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首页 2第二章6节等韵图

2第二章6节等韵图.doc

2第二章6节等韵图

cfhms
2011-03-22 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2第二章6节等韵图doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

第二章音韻學的基本知識第二章音韻學的基本知識第六節等韻圖(一)幾個基本概念()等“等”是按韻腹(主要元音)之開口度大小和舌位前後而分的等第是對韻的主要母音的一種分析“等”也與聲母有關。江永《音學辨微八辨等列》:四等具備者:見溪疑幫滂並明曉影來僅具一二四等者:匣僅具一四等者:端透定泥精清從心僅具二三等者:知徹澄娘照穿床審僅具三四等者:群喻僅具三等者:非敷奉微禪日僅具四等者:邪(王力《漢語音韻學》第頁。)教材第页:()開合口開合口是按韻腹或介音是否圓唇而對韻所作的分類。圓唇的為合口其他為開口。()攝攝是統攝之義這是把韻腹相近而韻尾相同的韻歸併到一起的一種方式。等韻圖分攝多數用攝:通摄、江摄、止摄、遇摄、蟹摄、效摄、臻摄、山摄、果摄、假摄、宕摄、梗摄、曾摄、流摄、深摄、咸摄。其中通、止、遇、果、宕、流、深、曾为内轉江、蟹、臻、山、効、假、咸、梗为外轉。教材第頁:《經史正音切韻指南》通攝內一、江摄外一(部分)()內外轉“轉”﹐梵文parivarta有兩個意義﹐一個是動詞﹐一個是名詞。日本釋安然(世紀人﹐生卒不詳)《悉曇藏》四說:“……如用ka字聲對a阿i伊u甌等十二韻呼之﹐則生得下ka迦ki機ku等十二字﹐次用kha字……得kha佉khi欺khu……ku迦鄔合成矩音……迦翳合成醯(雞)音……。”這就是說﹕用一個輔音輪流跟個元音拼﹐用個輔音輪流跟所有元音拼都叫“轉”。摘自《中國大百科全書語言文字分冊》“內外轉”條(俞敏撰寫)。《佛學大辭典》:【字輪】梵語。輪有轉生之意。即自一梵語文字而輪轉生出諸字之意亦即諸尊之種子、真言等文字中從一字轉生多字者稱為字輪。如五字輪、百字輪等。《大日經疏》卷十四(大三九·七二三中):‘所謂字輪者從此輪轉而生諸字也。輪是生義如從阿字一字即來生四字謂阿是菩提心阿(長)是行暗是成菩提惡是大寂涅槃惡(長)是方便如阿字者當知迦字亦五字乃至佉等凡二十字當知亦爾。’早期韻圖把所列各圖劃分的兩大類別。明呂維祺《同文鐸》說:“按內外之分﹐以第二等字論也。二等別母無字﹐惟照二有字﹐謂之內﹐以字少拘於照之內也。二等各母具有字謂之外﹐以字多﹐出於照之外也。”《切韵指掌圖》卷三所附“辨内外轉例”:内轉者取唇舌牙喉四音更無第二等字唯齒音方具足。外轉者五音四等都具足。袁子讓《字學元元》:其謂之內外者皆以第二等字分。二等牙、舌、唇、喉下無字惟照一有字者謂之內轉二等牙、舌、唇、喉下皆有字不獨照一有者謂之外轉。以二等字限於照一內故謂之內字浮於照一外故謂之外此其義也。……袁氏所說的“照一”是照組聲母第一類即通常所說的照組二等。所謂“二等牙、舌、唇、喉下皆有字不獨照一有者謂之外轉”就是指純二等(或獨立)韻字因為只有獨立二等韻才不單照二組聲母有字其他牙、舌、唇、喉音聲母也有字。(李新魁《漢語等韻學》p。)舊圖以通止遇果宕流深曽八字括内轉六十七韻江蠏臻山効假咸梗八字括外轉一百三十九韻。外轉例:七音略外轉第三重中重七音略外轉二十五重中重(內轉例見下。)(二)韻圖的識讀《韻鏡》內轉第一開《七音略》內轉第一重中重(鄭樵《通志》卷三十六)《切韻指掌圖》卷一第二圖《七音略》“麻韻”開口、合口分列圖附韻鏡五十字母省文定局圖文政己丑是年。(三)韻圖的幾個特殊部分唇音部分幫組聲母切一、二、四等非組切三等。(非組合口字後來變為輕唇音字。)所以東韻韻圖唇音部分按真正的等第可以象下面這樣展開:等東蒙蓬一二瞢馮豐風三四董蠓菶琫一二三四送𢄐一二夢鳳賵諷三四屋木暴扑卜一二目伏蝮福三四舌音部分端組聲母切一、四等知組聲母切二三等。所以東韻韻圖舌音部分按真正的等第應該象下面這樣排列:等東同通東一二蟲忡中三四董𨑊動揔侗董一二三四送齈洞痛涷一二仲中三四屋獨禿豰一二朒逐蓄竹三四齒音部分齒音部分的三等地位是專給章組字的其他字不得侵佔。齒音這部分在《廣韻》中有三組聲母:()精組字母。這類字母專切一、三、四等字。韻圖中如果有精組的三等字也只能排在四等的位置上(這些字就叫假四等)這些字仍要與精組聲母相拼。()莊組字母(即照二:莊初崇生)。這類字母切二等和三等字。在外轉的韻圖上屬於莊組的二等字擺在二等位置上這些字自然是與莊組聲母相拼。在內轉的韻圖上(這時沒有真正的二等字)屬於莊組的三等字還是擺在二等的位置上叫做假二等這些字仍然要跟莊組的聲母相拼。()章組字母(即照三:章昌船書禪)這類字母專切三等字。在韻圖上屬於章組的字總是擺在三等的位置。所以凡是擺在齒音三等位置上的字一律與章組聲母相拼。這樣東韻韻圖的齒音部分按真正的等第應該象下面這樣排列:三三三三三二二二二二等禪書船昌章生崇初莊東檧叢怱葼一二充終崇嵩三四董㪌總一二三四送送𣀒𧩪糉一二銃眾㓽趥三四屋速族瘯鏃一二熟叔俶粥縮珿縬肅𣤶鼀蹙三四喻母喉音的喻母字在《切韻》中分為兩類字:一類是于母字(喻三也叫云母)其來源是早期的匣母字(韻圖上匣母那一列的字只有一、二、四等所以于母字和匣母字為互補關係)一類是以母字(喻四也叫余母)其來源是早期的定母或與定母接近的字。這兩類字都是三等字但韻圖規定了:于母的字總是擺在三等位置上以母的字則總是擺在四等位置上(不管三等的位置上有沒有空位)。這樣東韻韻圖的喻母字按實際的等第可以這樣排列:以母四于母三等東一二融三四董一二三四送一二三四屋一二育囿三四重紐《廣韻》中支、脂、宵、真、諄、仙、侵、鹽、祭等三等韻中其唇音、牙音、喉音字的反切下字分為兩類韻圖上把它們分別置於三等和四等的位置而實際上它們是同韻的(可能聲母有細微差別)。也就是說擺在四等位置上的字也是三等字。如:《七音略》內轉第四圖《廣韻韻圖》第四圖:釃齹差齜兒離犧漪提䌳眵支宜奇㩻羈馳摛知糜皮鈹陂移詑斯疵雌貲祇彌陴𤿎卑躧㧗爾邐𪖪倚是弛舓神帋侈紙螘技綺掎狔豸褫㨖靡被㱟彼酏徙此紫企枳居帋渳婢諀𥟑屣𧙁詈戲倚豉翅卶寘議芰㞆寄智髲帔賁易縊賜漬刺積企馶避譬臂欲詳細瞭解重紐可參閱李新魁《漢語音韻學》第八章。(四)根據韻圖查反切的被切字以下摘自方孝岳《廣韻韻圖<廣韻韻圖>閱讀須知》:總起來說大致有三個步驟:.​ 先要知道三十六個字母的讀音和廣韻二百○六個韻目的韻母讀音。.​ 遇到任何一個廣韻的反切先找到反切上字在所屬韻部的列圖位置。例如看到“蘇公切”先知道“蘇”字的韻母應該和平聲開尾的模韻讀音是一樣就翻開七音略或韻鏡所屬的圖看到“蘇”字的位置是心母一等字。.​ 再找反切下字的位置。“蘇公切”反切下字是“公”字。我們知道“公”字的韻母應該和平聲收尾的東韻是一樣就翻閱東韻所屬的圖看到“公”字是東韻一等字。然後由“公”字橫推到心母下面看到一個“檧”字那就是“蘇公切”所切的字了知道“蘇公切”是心母東韻一等字了。課堂練習利用《廣韻韻圖》(或《七音略》、《韻鏡》、《方言調查字表》)查找反切的被切字(底下括弧內的數字是《廣韻韻圖》的頁碼)語居切()“語”字在語韻()。從韻圖的語韻查得“語”字為疑母三等。()“居”字在魚韻三等(同上圖)。從韻圖的語韻查到“居”字往左橫推到疑母下得“魚”字。這就是反切的被切字。有時反切上下字在韻圖中不出現如以下情況:符鄙切(反切上字在韻圖中不出現)()“符”字屬虞韻三等()但在韻圖的虞韻中查不到“符”字只有“扶”字。實際上“符”跟“扶”是同音字“扶”是該小韻的代表字。知道了這點我們就知道“符”的聲母跟“扶”一樣屬並奉母。()“鄙”字在旨韻三等()。從韻圖的旨韻查到“鄙”字往左橫推到並奉母下得“否”字。這就是反切的被切字。先稽切(反切下字在韻圖中不出現)()“先”在四等先韻()。從韻圖的先韻查得“先”字為心母。()“稽”字在四等齊韻()。從韻圖的齊韻查不到“稽”字只有“雞”字。實際上“稽”和“雞”是同音字“雞”是該小韻的代表字。知道了這點我們就從“雞”字往左橫推到心母下得“西”字。這就是反切的被切字。課堂練習:翻閱韻圖翻閱《廣韻韻圖》或其他韻圖觀察以上情況。課堂練習:查韻圖查韻圖把下列字的音韻地位填入下面的表格。(國際音標可只填聲母。).​ 清華大學.​ 平上去入可利用下列韻圖中的一種:《廣韻韻圖》《韻鏡》《七音略》。另外也可利用《方言調查字表》。(用這本書的可不填“轉”這一列。)字攝(轉)開合等聲母韻母聲調國際音標所查韻圖及位置暫咸(外)開一從闞去廣韻韻圖第頁清清華(戶花切)麻大(徒蓋切)泰學覺平(符兵切)庚上(時掌切)養去(與“㰦”同小韻)御入緝附江永《音學辨微八辨等列》《音學辯微》目錄:《中國大百科全書》語言文字分冊“攝”字條:“攝”本是佛教術語﹐梵文parigraha﹐等於漢語的“概括”﹑“包括”。日本釋安然(世紀人﹐生卒不詳)《悉曇藏》說:“又如真旦《韻詮》五十韻頭﹐今於天竺悉曇十六韻頭﹐皆悉攝盡﹐更無遺餘。以彼INCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINET攝此阿INCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINET﹔以彼INCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINET攝此伊INCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINET﹔以彼INCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMATINETINCLUDEPICTURE"http:webFontImageBJBJBmp"*MERGEFORMA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