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首页 AP Statistics 2008-2009

AP Statistics 2008-2009.pdf

AP Statistics 2008-2009

laohu
2011-03-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《AP Statistics 2008-2009pdf》,可适用于其他资料领域

FIVESTEPSTOAAPStatisticsOtherbooksinMcGrawHill’sStepstoaseriesinclude:APBiologyAPCalculusABBCAPChemistryAPComputerScienceAPEnglishLanguageAPEnglishLiteratureAPEuropeanHistoryAPMicroeconomicsMacroeconomicsAPPhysicsBandCAPPsychologyAPSpanishLanguageAPUSGovernmentandPoliticsAPUSHistoryAPWorldHistoryPracticeTestsfortheAPExamsWritingtheAPEnglishEssayFIVESTEPSTOAAPStatisticsDuaneCHinders–MCGRAWHILLNewYorkChicagoSanFranciscoLisbonLondonMadridMexicoCityMilanNewDelhiSanJuanSeoulSingaporeSydneyTorontoCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncAllrightsreservedManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaExceptaspermittedundertheUnitedStatesCopyrightActof,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformorbyanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherThematerialinthiseBookalsoappearsintheprintversionofthistitle:AlltrademarksaretrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersRatherthanputatrademarksymbolaftereveryoccurrenceofatrademarkedname,weusenamesinaneditorialfashiononly,andtothebenefitofthetrademarkowner,withnointentionofinfringementofthetrademarkWheresuchdesignationsappearinthisbook,theyhavebeenprintedwithinitialcapsMcGrawHilleBooksareavailableatspecialquantitydiscountstouseaspremiumsandsalespromotions,orforuseincorporatetrainingprogramsFormoreinformation,pleasecontactGeorgeHoare,SpecialSales,atgeorgehoaremcgrawhillcomor()TERMSOFUSEThisisacopyrightedworkandTheMcGrawHillCompanies,Inc(“McGrawHill”)anditslicensorsreserveallrightsinandtotheworkUseofthisworkissubjecttothesetermsExceptaspermittedundertheCopyrightActofandtherighttostoreandretrieveonecopyofthework,youmaynotdecompile,disassemble,reverseengineer,reproduce,modify,createderivativeworksbasedupon,transmit,distribute,disseminate,sell,publishorsublicensetheworkoranypartofitwithoutMcGrawHill’spriorconsentYoumayusetheworkforyourownnoncommercialandpersonaluseanyotheruseoftheworkisstrictlyprohibitedYourrighttousetheworkmaybeterminatedifyoufailtocomplywiththesetermsTHEWORKISPROVIDED“ASIS”McGRAWHILLANDITSLICENSORSMAKENOGUARANTEESORWARRANTIESASTOTHEACCURACY,ADEQUACYORCOMPLETENESSOFORRESULTSTOBEOBTAINEDFROMUSINGTHEWORK,INCLUDINGANYINFORMATIONTHATCANBEACCESSEDTHROUGHTHEWORKVIAHYPERLINKOROTHERWISE,ANDEXPRESSLYDISCLAIMANYWARRANTY,EXPRESSORIMPLIED,INCLUDINGBUTNOTLIMITEDTOIMPLIEDWARRANTIESOFMERCHANTABILITYORFITNESSFORAPARTICULARPURPOSEMcGrawHillanditslicensorsdonotwarrantorguaranteethatthefunctionscontainedintheworkwillmeetyourrequirementsorthatitsoperationwillbeuninterruptedorerrorfreeNeitherMcGrawHillnoritslicensorsshallbeliabletoyouoranyoneelseforanyinaccuracy,errororomission,regardlessofcause,intheworkorforanydamagesresultingtherefromMcGrawHillhasnoresponsibilityforthecontentofanyinformationaccessedthroughtheworkUndernocircumstancesshallMcGrawHillandoritslicensorsbeliableforanyindirect,incidental,special,punitive,consequentialorsimilardamagesthatresultfromtheuseoforinabilitytousethework,evenifanyofthemhasbeenadvisedofthepossibilityofsuchdamagesThislimitationofliabilityshallapplytoanyclaimorcausewhatsoeverwhethersuchclaimorcausearisesincontract,tortorotherwiseDOI:WehopeyouenjoythisMcGrawHilleBook!Ifyou’dlikemoreinformationaboutthisbook,itsauthor,orrelatedbooksandwebsites,pleaseclickhereProfessionalWanttolearnmoreCONTENTSPreface,ixAcknowledgments,xiAbouttheAuthor,xiiIntroduction:TheFiveStepProgram,xiiiTheBasics,xiiiSTEPSetUpYourStudyProgram,WhatYouNeedtoKnowAbouttheAPStatisticsExam,BackgroundInformation,SomeFrequentlyAskedQuestionsAbouttheAPStatisticsExam,HowtoPlanYourTime,ThreeApproachestoPreparingfortheAPStatisticsExam,CalendarforEachPlan,STEPDetermineYourTestReadiness,TakeaDiagnosticExam,APStatisticsDiagnosticTest,AnswersandExplanations,Interpretation:HowReadyAreYouSTEPDevelopStrategiesforSuccess,TipsforTakingtheExam,GeneralTestTakingTips,TipsforMultipleChoiceQuestions,TipsforFreeResponseQuestions,SpecificStatisticsContentTips,STEPReviewtheKnowledgeYouNeedtoScoreHigh,OverviewofStatisticsBasicVocabulary,QuantitativeversusQualitativeData,DescriptiveversusInferentialStatistics,CollectingData:Surveys,Experiments,ObservationalStudies,RandomVariables,OneVariableDataAnalysis,GraphicalAnalysis,MeasuresofCenter,MeasuresofSpread,PositionofaTerminaDistribution,NormalDistribution,Formoreinformationaboutthistitle,clickhereTwoVariableDataAnalysis,Scatterplots,Correlation,LinesofBestFit,Residuals,CoefficientofDetermination,OutliersandInfluentialObservations,TransformationstoAchieveLinearity,DesignofaStudy:Sampling,Surveys,andExperiments,Samples,SamplingBias,ExperimentsandObservationalStudies,RandomVariablesandProbability,Probability,RandomVariables,NormalProbabilities,SimulationandRandomNumberGeneration,TransformingandCombiningRandomVariables,RulesfortheMeanandStandardDeviationofCombinedRandomVariables,BinomialDistributions,GeometricDistributions,andSamplingDistributions,BinomialDistributions,NormalApproximationtotheBinomial,GeometricDistributions,SamplingDistributions,SamplingDistributionsofaSampleProportion,ConfidenceIntervalsandIntroductiontoInference,EstimationandConfidenceIntervals,ConfidenceIntervalsforMeansandProportions,SampleSize,StatisticalSignificanceandPvalue,TheHypothesisTestingProcedure,TypeIandTypeIIErrorsandthePowerofaTest,InferenceforMeansandProportions,SignificanceTesting,InferenceforaSinglePopulationMean,InferencefortheDifferenceBetweenTwoPopulationMeans,InferenceforaSinglePopulationProportion,InferencefortheDifferenceBetweenTwoPopulationProportions,InferenceforRegression,SimpleLinearRegression,InferencefortheSlopeofaRegressionLine,ConfidenceIntervalfortheSlopeofaRegressionLine,InferenceforRegressionUsingTechnology,vi❯ContentsInferenceforCategoricalData:Chisquare,ChisquareGoodnessofFitTest,InferenceforTwoWayTables,STEPBuildYourTestTakingConfidence,APStatisticsPracticeExam,APStatisticsPracticeExam,Appendices,Formulas,Tables,Bibliography,Websites,Glossary,Contents❮viiThispageintentionallyleftblankPREFACECongratulations,youarenowanAPStatisticsstudentAPStatisticsisoneofthemostinterestingandusefulsubjectsyouwillstudyinschoolSometimesithasthereputationofbeingeasycomparedtocalculusHowever,itcanbedeceptivelydifficult,especiallyinthesecondhalfItisdifferentandchallenginginitsownwayUnlikecalculus,whereyouareexpectedtogetpreciseanswers,instatisticsyouareexpectedtolearntobecomecomfortablewithuncertainlyInsteadofsayingthingslike,“Theansweris”youwillmoreoftenfindyourselfsayingthingslike,“Weareconfidentthat”or“Wehaveevidencethat”It’sanewandexcitingwayofthinkingHowdoyoudowellontheAPExam(bywell,Imeanaoraalthoughmoststudentsconsiderorbettertobepassing)ByreadingthisbookbystayingontopofthematerialduringyourAPStatisticsclassbystudyingwhenitistimetostudyNotethatthequestionsontheAPExamareonlypartiallycomputationaltheyalsoinvolvethinkingabouttheprocessyouareinvolvedinandcommunicatingyourthoughtsclearlytothepersonreadingyourexamYoucanalwaysuseacalculatorsothetestdesignersmakesurethequestionsinvolvemorethanjustbuttonpushingThisbookisselfcontainedinthatitcoversallofthematerialrequiredbythecoursecontentdescriptionpublishedbytheCollegeBoardHowever,itisnotdesignedtosubstituteforaninclassexperience,orforyourtextbookUsethisbookasasupplementtoyourinclassstudies,asareferenceforaquickrefresheronatopic,andasoneofyourmajoraidesasyoupreparefortheAPExamThissecondeditionextendsandupdatesthefirsteditioninthefollowingways:ittakesintoaccountchangesinthinkingaboutAPStatisticssincethepublicationofthefirsteditioninitincludesseveraltopicsthatwerenotincludedinthefirsteditionandwhichcannowbeusedontheexamitupdatescalculatorusagetoincludetheTI,whichdidnotexistwhenthefirsteditionwaswrittenandsolutionsandexplanationshavebeenupdatedandexpanded,whereappropriate,tohelpmakeconceptsclearerandeasiertounderstandYoushouldbeginyourpreparationsbyreadingthroughtheIntroductionandSTEPIHowever,youshouldn’tattempttheDiagnosticExaminChapteruntilyouhavebeenthroughallofthematerialinthecourseThenyoucantaketheexamtohelpyoudeterminewhichtopicsneedmoreofyourattentionduringthecourseofyourreviewNotethattheDiagnosticTestsimulatestheAPExamtoareasonableextent(althoughthequestionsaremorebasic)andthePracticeTestsaresimilarinstyleandlengthtotheAPExamSo,howdoyougetthebestpossiblescoreontheAPStatisticsexam•Pickoneofthestudyplansfromthisbook•Studythechaptersanddothepracticeproblems•TaketheDiagnosticTestandthePracticeTests•ReviewasnecessarybasedonyourperformanceontheDiagnosticTestandthePracticeTests•Getagoodnight’ssleepbeforetheexamCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefortermsofuseSelectedEpigramsaboutStatisticsStatisticsarelikeabikiniWhattheyrevealissuggestive,butwhattheyconcealisvitalAaronLevensteinTorturenumbers,andthey’llconfesstoanythingGreggEasterbrookSatandelightsequallyinstatisticsandinquotingscriptureHGWells,TheUndyingFireOnesurveyfoundthattenpercentofAmericansthoughtJoanofArcwasNoah’swifeRitaMayBrownInGodwetrustAllothersmustbringdataRobertWHaydenThelotteryisataxonpeoplewhoflunkedmathMoniqueLloydx❯PrefaceACKNOWLEDGMENTSWithgratitude,Iacknowledgethefollowingfortheirassistanceandsupport:TheWoodrowWilsonNationalFellowshipFoundation,forgettingmestartedthinkingseriouslyaboutstatisticsTheCollegeBoard,forgivingmeopportunitytobeareaderfortheAPStatisticsExamandtopresentworkshopsforteachersinAdvancedPlacementStatisticsTheparticipantswhoattendedtheCollegeBoardworkshopsIlearnedasmuchfromthemastheydidfrommeMyAPStatisticsclassesatGunnHighSchoolinPaloAlto,CA,forbeingwillingsubjectsasIlearnedtoteachAPStatisticsGraceFeedson,forgivingmetheopportunitytowritethisbookDonReis,forthehelpandcommunicationneededtokeeptheprojectgoingand,moreorless,onscheduleLeeKuceraandNancyWells,whopointedouttomemanyoftheerrorsinthefirsteditionofthisbookMyfamily,fortheirencouragementandpatienceatmyunavailabilityasIworkedthroughthewritingprocess(especiallyPetra,Sophia,andSammy–theworld’sthreecutestgrandchildren)Copyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefortermsofuseDUANEHINDERStaughtmathematicsatthehighschoollevelforyears,includingyearsaschairoftheMathematicsDepartmentatGunnHighSchoolinPaloAltoHetaughtAPCalculusformorethanyearsandAPStatisticsforyearsbeforeretiringfromthepublicschoolsystemHeholdsaBAdegree(mathematics)fromPomonaCollege,anMAandanEdD(mathematicseducation)fromStanfordUniversityHewasareaderfortheAPCalculusexamforsixyearsandwasatableleaderfortheAPStatisticsreadingforthefirstsevenyearsoftheexamHehasconductedoveronedayworkshops,andoveroneweekworkshops,forteachersofAPStatisticsHewasacoauthorofanonlineAPStatisticscourseandisalsotheauthoroftheAnnotatedTeacher’sEditionfortherdeditionofThePracticeofStatisticsbyYates,Moore,andStarnes(WHFreemanCo,NewYork,)HewasaWoodrowWilsonFellowin,aTandyTechnologyScholarin,andservedontheEditorialPaneloftheMathematicsTeacherforthreeyearsHecurrentlylivesinMountainView,CaliforniaandteachesStatisticsatFoothillCollegeinLosAltosHills,CAABOUTTHEAUTHORCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefortermsofuseTheBasicsSometime,probablylastSpring,yousignedupforAPStatisticsNowyouarelookingthroughabookthatpromisestohelpyouachievethehighestgradeinAPStatistics:aYourinclassexperiencesareallimportantinhelpingyoutowardthisgoal,butareoftennotsufficientbythemselvesInstatisticalterms,wewouldsaythatthereisstrongevidencethatspecificpreparationfortheAPExambeyondtheclassroomresultsinsignificantlyimprovedperformanceontheexamIfthatlastsentencemakessensetoyou,youshouldprobablybuythisbookIfitdidn’tmakesense,youshoulddefinitelybuythisbookIntroducingtheFiveStepPreparationProgramThisbookisorganizedasafivestepprogramtoprepareyouforsuccessontheexamsThesestepsaredesignedtoprovideyouwiththeskillsandstrategiesvitaltotheexamandthepracticethatcanleadyoutothatperfectEachofthefivestepswillprovideyouwiththeopportunitytogetcloserandclosertothatlevelofsuccessHerearethefivestepsStep:SetUpYourStudyProgramInthisstepyouwillreadanoverviewoftheAPStatisticsExam(Chapter)Includedinthisovervieware:anoutlineofthetopicsincludedinthecoursethepercentageoftheexamthatyoucanexpecttocovereachtopictheformatoftheexamhowgradesontheexamaredeterminedthecalculatorpolicyforStatisticsandwhatyouneedtobringtotheexamYouwillalsolearnaboutaprocesstohelpdeterminewhichtypeofexampreparationyouwanttocommityourselfto(Chapter):Monthbymonth:SeptemberthroughmidMayThecalendaryear:JanuarythroughmidMayBasictraining:SixweekspriortotheexamStep:DetermineYourTestReadinessInthisstepyouwilltakeadiagnosticexaminstatistics(Chapter)ThesepretestsshouldgiveyouanideaofhowpreparedyouaretotakebothofthepracticetestsinStepasyoupreparefortherealexamThediagnosticexamcoversthematerialontheAPExam,butthequestionsaremorebasicSolutionstotheexamsaregivenaswellassuggestionsforhowtouseyourresultstodetermineyourlevelofreadinessYoushouldgothroughthediagnosticexamandthegivensolutionsstepbystepandquestionbyquestiontobuildyourconfidencelevelStep:DevelopStrategiesforSuccessInthisstep,you’lllearnstrategiesthatwillhelpyoudoyourbestontheexam(Chapter)ThesecovergeneralstrategiesforsuccessaswellasmorespecifictipsandstrategiesforboththemultiplechoiceandfreeresponsesectionsoftheexamManyofthesearedrawnfromINTRODUCTION:THEFIVESTEPPROGRAMCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefortermsofusemysevenyearsofexperienceasagraderfortheAPexamothersarethecollectedwisdomofpeopleinvolvedinthedevelopmentandgradingoftheexamStep:ReviewtheKnowledgeYouNeedtoScoreHighThissteprepresentsthemajorpart,atleastinlength,ofthisbookYouwillreviewthestatisticalcontentyouneedtoknowfortheexamStepincludesChaptersandprovidesacomprehensivereviewofstatisticsaswellassamplequestionsrelativetothetopicscoveredineachchapterIfyouthoroughlyreviewthismaterial,youwillhavestudiedallthatistestedontheexamandhencehaveincreasedyourchancesofearningaAcombinationofgoodeffortallyearlonginyourclassandthereviewprovidedinthesechaptersshouldprepareyoutodowellStep:BuildYourTestTakingConfidenceInthisstepyou’llcompleteyourpreparationbytestingyourselfonpracticeexamsTherearetwocompletesampleexamsinStepaswellascompletesolutionstoeachexamTheseexamsmirrortheAPExam(althoughtheyarenotreproducedquestionsfromtheactualexam)incontentanddifficultyFinally,atthebackofthisbookyou’llfindadditionalresourcestoaidyourpreparation:•AsummaryofformulasrelatedtotheAPStatisticsexam•Asetoftablesneededontheexam•Abriefbibliography•AshortlistofWebsitesthatmightbehelpful•AglossaryoftermsrelatedtotheAPStatisticsexamTheGraphicsUsedinthisBookToemphasizeparticularskillsandstrategies,weuseseveraliconsthroughoutthisbookAniconinthemarginwillalertyoutopayparticularattentiontotheaccompanyingtextWeusefouricons:ThisiconindicatesaveryimportantconceptthatyoushouldnotpassoverThisiconhighlightsastrategythatyoumightwanttotryThisiconalertsyoutoatipthatyoumightfindusefulThisiconindicatesatipthatwillhelpyouwithyourcalculatorBoldfacedwordsindicatetermsincludedintheglossaryattheendofthisbookxiv❯IntroductionKEYIDEASTRATEGYTIPFIVESTEPSTOAAPStatisticsThispageintentionallyleftblankSetUpYourStudyProgramCHAPTERWhatYouNeedtoKnowAbouttheAPStatisticsExamCHAPTERHowtoPlanYourTimeSTEPCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefortermsofuseThispageintentionallyleftblank❮WhatYouNeedtoKnowAbouttheAPStatisticsExamINTHISCHAPTERSummary:Learnwhattopicsaretested,howthetestisscored,andbasictesttakinginformationKeyIdeas✪MostcollegeswillawardcreditforascoreoforSomewillawardcreditfora✪Multiplechoicequestionsaccountforonehalfofyourfinalscore✪Onequarterofapointisdeductedforeachwrongansweronmultiplechoicequestions✪Freeresponsequestionsaccountforonehalfofyourfinalscore✪YourcompositescoreonthetwotestsectionsisconvertedtoascoreonthetoscaleBackgroundInformationTheAPStatisticsexamthatyouaretakingwasfirstofferedbytheCollegeBoardinInthatyear,,studentstooktheStatexam(thelargestfirstyearexamever)Sincethen,thenumberofstudentstakingthetesthasgrownrapidlyBy,thenumberofstudentstakingtheStatisticsexamhadincreasedto,StatisticsisnowoneofthelargestAPexamsKEYIDEACHAPTERCopyright©,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncClickherefort

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