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首页 Harvard Business School - Project Management Man…

Harvard Business School - Project Management Manual.pdf

Harvard Business School - Proje…

hzw830
2011-03-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Harvard Business School - Project Management Manualpdf》,可适用于项目管理领域

DONOTCOPYHarvardBusinessSchoolRevOctober,HarvardBusinessSchoolpreparedthismanualfrommaterialsdevelopedbyIPSAssociates,IncasthebasisforclassdiscussionratherthantoillustrateeithereffectiveorineffectivehandlingofanadministrativesituationIPSAssociates,IncislocatedatBayport,SanCarlos,California,Copyright©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeToordercopiesorrequestpermissiontoreproducematerials,callorwriteHarvardBusinessSchoolPublishing,Boston,MANopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,usedinaspreadsheet,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeanselectronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwisewithoutthepermissionofHarvardBusinessSchoolProjectManagementManualPLANNINGMANAGINGPROJECTSPLANTHEPROJECTTRACKMANAGETHEPROJECTDEFINEORGANIZETHEPROJECTCOLLECTSTATUSOPTIMIZETRADEOFFSDEVELOPSCHEDULEPLANTAKEADAPTIVEACTIONDEVELOPTHEWORKBREAKDOWNSTRUCTUREANALYZERESOURCESDEVELOPRISKMANAGEMENTPLANSCLOSEOUTTHEPROJECTESTABLISHTHEPROJECTORGANIZATIONDEFINETHEPROJECTPARAMETERSPLANTHEPROJECTFRAMEWORKASSEMBLETHEPROJECTDEFINITIONDOCUMENTDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualTableofContentsPageABriefHistoryofProjectManagementTheEmergingImportanceofProjectsProjectManagementProcessOverviewProjectManagementProcessModel(Figure)DEFINEANDORGANIZETHEPROJECTEstablishtheProjectOrganizationProjectTeamRoster(Figure)DefinetheProjectParametersPlantheProjectFrameworkIssuesActionItemsTrackingForm(Figure)AssembletheProjectDefinitionDocumentPLANTHEPROJECTDeveloptheWorkBreakdownStructureWorkBreakdownStructureSample(Figure)DeveloptheScheduleDependencies(Figure)DependencyDiagram(“PERT”Chart)Sample(Figure)GanttChartSample(Figure)AnalyzeResourcesOptimizeTradeoffsDevelopaRiskManagementPlanTRACKANDMANAGETHEPROJECTCollectStatusPlanandTakeAdaptiveActionCloseouttheProjectREFERENCESAPPENDIXSampleProjectDefinitionDocument:AllStarMovieDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualBRIEFHISTORYOFPROJECTMANAGEMENTImaginethatanimportantcustomerinyourfirmcommissionsyoutocompleteasophisticatedworldwidemarketstudythatwillformthebasisofaglobalexpansionstrategyOrthatyouareresponsibleforthedevelopmentoftheproductwhichwilldetermineyourfirm’sabilitytogopublicOrthatyouareinchargeofhandlingthemergerofyourfirmwithanotherFurtherimaginethatinthesesituationsyoureceiveastrictbudgetandaprecisescheduleYouare,assuch,involvedinaprojectand,moreover,youareinvolvedinmanagingaprojectDeliverablesmustbecompletedaccordingtoaschedule,whichisusuallyaggressive,andwithinabudget,whichisusuallyfixedBecauseprojectmanagementfocusesonspecificresults(deliverables),timeand(schedule),resources(money,people,etc),aseriesoftechniquesandprocesseshasevolvedtohelppeopleefficientlymanagetheseundertakingsThismodulewillintroducethesetoyouTheOriginsOfProjectManagement“Work”wasfirstscientificallystudiedbyFrederickTaylor(),whoalsowasthefirsttoconsiderprocessdesignButnotuntiltheearlysweremanyprojectmanagementtechniquesassembledintoasingle,coherentsystem:thefocusofthatenormouslycomplexeffortwastheUSDefenseDepartment’sdevelopmentofthePolarismissileThetechniques,whichincludedHenryGantt’schart,whichhecreatedtomanageArmylogistics,wereessentialtomanagingtheintricaciesofhowworkamonganarrayofspecialistswouldbehandedoff,andhowthescheduleitselfwouldbemanagedAtthecenterofthiseffortwasliterallyaproject“warroom,”whichprominentlydisplayedhugeProgramEvaluationReviewTechniques(PERT)chartsFollowingquicklyinthemilitary’sfootstepsweretheautomotiveandmovieindustries,andprivateandpublicengineeringorganizationsAllsharedtheneedforcreatinguniqueoutcomes,andtheyfoundthatprojectmanagementtechniqueshelpedcrossfunctionalteamsdefine,manage,andexecutetheworkneededtoaccomplishtheseendsAlongwithsuchtechniquesashistogramsandnetworkdiagrams,earlypractitionersofprojectmanagementalsoemployedtheconceptofaprojectlifecycleandbegantoincorporatethatthinkingwhengeneratingmorecomplexWorkBreakdownStructures(WBSs)AWBScomprehensivelyidentifiestheindividualtasksrequiredtoachieveanobjectiveMorerecently,newprojectmanagementtechniques(eg,forcreatingcrossfunctionalschedules,managingsharedresources,andaligningprojectportfolios),thewidespreaduseofpersonalcomputers,andthegrowingsophisticationandavailabilityofprojectmanagementsoftwaretoolshaveallincreasedtheeffectivenessofamethodologyforaddressingavarietyofprojectproblemsTheEmergingImportanceofProjectsButitisnotsimplytheimprovementofprojectmanagementeffectivenessthatweareexaminingotherforcescombinedtocausetheuseofthesetechniquestoexplodePowerfulcompetitivepressurestomanageandreduceproductcycletimeareincreasing,asistheglobalizationofmanymarketsandtherecognitionofprojectsasakeylinkbetweenthestrategicgoalsoftheorganizationandthetacticalworkbeingperformedbydiscretefunctionsAsaresult,industriesasdiverseascomputermanufacturing,consultingservices,pharmaceuticals,photography,andnaturalresourcemanagementhaveaggressivelyimplementedprojectmanagementTheseindustries,andamyriadofothers,areusingprojectmanagementasawaytocreatethefuture,bybetterunderstandingbothcustomerrequirementsandsolutionstomeetthemMoreover,projectmanagementhasapotenteffectonafirm’sbottomlineDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualAninternationalstudyfoundthat“whencompaniesincreasedtheirpredevelopmentemphasis,theyincreasedthepredictabilityofsuccessfulnewproductcommercializationbyatoratio”Whenpredevelopmentactivities,primarilyprojectdefinitionandplanning,increased,sodidthelikelihoodofproductsuccessSomekeyfactorsseparatingsuccessfromfailurewere:•“Winnersspentmorethantwiceasmanyresourcesonpredevelopmentactivitiesasdidlosers•Seventyonepercentofnewproductdevelopmentwasdelayedduetopoordefinitionandunderstandingofcustomerrequirements•Changingproductrequirementsinducedmoredelaysinproductdevelopmentthananyothercause”(Boznak,)ProjectmanagementalsoaffectsthebottomlinebecauseithelpscrossfunctionalteamstoworksmarterItenablesteamstobetterdrawupontheindividualstrengthsofmembersbyprovidinganefficientinfrastructurefordefining,planning,andmanagingprojectwork,regardlessofthestructureofthefirm’sorganizationItisparticularlyusefulinspecializedfunctionalenvironmentsorhighlymatrixedenvironments,sinceitchannelsspecializationintoclearlydefinedprojectcooperationandcontributionactivitiesandclarifiesambiguousrolesandresponsibilitiesThus,asoneauthorobserved,“Teammembersderivevaluefromthesummarydataforprojectplanning,estimationoftasks,andidentifyingimprovementopportunities,suchasactivitiesthatoughttohavemore(orless)timedevotedtothemThedataprovidesaquantitativeunderstandingofthegroup’sdevelopmentprocessaswellasawaytomonitoroftheprocessovertimeIthasbeenenlighteningtomanyteammemberstocomparewheretheythinktheyspendtheirtimewithwheretheyactuallyspendtheirtime”(Wiegers,)Similarly,“SuccessfulfirmshavemasteredtheartofmeldingthepowerofhumanwillandorganizationButthekeytotheirvitalityistheirworldclasscapabilitiesinselecting,guiding,andcompletingdevelopmentprojects,whicharethebuildingblocksofrenewalandchangeThecompaniesthatcanrepeatthisprocessagainandagainhavediscoveredthemanufacturer’sperpetualmotionmachine”(Bowen,Clark,HollowayandWheelwright,,p)Asyetafurtherexampleofthisimpact,IntegratedProjectSystemsconductedtwostudies(unpublished)inwhichonecomputermanufacturergainedareturnoninvestmentinprojectmanagementbycreatingaprojectplantemplateforrepetitiveprojects,andanotherhadanestimatedreturnoninvestmentthroughanearlycancellationofatroubledprojectROIonimplementingprojectmanagementappearstobequitesignificantProjectManagementProcessOverviewProjectmanagementisaformalmanagementdisciplineinwhichprojectsareplannedandexecutedusingasystematic,repeatable,andscaleableprocessAprojectisdefinedas:Auniquesetofactivitiesthataremeanttoproduceadefinedoutcome,withaspecificstartandfinishdate,andaspecificallocationofresourcesBecauseaprojectisboundedbyitsresults,time,andresources,weoftenneedtomaketradeoffsamongthesethreeelements,orproject“parameters”Thus,projectmanagementistheprocessofdevelopingsubstantive,systematicdataabouteachparametersothatthetradeoffdecisionmakingbetweenparametersismoreeffectiveTheprojectmanagementprocess,inturn,isaseriesofsteps,typicallyrepresentedbya“projectmanagementprocessmodel”ThemodelweuseatHBSforprojectmanagementappearsinFigureItconsistsofthreeglobalsetsofactivities(DefineandOrganizetheProject,PlantheProject,andTrackandManagetheProject)Withineachsetofglobalactivitiesisaseriesofstepsforactuallydefining,planning,andmanagingtheprojectDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualDefineandOrganizetheProjectThesuccessofaprojectisusuallybasedontheclarityofitsobjectivesandhowwellteammemberswillcoordinateprojectactivitiesWewouldassume,therefore,thatinordertobeeffectiveincompletingaprojectweneedtoknowtheobjectives,thepeoplewhowillworkasateamtoachievethem,andsomethingabouthowtheywillbeworkingMuchliesbehindthisassumption,howeverWhilethereisuniversalagreementacrossallindustriesthatitisessentialtodefinetheobjectivesandorganizationforaprojectbeforebeginningit,anastoundingproportionofprojectsfailbecausethedesiredoutcomeispoorlydefinedandtheorganizationandprocedurestoaccomplishitareillunderstoodWithdismayingfrequency,peoplecompletethe“wrong”project,producingatbestasomewhatlessthandesiredresultor,atworstacompletewasteoftimeandresourcesTalesofunclearassignments,unproductivemeetings,poorcommunication,andinterpersonalconflictarerampantinmostprojectenvironmentsConsequently,evenashorttimespentclearlydefiningandorganizingtheprojectgeneratestremendousbenefitsThekeystepsare:EstablishtheProjectOrganization,DefinetheProjectParameters,andPlantheProjectFramework,AssembletheProjectDefinitionDocumentThesestepsdefinethe“who,”“what,”and“how”oftheprojectTheywillbetreatedindetailinsubsequentsectionsPlantheProjectAsourceofconsiderableconflictinnearlyeveryprojectisthetensionbetween“when”theprojectwillbecompletedandtherisksinvolvedinshorteningthattimeManagersoutsidetheprojectteamseemcontinuallytodemandthattheprojectschedulebeaggressive,whilethosewithintheteamareawareofthedifficultiesindoingsoThesolutionisacredibleprojectplanAcredibleprojectplanisbasedonareliable,systematicprocessthatallowsseniormanagerstounderstandandtrustthescheduleandmakebettermanagementdecisionsaboutprojecttradeoffsThus,becauseithadbothacrediblescheduleandariskmanagementplan,aconsultingfirm,inclosecooperationwithitsclient,wasabletosystematicallynarrowthescopeofitsreengineeringinitiativewhenitlearnedthattheeffortwouldmissacriticalcorporatedateNotonlywasthisflexibilityimportanttotheparticulareffort,itsavedtherelationshipbetweenthefirmanditsclientConversely,unreliableandunpredictableschedules,basedonguesswork,topdownpressure,orfailuretoaccountforrisk,canleadtofinancialdisasterAtonecompanyapoorlyconceivedschedulecausedanewproducttobeprematurelyannouncedConsequentlypurchasesoftheoldproductdriedupmonthsbeforethenewproductwasreadyTheresultThecompany,whichhadbeenfirstinmarketsharepriortotheannouncement,experiencedconsecutivequartersoflossesanddroppedtothirdinshareAsystematicplanningprocessmakesseniormanagementdecisionmakingmoreeffectivebecauseitprovidesspecificdataforthedecisionmakersThekeystepsinPlantheProjectare:DeveloptheWorkBreakdownStructure,DeveloptheSchedule,AnalyzingResources,andDevelopRiskManagementPlansThesestepsenabletheprojectmanagerandteamtoidentifythetasksrequiredtomeettheprojectobjectives,howlongeachtaskwilltake,theoptimalsequenceforthetasks,howlongtheprojectwilltake,howresourceswillaffecttheschedule,andwhatmajorriskstheprojectentailsAsaresult,allmembersoftheteamknownotonlytheirownprojectwork,butthetasksandschedulesoftheirteammatesaswellThesestepswillalsobetreatedindetailinsubsequentsectionsTrackandManagetheProject“Managingtotheplan”seemsasimpleenoughnotionYetmostofthetime,assoonastheplanisdone(ifaplanisdone),projectmanagementtypicallyceases,asthepropulsionto“gettheworkDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualFigureProjectManagementProcessModelPLANNINGMANAGINGPROJECTSPLANTHEPROJECTTRACKMANAGETHEPROJECTDEFINEORGANIZETHEPROJECTCOLLECTSTATUSOPTIMIZETRADEOFFSDEVELOPSCHEDULEPLANTAKEADAPTIVEACTIONDEVELOPTHEWORKBREAKDOWNSTRUCTUREANALYZERESOURCESDEVELOPRISKMANAGEMENTPLANSCLOSEOUTTHEPROJECTESTABLISHTHEPROJECTORGANIZATIONDEFINETHEPROJECTPARAMETERSPLANTHEPROJECTFRAMEWORKASSEMBLETHEPROJECTDEFINITIONDOCUMENTDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualdone”takesoverThemomentumoftheprojectitselfdominatesTeammembersfinditeasiertoworkondiscretetasksproducingtangibleresultsthantomanageanintangibleprocessButbynottrackingtheproject,boththeprojectmanagerandtheteamitselfmisstheopportunitytocollectcriticalprojectdataandtaketimelyactionsthatwillbecrucialtosuccessAcommonresultisareductionintheteam’sabilitytocontroltheprojectandthereby,indirectly,areductionintheirauthorityandstatusConversely,trackingandmanagingaproject,whichisoftenseenas“extrawork”byprojectpersonnel,actuallyimprovesmoralebyprovidingprojectmanagementandteammemberswithmorecontrol:hencemorestatusandauthorityMoreover,oncethecredibleplanisinplace,notonlydoestheteamnowhavesomethingthatprovidesefficiencies,membershaveawayofsystematicallytrackingandmanagingtheworktheyperformincomparisontooriginalexpectationstherebygeneratingstillmoreprojectefficienciesItispossibletoknow,withgreatprecisionbutlittlebureaucraticoverhead,whatworkhasbeenperformedinaproject,whatplannedworkstillneedstobedonetoachievetheobjectives,andwhatactionsneedtobetakentorespondtothenaturaldynamicsofprojectworkThisispossiblebecausetrackingandmanagingprocessesprovidetheprojectmanagerandteamwithhighlyspecificdatathatenableshighlyfocused,discreteinterventionsintoprojectworkThekeystepsintrackingandmanagingtheprojectare:CollectStatusandCloseouttheProjectThesestepsfocustheprojectmanagerontheinformationneededtorealigntheprojecteffortifnecessary,keepkeyparticipantsinformedofprogress,andusethelearningfromoneprojecttoimprovetheperformanceofthenextAgain,thesestepswillbetreatedindetailinasubsequentsectionKeyProcessPointsTheprocessmodelinFigure,thoughpresentedlinearly,shouldbeconceptualizedcyclically:itismeanttobeiterativeandselfcheckingForexample,iftheschedulecompletedintheDeveloptheSchedulestepexceedsthescheduleobjectiveestablishedintheDefinetheParametersstep,itmaybeappropriatetoreturntoandmodifytheobjectiveortochangethedefinitionofamajordeliverabletoshortenthescheduleSimilarly,SpecificationofTasksequencesintheDeveloptheSchedulestepoftenhighlightomittedtasks,causinganiterationbacktotheDeveloptheWorkBreakdownStructurestepTheprocessmodelnaturallycheckstheplanandpromotesitsincreasingrefinement,withacorrelatedincreaseinitsreliabilityandcredibilityWenowturntoafulldescriptionofeachsectionofthemodel,lookingatitscharacteristicsandactivitiesDONOTCOPYProjectManagementManualDefineandOrganizetheProjectEstablishtheProjectOrganizationInanyproject,knowingwhoisgoingtodowhatisessentialThepurposeoftheEstablishtheProjectOrganizationstepistoensurethatallrolesandresponsibilitiesareclearlyunderstoodandthatallmembersoftheteamareidentifiedandcommittedtotheprojecteffortInparticular,thisstepensuresthataleader(theprojectmanager)isidentifiedandthathisorherauthorityandresponsibilitiesarespecifiedKeyQuestionsforEstablishingtheTeamOrganization•Whoistheprojectma

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