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首页 胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)教案

胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)教案.doc

胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)教案

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2011-03-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)教案doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

Linguistics胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)学习指导前言其实我的这一个语言学学习指导系列本来没有想做得这么大的最初只是我买了一本语言学教程的辅导资料发现里面有的名词解释总结得很不错所以就想整理一下各章的名词解释。后来觉得既然是整理光整理名词解释还不如对知识点做一个较全面的学习指导材料。结果就此一发而不可收终于形成了现在的这一整套资料。不明白是什么的朋友们可以参考考研论坛(bbskaoyancom)外语版的相关帖子。本资料主要分为三部分第一部分为各章节提纲笔记第二部分为重点章节测试题第三部分为测试题参考答案。整理这一套资料真得很劳心费力希望能够对大家有所帮助。在考研论坛上我所有的相关资料都设置了阅读权限和K币一个是为了防止盗用但更重要的不是为了限制什么只是希望大家在能够很容易得到资料的同时也能够想到要付出一些将来考上研了以后能够回到这里与后来的研友们分享一些所能够得到的信息资源共享信息交流这才是考研论坛的本意。也希望大家在以后复习语言学的时候能够想到冰暖茶在这门课程上作的小小的努力如果大家都能成功我的努力就是值得的。需要说明的是我在整理资料的过程中得到了ksguobw,lxmw,micronannan,天使精灵(排名不分先后)等朋友的资源共享和大力协助在此对他们以及一贯支持冰暖茶的朋友们表示感谢!由于水平有限加之时间仓促疏漏之处在所难免欢迎各位读者批评指正。年月目录前言……………………………………………………………………………………………目录……………………………………………………………………………………………第一部分各章节提纲笔记……………………………………………………………………ChapterInvitationstoLinguistics……………………………………………………………ChapterSpeechSounds………………………………………………………………………ChapterLexicon………………………………………………………………………………ChapterSyntax………………………………………………………………………………ChapterMeaning………………………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageProcessinginMind………………………………………………………ChapterLanguage,CultureandSociety………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageinUse………………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageandLiterature………………………………………………………………ChapterLanguageandComputer……………………………………………………………ChapterLinguisticsandForeignLanguageTeaching………………………………………ChapterTheoriesandSchoolsofModernLinguistics………………………………………第二部分重点章节测试题……………………………………………………………………TestOneInvitationstoLinguistics………………………………………………………………TestTwoPhoneticsandPhonology……………………………………………………………TestThreeMorphology…………………………………………………………………………TestFourSyntax…………………………………………………………………………………TestFiveSemantics……………………………………………………………………………TestSixPragmatics………………………………………………………………………………TestSevenLanguage,CultureandSociety………………………………………………………TestEightTheoriesandSchoolsofModernLinguistics………………………………………第三部分测试题参考答案……………………………………………………………………参考书目………………………………………………………………………………………第一部分各章节提纲笔记ChapterInvitationstoLinguisticsWhystudylanguageLanguageisveryessentialtohumanbeingsInlanguagetherearemanythingsweshouldknowForfurtherunderstanding,weneedtostudylanguagescientificallyWhatislanguageLanguageisameansofverbalcommunicationItisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationDesignfeaturesoflanguageThefeaturesthatdefineourhumanlanguagescanbecalleddesignfeatureswhichcandistinguishhumanlanguagefromanyanimalsystemofcommunicationArbitrarinessArbitrarinessreferstothefactthattheformsoflinguisticsignsbearnonaturalrelationshiptotheirmeaningsDualityDualityreferstothepropertyofhavingtwolevelsofstructures,suchthatunitsoftheprimarylevelarecomposedofelementsofthesecondarylevelandeachofthetwolevelshasitsownprinciplesoforganizationCreativityCreativitymeansthatlanguageisresourcefulbecauseofitsdualityanditsrecursivenessRecursivenessreferstotherulewhichcanbeappliedrepeatedlywithoutanydefinitelimitTherecursivenatureoflanguageprovidesatheoreticalbasisforthepossibilityofcreatingendlesssentencesDisplacementDisplacementmeansthathumanlanguagesenabletheiruserstosymbolizeobjects,eventsandconceptswhicharenotpresent(intimeandspace)atthemomentofconversationOriginoflanguageThebowwowtheoryInprimitivetimespeopleimitatedthesoundsoftheanimalcallsinthewildenvironmenttheylivedandspeechdevelopedfromthatThepoohpoohtheoryInthehardlifeofourprimitiveancestors,theyutterinstinctivesoundsofpains,angerandjoywhichgraduallydevelopedintolanguageThe“yoheho”theoryAsprimitivepeopleworkedtogether,theyproducedsomerhythmicgruntswhichgraduallydevelopedintochantsandthenintolanguageFunctionsoflanguageAsisproposedbyJacobson,languagehassixfunctions:Referential:toconveymessageandinformationPoetic:toindulgeinlanguageforitsownsakeEmotive:toexpressattitudes,feelingsandemotionsConative:topersuadeandinfluenceothersthroughcommandsandentreatiesPhatic:toestablishcommunionwithothersMetalingual:toclearupintentions,wordsandmeaningsHalliday()proposesatheoryofmetafunctionsoflanguageItmeansthatlanguagehasthreemetafunctions:Ideationalfunction:toconveynewinformation,tocommunicateacontentthatisunknowntothehearerInterpersonalfunction:embodyingalluseoflanguagetoexpresssocialandpersonalrelationshipsTextualfunction:referringtothefactthatlanguagehasmechanismstomakeanystretchofspokenandwrittendiscourseintoacoherentandunifiedtextandmakealivingpassagedifferentfromarandomlistofsentencesAccordingtoHuZhuanglin,languagehasatleastsevenfunctions:InformativeTheinformativefunctionmeanslanguageistheinstrumentofthoughtandpeopleoftenuseittocommunicatenewinformationInterpersonalfunctionTheinterpersonalfunctionmeanspeoplecanuselanguagetoestablishandmaintaintheirstatusinasocietyPerformativeTheperformativefunctionoflanguageisprimarilytochangethesocialstatusofpersons,asinmarriageceremonies,thesentencingofcriminals,theblessingofchildren,thenamingofashipatalaunchingceremony,andthecursingofenemiesEmotivefunctionTheemotivefunctionisoneofthemostpowerfulusesoflanguagebecauseitissocrucialinchangingtheemotionalstatusofanaudiencefororagainstsomeoneorsomethingPhaticcommunionThephaticcommunionmeanspeoplealwaysusesomesmall,seeminglymeaninglessexpressionssuchasGoodmorning,Godblessyou,Niceday,etc,tomaintainacomfortablerelationshipbetweenpeoplewithoutanyfactualcontentRecreationalfunctionTherecreationalfunctionmeanspeopleuselanguageforthesheerjoyofusingit,suchasababy’sbabblingorachanter’schantingMetalingualfunctionThemetalingualfunctionmeanspeoplecanuselanguagetotalkaboutitselfEgIcanusetheword“book”totalkaboutabook,andIcanalsousetheexpression“thewordbook”totalkaboutthesign“book”itselfWhatislinguisticsLinguisticsisthescientificstudyoflanguageItstudiesnotjustonelanguageofanyonecommunity,butthelanguageofallhumanbeingsMainbranchesoflinguisticsPhoneticsPhoneticsisthestudyofspeechsounds,itincludesthreemainareas:articulatoryphonetics,acousticphonetics,andauditoryphoneticsPhonologyPhonologystudiestherulesgoverningthestructure,distribution,andsequencingofspeechsoundsandtheshapeofsyllablesMorphologyMorphologystudiestheminimalunitsofmeaning–morphemesandwordformationprocessesSyntaxSyntaxreferstotherulesgoverningthewaywordsarecombinedtoformsentencesinalanguage,orsimply,thestudyoftheformationofsentencesSemanticsSemanticsexamineshowmeaningisencodedinalanguagePragmaticsPragmaticsisthestudyofmeaningincontextMacrolinguisticsMacrolinguisticsisthestudyoflanguageinallaspects,distinctfrommicrolinguistics,whichdealtsolelywiththeformalaspectoflanguagesystemPsycholinguisticsPsycholinguisticsinvestigatestheinterrelationoflanguageandmind,inprocessingandproducingutterancesandinlanguageacquisitionforexampleSociolinguisticsSociolinguisticsisatermwhichcoversavarietyofdifferentinterestsinlanguageandsociety,includingthelanguageandthesocialcharacteristicsofitsusersAnthropologicallinguisticsAnthropologicallinguisticsstudiestherelationshipbetweenlanguageandcultureinacommunityComputationallinguisticsComputationallinguisticsisaninterdisciplinaryfieldwhichcentersaroundtheuseofcomputerstoprocessorproducehumanlanguageImportantdistinctionsinlinguisticsDescriptivevsprescriptiveTosaythatlinguisticsisadescriptivescienceistosaythatthelinguisttriestodiscoverandrecordtherulestowhichthemembersofalanguagecommunityactuallyconformanddoesnotseektoimposeuponthemotherrules,ornorms,ofcorrectnessPrescriptivelinguisticsaimstolaydownrulesforthecorrectuseoflanguageandsettlethedisputesoverusageonceandforallForexample,“Don’tsayX”isaprescriptivecommand“Peopledon’tsayX”isadescriptivestatementThedistinctionliesinprescribinghowthingsoughttobeanddescribinghowthingsareInthethcentury,allthemainEuropeanlanguageswerestudiedprescriptivelyHowever,modernlinguisticsismostlydescriptivebecausethenatureoflinguisticsasasciencedeterminesitspreoccupationwithdescriptioninsteadofprescriptionSynchronicvsdiachronicAsynchronicstudytakesafixedinstant(usuallyatpresent)asitspointofobservationSaussure’sdiachronicdescriptionisthestudyofalanguagethroughthecourseofitshistoryEgastudyofthefeaturesoftheEnglishusedinShakespeare’stimewouldbesynchronic,andastudyofthechangesEnglishhasundergonesincethenwouldbeadiachronicstudyInmodernlinguistics,synchronicstudyseemstoenjoypriorityoverdiachronicstudyThereasonisthatunlessthevariousstateofalanguagearesuccessfullystudieditwouldbedifficulttodescribethechangesthathavetakenplaceinitshistoricaldevelopmentLangueparoleSaussuredistinguishedthelinguisticcompetenceofthespeakerandtheactualphenomenaordataoflinguisticsaslangueandparoleLangueisrelativestableandsystematic,paroleissubjecttopersonalandsituationalconstraintslangueisnotspokenbyanindividual,paroleisalwaysanaturallyoccurringeventWhatalinguistshoulddo,accordingtoSaussure,istodrawrulesfromamassofconfusedfacts,ietodiscovertheregularitiesgoverningallinstancesofparoleandmakethemthesubjectoflinguisticsCompetenceandperformanceAccordingtoChomsky,alanguageuser’sunderlyingknowledgeaboutthesystemofrulesiscalledthelinguisticcompetence,andtheactualuseoflanguageinconcretesituationsiscalledperformanceCompetenceenablesaspeakertoproduceandunderstandandindefinitenumberofsentencesandtorecognizegrammaticalmistakesandambiguitiesAspeaker’scompetenceisstablewhilehisperformanceisofteninfluencedbypsychologicalandsocialfactorsSoaspeaker’sperformancedoesnotalwaysmatchhissupposedcompetenceChomskybelievesthatlinguistsoughttostudycompetence,ratherthanperformanceChomsky’scompetenceperformancedistinctionisnotexactlythesameas,thoughsimilarto,Saussure’slangueparoledistinctionLangueisasocialproductandasetofconventionsofacommunity,whilecompetenceisdeemedasapropertyofmindofeachindividualSaussurelooksatlanguagemorefromasociologicalorsociolinguisticpointofviewthanChomskysincethelatterdealswithhisissuespsychologicallyorpsycholinguisticallyEticvsemicThesetwotermsarestillveryvaguetomeAfterIreadJiDaohong’sbook,Icanunderstandthembetter,butbecausetheyarevaguelymentionedinHu’sbook,itseemsverydifficultformetounderstandthemfully–icywarmteaBeingeticmeansresearchers’makingfartoomany,aswellasbehaviorallyandinconsequential,differentiations,justasoftenthecasewithphoneticsvsphonemicsanalysisinlinguisticsproperAnemicsetofspeechactsandeventsmustbeonethatisvalidatedasmeaningfulviafinalresourcetothenativemembersofaspeechcommunityratherthanviaappealtotheinvestigator’singenuityorintuitionaloneFollowingthesuffixformationsof(phon)eticsvs(phon)emics,thesetermswereintroducedintothesocialsciencesbyKennethPike()todenotethedistinctionbetweenthematerialandfunctionalstudyoflanguage:phoneticsstudiestheacousticallymeasurableandarticulatorilydefinableimmediatesoundutterances,whereasphonemicsanalyzesthespecificselectioneachlanguagemakesfromthatuniversalcataloguefromafunctionalaspectEndofChapterChapterSpeechSoundsSpeechproductionandperceptionPhoneticsisthestudyofspeechsoundsItincludesthreemainareas:Articulatoryphonetics–thestudyoftheproductionofspeechsoundsAcousticphonetics–thestudyofthephysicalpropertiesofthesoundsproducedinspeechAuditoryphonetics–thestudyofperceptionofspeechsoundsMostphoneticiansareinterestedinarticulatoryphoneticsSpeechorgansSpeechorgansarethosepartsofthehumanbodyinvolvedintheproductionofspeechThespeechorganscanbeconsideredasconsistingofthreeparts:theinitiatoroftheairstream,theproducerofvoiceandtheresonatingcavitiesSegments,divergences,andphonetictranscriptionSegmentsanddivergencesAstherearemoresoundsinEnglishthanitsletters,eachlettermustrepresentmorethanonesoundPhonetictranscriptionInternationalPhoneticAlphabet(IPA):thesystemofsymbolsforrepresentingthepronunciationofwordsinanylanguageaccordingtotheprinciplesoftheInternationalPhoneticAssociationThesymbolsconsistsoflettersanddiacriticsSomelettersaretakenfromtheRomanalphabet,somearespecialsymbolsConsonantsConsonantsandvowelsAconsonantisproducedbyconstrictingorobstructingthevocaltractatsomeplacestodivert,impede,orcompletelyshutofftheflowofairintheoralcavityAvowelisproducedwithoutobstructionsonoturbulenceoratotalstoppingoftheaircanbeperceivedConsonantsThecategoriesofconsonantareestablishedonthebasisofseveralfactorsThemostimportantofthesefactorsare:theactualrelationshipbetweenthearticulatorsandthusthewayinwhichtheairpassesthroughcertainpartsofthevocaltract(mannerofarticulation)whereinthevocaltractthereisapproximation,narrowing,ortheobstructionoftheair(placeofarticulation)MannersofarticulationStopplosive:AspeechsoundwhichisproducedbystoppingtheairstreamfromthelungsandthensuddenlyreleasingitInEnglish,arestopsandarenasalstopsFricative:AspeechsoundwhichisproducedbyallowingtheairstreamfromthelungstoescapewithfrictionThisiscausedbybringingthetwoarticulators,egtheupperteethandthelowerlip,closetogetherbutnotclosesenoughtostoptheairstreamscompletelyInEnglish,arefricatives(Median)approximant:Anarticulationinwhichonearticulatorisclosetoanother,butwithoutthevocaltractbeingnarrowedtosuchanextentthataturbulentairstreamisproducedInEnglishthisclassofsoundsincludesLateral(approximant):Aspeechsoundwhichisproducedbypartiallyblockingtheairstreamfromthelungs,usuallybythetongue,butlettingitescapeatoneorbothsidesoftheblockageistheonlylateralinEnglishOtherconsonantalarticulationsincludetrill,taporflap,andaffricatePlacesofarticulationBilabial:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetwolipsLabiodental:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththelowerlipandtheupperfrontteethDental:AspeechsoundwhichismadebythetonguetiporbladeandtheupperfrontteethAlveolar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetiporbladeandthealveolarridgePostalveolar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetipandthebackofthealveolarridgeRetroflex:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetonguetiporbladecurledbacksothattheundersideofthetonguetiporbladeformsastricturewiththebackofthealveolarridgeorthehardpalatePalatal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththefrontofthetongueandthehardpalateVelar:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththebackofthetongueandthesoftpalateUvular:Aspeechsoundwhichismadewiththebackofthetongueandtheuvula,theshortprojectionofthesofttissueandmuscleattheposteriorendofthevelumPharyngeal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththerootofthetongueandthewallsofthepharynxGlottal:AspeechsoundwhichismadewiththetwopiecesofvocalfoldspushedtowardseachotherTheconsonantsofEnglishReceivedPronunciation(RP):ThetypeofBritishStandardEnglishpronunciationwhichhasbeenregardedastheprestigevarietyandwhichshowsnoregionalvariationIthasoftenbeenpopularlyreferredtoas“BBCEnglish”or“OxfordEnglish”becauseitiswidelyusedintheprivatesectoroftheeducationsystemandspokenbymostnewsreadersoftheBBCnetworkAchartofEnglishconsonantsMannerofarticulationPlaceofarticulationBilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPostalveolarPalatalVelarGlottalStopNasalFricativeApproximantLateralAffricateInmanycasestherearetwosoundsthatsharethesameplaceandmannerofarticulationThesepairsofconsonantsaredistinguishedbyvoicing,theoneappearingontheleftisvoicelessandtheoneontherightisvoicedTherefore,theconsonantsofEnglishcanbedescribedinthefollowingway:pvoicelessbilabialstopbvoicedbilabialstopsvoicelessalveolarfricativezvoicedalveolarfricativembilabialnasalnalveolarnasallalveolarlateraljpalatalapproximanthglottalfricativeralveolarapproximantVowelsThecriteriaofvoweldescriptionThepartofthetonguethatisraised–front,center,orbackTheextenttowhichthetonguerisesinthedirectionofthepalateNormally,threeorfourdegreesarerecognized:high,mid(oftendividedintomidhighandmidlow)andlowThekindofopeningmadeatthelips–variousdegreesofliproundingorspreadingThepositionofthesoftpalate–raisedfororalvowels,andloweredforvowelswhichhavebeennasalizedThetheoryofcardinalvowelsIcywarmteadoesn’tquiteunderstandthistheoryCardinalvowelsareasetofvowelqualitiesarbitrarilydefined,fixedandunchanging,intendingtoprovideaframeofreferenceforthedescriptionoftheactualvowelsofexistinglanguagesByconvention,theeightprimarycardinalvowelsarenumberedfromonetoeightasfollows:CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CV,CVAsetofsecondarycardinalvowelsisobtainedbyreversingtheliproundingforagiveposition:CV–CVIamsorryIcannottypeoutmanyoftheseIfyouwanttoknow,youmayconsultthetextbookp–icywarmteaVowelglidesPure(monophthong)vowels:vowelswhichareproducedwithoutanynoticeablechangeinvowelqualityVowelglides:VowelswherethereisanaudiblechangeofqualityDiphthong:Avowelwhichisusuallyconsideredasonedistinctivevowelofaparticularlanguagebutreallyinvolvestwovowels,withonevowelglidingtotheotherThevowelsofRPhighfronttenseunroundedvowelhighbacklaxroundedvowelcentrallaxunroundedvowellowbacklaxroundedvowelCoarticulationandphonetictranscriptionCoarticulationCoarticulation:ThesimultaneousoroverlappingarticulationoftwosuccessivephonologicalunitsAnticipatorycoarticulation:Ifthesoundbecomesmorelikethefollowingsound,asinthecaseoflamp,itisknowna

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胡壮麟《语言学教程》(修订版)教案

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