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首页 GPRS

GPRS.pdf

GPRS

dlksyp
2011-03-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《GPRSpdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

GSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMGMigration:GeneralPacketRadioServiceGPRSGSMGMigration:GeneralPacketRadioServiceGPRSCourseGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterWhat’sGPRSAllAboutHowDoesItFitIn�GSM:GlobalSystemforMobileCommunication•Theworld’smostwidelyusedwirelessphonetechnology–Over,,usersworldwide!–TDMAbasedradiointerface,kHzwidesignals•Butverylimiteddatacapability–,or,bpsmaximumincircuitswitchedmode�WCDMAUMTS:TheLongTermGDataSolution•UsesspreadspectrumCDMAtechniques,MHzwidesignals•Providesbothvoiceandhighspeedpacketdataaccess•Butnotwidelydeployedandavailableuntilorlater�GPRS:GeneralPacketRadioService•ApacketswitchedIPcapablewayofusingGSMradioinfrastructure•Definedin,widedeploymentbeginningin•ProvidesbothinterimpreWCDMAandlongtermpacketaccessGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterCommunicationsTechnologyFamilyHistoryAStoryofBirths,WeddingsandFunerals�Commercialtelegraphygavebirthtotelephony,thendied�TelephonyandLandMobileRadiomarried,givingIMTSCellular�IPnetworksdeveloped,theirusageandbandwidthareincreasing�TheweddingofIPandWirelessishappeningnowinG!sssCommercialTelegraphyCommercialSwitchedTelephonyWirelessVoiceandIPDataDigitalSwitchingIMTSCellularGSMGPRSWCDMAIPNetworksTheInternetVoiceoverIPLandMobileRadioHF,VHF,UHF,TrunkedExtinction!ExtinctionExtinctionGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterBackground:GSMTechnologyTheFoundationofGPRSBackground:GSMTechnologyTheFoundationofGPRSGSMandGPRSGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterTheBeginningsofGSM�’s:Europeusedvarietyoffirstgenerationanalogcellularsystems:TACS,ETACS,NMT,NMT,Netz,etc•Operationwaslimitedtovariousnationalboundaries•Poorroamingcapabilities,pooreconomiesofscaleinmfg�In,CEPTtheConferenceofEuropeanPostsandTelegraphscreatedagrouptostudyanddefineaGPanEuropeansystem•GroupSpécialMobile(GSM)•In,administrationofGSMwastransferredtotheEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardsInstitute(ETSI)•In,theGSMspecification,PhaseI,waspublished�GSMhasbecomeverypopularduetomanypositivefactors•Nonproprietary:anyonecanmanufacturenetworkshandsets•Thoroughintegratedstandard:welldefinedRFairinterface,networkarchitecture,calldeliveryandroamingfeaturesGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMWorldAcceptance�GSMcommercialdeploymentbeganin�By,therewereGSMnetworksincountries�In,therewereoverGSMnetworksinovercountriesaroundtheworld•OperationinMHz,MHz,andMHzbands�ThewideacceptanceofGSMhasprovidedtremendouseconomiesofscaleinnetwork,handset,andtestequipmentmanufacturinganddistribution�Worldwidein,GSMusershavepassedthemillionmark•OneinhumanbeingsusesaGSMphone!�TheglobaldominanceofGSMprovidesalargemarketfortheGandGenhancementsGPRSandUMTSWCDMAGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMvsNorthAmericanStandards�Twodifferentapproachestowirelesstechnologydevelopment!•Americans:Inventcoolnewstuffdrivenbymarketforces,writestandardsifitworksandthemarketacceptsit•Europeans:Study,Plan,buildStandards,buildConsensus,Plan,Review,buildmoreConsensus,finallyDeploy�Thedifferencesarevisibleintheresultingstandards•American:multipleinterimstandardsnecessarytodefinefunctionality•Europeans:singleintegratedstandardcoversallfunctionalityOtherFeaturesAirInterfaceRFArchitectureNetworkArchitectureIntersystemRoaming,CallDelivery,HandoffTheGSMStandardOnecoordinated,uniformlystructuredfamilyofdocumentsISJStdCDMAISAinterfaceISC,D,PISSMSISOTAISDataEtcNorthAmericanCDMAGSMGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMTerminology�SometermshavedifferentmeaningswhenusedinGSMorNorthAmericanpractice!SectorβSectorαSectorγCELLCellβCellαCellγBTSIt’saSector!It’saCell!SectorβSectorγCellβCellγThatwasaHandoff!ThatwasaHandover!ThefrequenciesusedbyeachsectorareitschannelsetThefrequenciesusedbyeachcellareitsallocationGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterStructureofaGSMSignal�GSMcarriersarespacedkHzapart�IntheBTSdownlinksignal,differenttimeslotsbelongtodifferentusersamobilelistensonlytoitsrecurringtimeslots•Duringunusedtimeslots,amobilecanmeasurethesignalstrengthofsurroundingBTSstoguidethehandoverprocess�Themobileonitsuplinktransmitsonlyduringitsassignedtimeslots•Mobilestransmitonlyduringtheirowntimeslots•MobiletransmittimeslotsoccurthreetimeslotsafterthecorrespondingBTStransmittimeslot–ThisavoidssimultaneousmobileTXRXandtheneedforduplexeratthemobilekHzSlotsTypicalFrequencyReuseN=RequiredCI≅dBBTSGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterTheFrequenciesUsedbyGSM�GSMoperatesinavarietyoffrequencybandsworldwide�GSMcarrierfrequenciesarenormallyassignedinKHzIncrementswithintheoperator’slicensedblockofspectrum�Spectrumisprovidedin“blocks”•Basestationstransmitintheupperblock•Mobilestransmitinthelowerblock�Eachcellusesacertainnumberofcarriers,calledits“allocation”GSMUplinkchGSMDownlinkchAchDBchEFCCCAchDBchEFCCCEuropeandInternationalNorthAmericanPCSLicensedBlocksMHzMHzGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterMultipleCarriersinaGSMCell�AGSMbasestationtransceivermakesasignal~kHzwide�Thesignalistimedividedintoarepeatingpatternofframes•Eachframeis=mslong,thereare~framespersecond�Eachframeisfurthersubdividedintotimeslots,eachms=µslong•Atimeslotcanholdthebitsofachannelofinformation–Oneuser’svoicesignal,orasignalingadministrativechannel�OneGSMbasestationcanhaveseveraltransceivers,eachoneproducingaGSMsignalonadifferentfrequencysixcarriersintheexampleabove•VariousrepeatingpatternsofinformationcanusethetimeslotstocarrychannelsofinformationTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSTSFrequencyFrequencyFrequencyFrequencyFrequencyFrequencytimeslotµsframemsTimeGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterChannelsinGSM:RepeatingPatterns�ChannelsofinformationinGSMoccupyphysicaltimeslotsoftheGSMsignalinrepeatingpatterns•Similartothewaythatclassesandactivitiesofauniversityoccupythephysicalclassroomsonadefinedschedule–Someclassesmeetdaily,someonlythreedaysaweek–Somelabsonceortwiceaweek–Mealsdailyinthecafeteria,moviesonFridaynights–Graduationceremonieseachsemester�Dedicatedchannels(carryingtrafficorcontrolinformationforindividualusers)occurinarepeatingmultiframepatternmslong•framesareusedfortraffic,oneforSACCH,oneisunused•FullrateTCHsoccurineachtrafficframe•HalfrateTCHs(ifused)occurinalternatingtrafficframes•ratededicatedchannelsaredefinedforspecialpurposesandarecalledSDCCHs(StandAloneDedicatedControlChannels)GSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMTrafficChannels:Hyperframes,Superframes,Multiframes,Frames,andBurstsBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPOneHyperframehmssuperframesOneSuperframesmultiframesofframeseachOneMultiframemsframesOneFrameframeTailBitsTailBitsGuardBitsStealingBitStealingBitDataBitsTrainingSequenceDataBitsbitsbitsbitsbitsms~msOneBurst(bits)SACCHUNUSEDTCHsTCHsGrossRatekbpsUsedfortrafficchannelsandassociatedsignalingonlyms~msGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxtersmultiframesofframeseachhmssuperframesmsframesOneSuperframeGSMControlChannels:Hyperframes,Superframes,Multiframes,Frames,andBurstsOneHyperframeBPBPBPBPBPBPBPBPOneFramems~msframeTailBitsTailBitsGuardBitsStealingBitStealingBitDataBitsTrainingSequenceDataBitsbitsbitsbitsbitsms~msOneBurst(bits)OneMultiframeGrossRatekbpsFCCHSCHBCCHBCCHBCCHBCCHFCCHSCHFCCHSCHFCCHSCHFCCHSCHnotusedUsedforcontrolchannelsonlyCCCHorSDCCHCCCHorSDCCHCCCHorSACCHCCCHorSACCHCCCHCCCHCCCHorSYSINFOCCCHorSDCCHCCCHorSDCCHGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterTypicalTimeslotAllocationinMultiframePatternsonOneGSMRFCarrierFCCHSDCCHSCHBCCHTimeSlotTimeSlotFrameNumberFrameNumberAGCHPCHBCCHBCCHBCCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHFCCHSCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHFCCHSCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHAGCHPCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHFCCHSCHCBCHCBCHCBCHCBCHSDCCHFCCHSCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHIDLEIDLEIDLESACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSACCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHSDCCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTimeSlotTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHIDLETCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHSACCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHTCHIDLEMultiframePatternforControlChannelsMultiframePatternforTrafficChannelsMultiframePatternforTrafficChannelsTIMEGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterAGSMUplinkNormalBurst�GSMisaTDMAsystemandamobile’stransmissionburstsarecarefullyconstructednottooverlapwithburstsfromothermobiles�DifferentpropagationdelaysofmobilesnearandfarmobilestheBTSarecompensatedbyautomaticallyadvancingmobiletransmittiming�Specialtrainingsequencesareincludedineachuplinkburstanddownlinktimeslottofacilitatedemodulation�Duringunusedtimeslots,amobilemeasuresthestrengthofsurroundingbasestationstoguidethehandoverprocess(thisiscalledMAHO,MobileAssistedHandOver)GSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSMBurstsontheUplink:TypesStealingBitStealingBitNormalBurstGuardBitsDataBitsTrainingBitsDataBitsTailTailbitsbitsbitsbitsGuardBitsTailTailDataBitsTrainingBitsDataBitsSynchronizationBurstbitsbitsbitsbitsGuardBitsTailTailFixed‘’orFillinBitsFrequencyCorrectionBurstorDummyBurstbitsbitsAccessBurstTailBitsGuardBitsTrainingBitsDataBitsTailbitsbitsbitsGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterFTRAFFICGSMChannelsUPLINKCHANNELSRACHSDCCHTCHFACCHBTSDOWNLINKCHANNELSBCCHFCCHSCHPCHAGCHSDCCHTCHFACCHtomanyStandAloneDedicatedControlChannelTrafficChannelFastAssociatedControlChannelSlottedalohachannelusedtorequestnetworkaccessSACCHSACCHBTSidentity,channelallocation,frequencyhoppingsequencesProvidesfrequencyreferenceDefinesburstperiodboundariesandtimeslotnumberingCarriespagestomobiles,alertingofincomingcallsTrafficChannelFastAssociatedControlChannelSlowAssociatedControlChannelStandAloneDedicatedControlChannelSlowAssociatedControlChannelAllocatesSDCCHtomobiletoobtaindedicatedchannelafterarequestontheRACHGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterTheGPRSTimeslotAllocation�InconventionalGSM,achannelispermanentlyallocatedforaparticularuserduringtheentirecallperiod(whetherspeakingorsilent,whethertransmittingdataornot)•InGPRS,thechannelsareonlyallocatedwhendatapacketsaretransmittedorreceived,andtheyarereleasedafterthetransmission•Forburstytrafficthisresultsinmuchmoreefficientuseofthescarceradioresources•MultipleuserscanshareonechannelBTS�GPRSallowsasinglemobiletotransmitandorreceiveonmultipletimeslotsofthesameframe(thisiscalledmultislotoperation)•Thisprovides“bandwidthondemand”inaveryflexiblescheme•Onetoeighttimeslotsperframecanbeallocatedtoamobile•Uplinkanddownlinkallocationscanbeallocatedseparately,whichefficientlysupportsasymmetricdatatraffic(suitableforwebbrowsing,forexample)•ThisGPRSmobileisin“”timeslotmode•timeslotsassignedondownlink•timeslotassignedonuplinkGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterAllocationofGPRSChannels�AcellsupportingGPRSmayallocatephysicalchannelsforGPRStraffic�SuchaphysicalchannelisdenotedaPacketDataChannel(PDCH)•ThePDCHsaretakenfromthecommonpoolofallchannelsavailableinthecell•TheradioresourcesofacellaresharedbyallGPRSandallnonGPRSmobilesinthecell•ThemappingofphysicalchannelstoeitherGPRSorGSMusagecanbeperformeddynamically,basedon:–Capacityondemandprinciple–Dependingonthecurrenttrafficload,priorityofservice,andthemultislotclass�AloadsupervisionproceduremonitorsthePDCHsinthecell�ThenumberofchannelsallocatedtoGPRScanbechangedaccordingtocurrentdemand•PhysicalchannelsnotcurrentlyinusebyconventionalGSMcanbeallocatedasPDCHstoincreasetheGPRSqualityofservice•Whenthereisaresourcedemandforserviceswithhigherpriority,PDCHscanbedeallocatedGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterGSM,GPRS,WCDMACoordinatedNetworkArchitectureGSM,GPRS,WCDMACoordinatedNetworkArchitectureGSM,GPRSandWCDMAUMTSGSMGMigration:GPRSv(c)ScottBaxterUTRANCoreNetworkCoreNetworkStepstoG:TheGSMTransitionGatewayMSCVLRHLRMSCMobileSwitchingCenterGatewayMSCVLRHLRMSCMobileSwitchingCenterGatewayGPRSSupportnodeServingGPRSSupportnodeCoreNetworkGatewayMSCVLRHLRMSCMobileSwitchingCenterGatewayGPRSSupportnodeServingGPRSSupportnodeBSCBaseStationControllerBSCBaseStationControllerPCUBTSBaseTransceiverStationsBTSBaseTransceiverStationsSIMMobileEquipmentUMTSSIMMobileEquipmentRNCRadioNetworkControllerRNCRadioNetworkControllerNodeBNodeBNodeBNodeBInternetISDNPLMNPSTNInternetISDNPLMNPSTNInternetISDNPLMNPSTNUserEquipmentMobileStationSIMMobileEquipmentMobileStationG

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