdoesnothaveDescriptive(描述性)orPrescriptive(说明性)Alinguisticstudyisdescriptiveifitdescribesandanalysesfactsobserveditisprescriptiveifittriestolaydownrulesfor"correct"behaviorSynchronic(共时)andDiachronic(历时)StudiesThedescriptionofalanguageatsomepointintimeisasynchronicstudyandThedescriptionofalanguageasitchangesthroughtimeisadiachronicstudyLangue(语言)andParole(言语)ThisisadistinctionmadebytheSwisslinguistFDeSaussure(索绪尔)earlylastcenturylanguereferstotheabstractlinguisticsystemsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunityandparolereferstotheactualized(实际的)language,orrealizationoflangueCompetence(能力)andPerformance(行为)Competenceistheideallanguageuser'sknowledgeoftherulesofhislanguagePerformanceistheactualrealizationofthisknowledgeinutterances(发声)TheScopeofLinguisticsGenerallinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageasawholePhonetics(语音学)isthebranchoflinguisticswhichstudiesthecharacteristicsofspeechsoundsandprovidesmethodsfortheirdescription,classificationandtranscriptionPhonology(音韵学)isthebranchoflinguisticswhichstudiesthesoundpatternsoflanguagesMorphology(词法)isthebranchoflinguisticswhichstudiestheformofwordsSyntax(句法)isthebranchoflinguisticswhichstudiestherulesgoverningthecombinationofwordsintosentencesSemantics(语义学)isthebranchoflinguisticswhichstudiesthemeaningoflanguageAppliedlinguistics(应用语言学)isthestudyoftheteachingofforeignandsecondlanguagesSociolinguisticsisthestudyoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageandsocietyPsycholinguisticsisthestudyoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageandthemindHistoricalLinguistics(历史语言学)isthestudyoflanguagechangesAnthropologicallinguistics(人文语言学)usesthetheoriesandmethodsofanthropologytostudylanguagevariationandlanguageuseinrelationtotheculturalpatternsandbeliefsofmanNeurolinguistics(神经语言学)studiestheneurologicalbasisoflanguagedevelopmentanduseinhumanbeingsMathematicallinguistics(数学语言学)studiesthemathematicalfeaturesoflanguage,oftenemployingmodelsandconceptsofmathematicsComputationallinguistics(计算语言学)isanapproachtolinguisticsinwhichmathematicaltechniquesandconceptsareapplied,oftenwiththeaidofacomputerIIPhonetics(语音学)scopeofphoneticsSpeechsoundsmaybestudiedfromdifferentangles,thuswehaveatleastthreebranchesofphonetics:Articulatoryphonetics(发音语音学)wemayexaminethewayinwhichaspeechsoundisproducedtodiscoverwhichvocalorgansareinvolvedandhowtheycoordinate(协调)intheprocessAuditoryphonetics(听觉语音学)wemaylookintotheimpressionaspeakermakesonthehearerasmediated(调节)bytheear,theauditorynerve(神经)andthebrainAcousticphonetics(声学语音学)westudythephysicalpropertiesofspeechsounds,astransmitted(传送)betweenmouthandearThevocalorgansThevocalorgansmaybeviewedasconsistingofthreeparts,theinitiatoroftheairstream,(气流发生器官)theproducerofvoice(声音发生器官)andtheresonatingcavities(声音共振器官)Consonants(辅音)Placesofarticulation(发音部位):bilabial,(双唇)Labiodentals,(唇齿)dental,(齿)alveolar,(齿龈)retroflex,(卷舌)palatealveolar,(上齿龈)palatal,(上颚)velar,(软腭)uvular,(小舌)glottal(声门)Mannersofarticulation:plosive,(暴破)nasal,(鼻音)trill,(颤音)lateral,(边音)fricative,(摩擦)approximant,(近似音)affricate(破擦)Vowels(元音)Theclassificationofvowels:theheightoftongueraising(high,mid,low),thepositionofthehighestpartofthetongue(front,central,back),andthedegreeofliprounding(rounded,unrounded)IIIPhonology(音韵学)phonemes(音素):adistinctive(有区别的)soundinalanguageAllophones(音位变体):ThenondistinctivesoundsaremembersofthesamephonemeMinimalpairs(最小对立体):wordformswhichdifferfromeachotheronlybyonesoundFreevariation(自由变异):Iftwosoundsoccurringinthesameenvironment(环境),theydoesnotproduceadifferentwordform,butmerelyadifferentpronunciationofthesamewordComplementarydistribution(补充分类):NotallthespeechsoundsoccurinthesameenvironmentWhentwosoundsneveroccurinthesameenvironmentSuprasegmentalphonology(超音段音位):thestudyofphonologicalproperties(性质)ofunitslagerthanthesegmentphonemeTheyaresyllable(音节)stress,(重音)wordstress,sentencestresspitch(音调)andintonation(语调)IVMorphology(词法)inflection(构形法):thegrammaticalrelationshipsthroughtheadditionofinflectionalaffixes(屈折词缀)Wordformation(构词):theprocesses(过程)ofwordvariationssignalinglexicalrelationships(表明词法关系)Theyarecompound(合成)andderivation(派生)Morpheme(词素):thesmallestunitintermsofrelationshipbetweenexpressionandcontentAllomorph(同质异象变体):somemorphemeshaveconsiderablevariation,forinstance,alternateshapesorphoneticformsTypesofmorphemes:Theyareroots,(词根)affix(词缀)andstem(词干)Lexicon(语言词汇):initsmostgeneralsense,issynonymouswithvocabularyClosedclasswords(封闭性)andopenclasswords(开放性):theformerwhosemembershipisfixedorlimitedandthelatterwhosemembershipisinprinciple(实际上)indefiniteorunlimitedWordclass(词性):ItdisplaysawiderrangeofmorepreciselydefinedclassesLexeme(词位):thesmallestunitinthemeaningsystemofalanguagethatcanbedistinguishedfromothersmallerunitsIdiom(习语成语):MostphrasallexemesareidiomsItisespeciallytrueforasequenceofwords(词序)whichissemantically(语义上)andoftensyntactically(句法上)restricted(限制)Collocation(搭配):thehabitual(习惯的)cooccurrences(同时出现)ofindividuallexicalitemsVSyntax(句法)Positionalrelationorwordorder(词序):thesequential(顺序)arrangementofwordsinalanguageConstructionorconstituent(句子结构):theoverallprocessofinternal(内部)organizationofagrammaticalunitSyntacticfunction(句法功能):therelationshipbetweenalinguisticformandotherpartsofthelinguisticpatterninwhichitisusedThenamesoffunctionsareexpressedintermsofsubjects,objects,predicates,modifiers,(修饰语)complements(补语),etcCategory(范畴):Itreferstoclassesandfunctionsinitsnarrowsense,egnoun,verb,subject,predicate,nounphrase,verbphrase,etcThecategoriesofthenounincludenumber,gender,caseandcountabilityPhrase:asingleelementofstructurecontainingmorethanoneword,andlackingthesubjectpredicatestructuretypicalofclauseClause:agroupofwordswithitsownsubjectandpredicate,ifitisincludedinalargersentenceSentence:ItistheminimumpartoflanguagethatexpressesacompletethoughtVISemanticsConceptualismormentalism(概念主义):FollowingFDeSaussure(索学尔)'s"sign"theory,thelinguisticsignissaidtoconsistofasignifier(所指)andsignified(被指),ie,asoundimageandaconcept,likedbyapsychological(心理的)"associative"bond(相关联系)Mechanism(机械主义):Somelinguists,Bloomfield,(布鲁费尔德)forexample,turnedtosciencetocounter(反)acttheprecioustheoriesandthisleadstowhatcallthemechanisticapproach(方法)Thenatureofthistheoryhasnothingtodowiththescientificstudyofmentalphenomena(智力现象)Contextualism(语境主义):Itisbasedonthepresumption(假定)thatonecanderivemeaningfromorreduceittoobservablecontextBehaviorism(行为主义):Behavioristsattempttodefine(定义)themeaningofalanguageformas"thesituation(情景)inwhichthespeakerutters(说话)itandtheresponse(反应)itcallsforthinthehearer"functionalism(功能主义):functionalistsasrepresented(代表)bythePragueschool(布拉格学派)linguistsandneoFirthian(新弗斯)linguists,approachtheproblemfromanentirelyneworientation(方法)Theyargue(争辩)thatmeaningcouldonlybeinterpreted(解释)fromitsuseorfunctioninsociallifeSenserelationships:Whilereferencedealswiththerelationshipbetweenthelinguisticelements,words,sentences,etc,andthenonlinguisticworldofexperience,senserelatestothecomplexsystemofrelationshipsthatholdbetweenthelinguisticelementsthemselvesTheyincludesynonymy(同义词),antonym(反义词),hyponymy(下层次)Polysemy(一词多义)andHomonymy(同音异义词)Semanticanalysis:Itincludes)componential(成分)analysiswhichdefinesthemeaningofalexicalelementintermsofsemanticcomponents(意义成分))predication(表述)analysisinwhichthemeaningofasentenceisnotmerelythesumofthemeaningsofthewordswhichcomposeit)relationalcomponentsinwhichthesemanticanalysisofsomewordspresentsacomplicatedpicture,becausetheyshowrelationsbetweentwoandperhapsmoretermsVIILanguagevariation(语言变化)Lexicalchange(词汇的变化):changesinlexisInvention:(新造词)newentitiesCompounding(合成词)NewwordsaresometimesconstructedbycombiningtwooldwordsBlending:(混合词):Itisarelativelycomplexformofcompounding,inwhichtworootsareblendedbyjoiningtheinitialpartofthefirstrootandthefinalpartofthesecondroot,orbyjoiningtheinitialpartsofthetworootsAbbreviationorclipping:(缩写)Anewwordiscreatedbycuttingthefinalpartorcuttingtheinitialpartacronym:(取首字母的缩写词)Itismadeupfromthefirstlettersofthenameofanorganization,whichhasaheavilymodified(修饰)headwordmetanalysis:(再

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