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首页 How to Build the Leadership Powered Company

How to Build the Leadership Powered Company.pdf

How to Build the Leadership Pow…

王小爸爸
2011-03-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《How to Build the Leadership Powered Companypdf》,可适用于战略管理领域

TheLeadershipPipelineHowtoBuildtheLeadershipPoweredCompanyRamCharan,SteveDrodder,JimLNoelChapter:SixLeadershipPassagesAnOverviewThesixturnsinthepipelinethatwe'lldiscussherearemajoreventsinthelifeofaleaderTheyrepresentsignificantpassagesthatcan'tbemasteredinadayorbytakingacourseOurgoalhereistohelpyoubecomefamiliarwiththeskills,timeapplications,andworkvaluesdemandedbyeachpassage,aswellasthisparticularleadershipgestaltOnceyougraspwhatthesepassagesentailandthechallengesinvolvedinmakingeachleadershiptransition,you'llbeinabetterpositiontousethisinformationtounclogyourorganization'sleadershippipelineandfacilitateyourowngrowthasaleaderGoingthroughthesepassageshelpsleadersbuildemotionalstrengthastheytakeontasksofincreasingcomplexityandscopeThefollowingsixchapterswillprovideyouwithideasandtoolstoachievefullperformanceatallleadershiplevelsinyourorganizationAsyoureadabouteachpassage,you'llnaturallyapplyittoyourownorganizationandmayquestionhowwe'vedefinedanddividedeachturninthepipelineTheoddsarethatyou'llimmediatelythinkofatleastone(andprobablymore)leadershiptransitionsthatapplytoyourowncompanythatwehavenotaddressedintheLeadershipPipelinemodelWhiletherecertainlyareothertransitions,theyaretoosmallorincompletetoqualifyasamajorpassageForinstance,manyglobalcompanieshavebusinessgeneralmanagersatthecountrylevelandregionalexecutiveswithresponsibilityforseveralcountriesTheseregionalexecutivesreporttoapersonwithatitlesuchasglobalconsumerproductsheadAlthoughthisglobalconsumerproductsheadmanagesgroupmanagers(theregionalexecutivesinthiscase),sheisn'tanenterprisemanagerbecauseshereportstoaCEOorpresidentandhaslittleaccountabilityforcorporateprofitandlossmattersForourpurposeshere,wewouldcategorizeherasagroupmanager,eventhoughshemayhaveresponsibilityforothergroupmanagersSimilarly,youmaywonderwhythetransitionfromteammembertoteamleaderisn'tworthyofitsownpassageFirst,thisisusuallyasubsetofPassageOne(managingselftomanagingothers)Second,teamleadersfrequentlylackthedecisionmakingauthorityonselectionandrewardsthatfirstlinemanagersreceiveThird,teamleadersusuallyfocusontechnicalorprofessionalmatters(gettingaprojectorprogramcompleted)andaren'ttestedinmoregeneralmanagementareasEachorganizationisunique,andeachprobablyhasatleastoneleadershippassagewithdistinctiveaspectsIt'slikely,however,thatyoucanfitthatdistinctivepassageintooneofoursixpassagesAsyoubecomemoreattunedtoeachofthem,webelieveyou'llseehowtheyapplytoyourownsituationandorganizationIfthereisapassageinyourbusinessthatdoesn'tfitourmodel,createyourowndefinitionofthetransitionandtellusaboutitPassageOne:FromManagingSelftoManagingOthersNew,youngemployeesusuallyspendtheirfirstfewyearswithanorganizationasindividualcontributorsWhetherthey'reinsales,accounting,engineering,ormarketing,theirskillrequirementsareprimarilytechnicalorprofessionalTheycontributebydoingtheassignedworkwithingiventimeframesandinwaysthatmeetobjectivesBysharpeningandbroadeningtheirindividualskills,theymakeincreasedcontributionsandarethenconsidered"promotable"byorganizationsFromatimeapplicationstandpoint,thelearninginvolvesplanning(sothatworkiscompletedontime),punctuality,content,quality,andreliabilityTheworkvaluestobedevelopedincludeacceptanceofthecompanycultureandadoptingprofessionalstandardsWhenpeoplebecomeskilledindividualcontributorswhoproducegoodresultsespeciallywhentheydemonstrateanabilitytocollaboratewithotherstheyusuallyreceiveadditionalresponsibilitiesWhentheydemonstrateanabilitytohandletheseresponsibilitiesandadheretothecompany'svalues,theyareoftenpromotedtofirstlinemanagerWhenthishappens,theyareatPassageOneThoughthismightseemlikeaneasy,naturalleadershippassage,it'softenonewherepeopletripThehighestperformingpeople,especially,arereluctanttochangetheywanttokeepdoingtheactivitiesthatmadethemsuccessfulAsaresult,peoplemakethejobtransitionfromindividualcontributortomanagerwithoutmakingabehavioralorvaluebasedtransitionIneffect,theybecomemanagerswithoutacceptingtherequirementsManyconsultants,forinstance,haveskippedthisturn,movingfromtransitoryteamleadershiptobusinessleaderwithoutabsorbingmuchofthelearninginbetweenTheresult,whenbusinessleadersmissthispassage,isfrequentlydisasterTheskillspeopleshouldlearnatthisfirstleadershippassageincludeplanningwork,fillingjobs,assigningwork,motivating,coaching,andmeasuringtheworkofothersFirsttimemanagersneedtolearnhowtoreallocatetheirtimesothattheynotonlycompletetheirassignedworkbutalsohelpothersperformeffectivelyTheycannotallocatealloftheirtimetoputtingoutfires,seizingopportunities,andhandlingtasksthemselvesTheymustshiftfrom"doing"worktogettingworkdonethroughothersReallocatingtimeisanespeciallydifficulttransitionalrequirementforfirsttimemanagersPartoftheproblemisthatmanyneophytemanagersstillprefertospendtimeontheir"old"work,evenastheytakechargeofagroupYetthepressuretospendlesstimeonindividualworkandmoretimeonmanagingwillincreaseateachpassage,andifpeopledon'tstartmakingchangesinhowtheyallocatetheirtimefromthebeginning,they'reboundtobecomeliabilitiesastheymoveupIt'samajorreasonwhypipelinesclogandleadersfailThemostdifficultchangeformanagerstomakeatPassageOne,however,involvesvaluesSpecifically,theyneedtolearntovaluemanagerialworkratherthanjusttolerateitTheymustbelievethatmakingtimeforothers,planning,coaching,andthelikearenecessarytasksandaretheirresponsibilityMorethanthat,theymustviewthisotherdirectedworkasmissioncriticaltotheirsuccessForinstance,firstlineknowledgemanagersinthefinancialservicesindustryfindthistransitionextremelydifficultTheyvaluebeingproducers,andtheymustlearntovaluemakingothersproductiveGiventhatthesevalueshadnothingtodowiththeirsuccessasindividualcontributors,it'sdifficultforthemtomakethisdramaticshiftinwhattheyviewasmeaningfulWhilechangesinskillsandtimeapplicationscanbeseenandmeasured,changesinvaluesaremoredifficulttoassessSomeonemayappearasthoughhe'smakingthechangesdemandedbythisleadershipturnbutinfactbeadheringtoindividualcontributorvaluesValuechangeswillonlytakeplaceifuppermanagementreinforcestheneedtoshiftbeliefsandifpeoplefindthey'resuccessfulattheirnewjobsafteravalueshiftPassageTwo:FromManagingOtherstoManagingManagersThisleadershippassageisfrequentlyignored,especiallyrelativetothepreviouspassage(wherethetransitiontonewresponsibilitiesismoreobvious)Fewcompaniesaddressthispassagedirectlyintheirtraining,eventhoughthisisthelevelwhereacompany'smanagementfoundationisconstructedleveltwomanagersselectanddevelopthepeoplewhowilleventuallybecomethecompany'sleadersPerhapsthebiggestdifferencefromthepreviouspassageisthathere,managersmustbepuremanagementBefore,individualcontributionswerestillpartoftheirjobdescriptionNow,theyneedtodivestthemselvesofindividualtasksThekeyskillsthatmustbemasteredduringthistransitionincludeselectingpeopletoturnPassageOne,assigningmanagerialandleadershipworktothem,measuringtheirprogressasmanagers,andcoachingthemThisisalsothepointwheremanagersmustbegintothinkbeyondtheirfunctionandconcernthemselveswithstrategicissuesthatsupporttheoverallbusinessAllthisisdifficulttodoifagivenmanageratthispassagestillvaluesindividualcontributionsandfunctionalworktotheexclusionofeverythingelseToooftenpeoplewhohavebeenpromotedtomanagerofmanagerpositionshaveskippedPassageOnetheywerepromotedtofirstlinemanagersbutdidn'tchangeskills,timeapplicationsorworkvaluesAsaresult,theyclogtheleadershippipelinebecausetheyholdfirstlinemanagersaccountablefortechnicalworkratherthanmanagerialworkBecausetheythemselvesskippedthefirstpassageandstillvalueindividualcontributionsabovemanagerialones,theypoisonthemanagerialwellTheyhelpmaintainandeveninstillthewrongvaluesinthoseindividualswhoreporttothemTheychoosehightechnicalachieversforfirstlinemanagerialspotsratherthantruepotentialleaderstheyareunabletodifferentiatebetweenthosewhocandoandthosewhocanleadManagersatPassageneedtobeabletoidentifyvaluebasedresistancetomanagerialwork,acommonreactionamongfirstlinemanagersTheyneedtorecognizethatthesoftwaredesignerwhowouldratherdesignsoftwarethanmanageotherscannotbeallowedtomoveuptoleadershipworkNomatterhowbrillianthemightbeatsoftwaredesign,hewillbecomeanobstacleintheleadershippipelineifhederivesnojobsatisfactionfrommanagingandleadingpeopleInfact,oneofthetoughresponsibilitiesofmanagersofmanagersistoreturnpeopletoindividualcontributorrolesiffirstlinemanagersdon'tshifttheirbehaviorsandvaluesCoachingisalsoessentialatthislevelbecausefirstlinemanagersfrequentlydon'treceiveformaltraininginhowtobeamanagerthey'redependentontheirbossestoinstructthemonthejobCoachingrequirestimetheyneedtogothroughtheinstructionperformancefeedbackcyclewiththeirpeoplerepeatedlybeforelessonssinkinandsomemanagersaren'twillingtoreallocatetheirtimeinthiswayInmanyorganizations,coachingabilityisn'trewarded(andthelackofitisn'tpenalized)It'snowonderthatrelativelyfewmanagersviewcoachingasmissioncriticalPassageThree:FromManagingManagerstoFunctionalManagerThistransitionistougherthanitseemsWhileonthesurfacethedifferencebetweenmanagingmanagersandfunctionalmanagementmightappearnegligible,anumberofsignificantchallengeslurkbelowthesurfaceCommunicationwiththeindividualcontributorlevelnowrequirespenetratingatleasttwolayersofmanagement,thusmandatingdevelopmentofnewcommunicationskillsWhatisjustassignificant,functionalheadsmustmanagesomeareasthatareoutsidetheirownexperiencesThismeanstheymustnotonlyendeavortounderstandthis"foreign"workbutalsolearntovalueitAtthesametime,functionalmanagersreporttomultifunctionalgeneralmanagersandthereforehavetobecomeskilledattakingotherfunctionalconcernsandneedsintoconsiderationTeamplaywithotherfunctionalmanagersandcompetitionforresourcesbasedonbusinessneedsaretwomajortransitionalskillsAtthesametime,managersatthisturnshouldbecomeproficientstrategists,notonlyfortheirfunctionbutblendingtheirfunctionalstrategywiththeoverallbusinessstrategyFromatimeapplicationstandpoint,thismeansparticipatinginbusinessteammeetingsandworkingwithotherfunctionalmanagersAllthistakesawayfromtimespentonpurelyfunctionalresponsibilities,thusmakingitessentialthatfunctionalmanagersdelegateresponsibilityforoverseeingmanyfunctionaltaskstodirectreportsThisleadershippassagerequiresanincreaseinmanagerialmaturityInonesense,maturitymeansthinkingandactinglikeafunctionalleaderratherthanafunctionalmemberButitalsomeansthatmanagersneedtoadoptabroad,longtermperspectiveLongtermstrategy,suchasstateoftheart,futuristicthinkingfortheirfunction,isusuallywhatgivesmostmanagerstroublehereAtthislevel,theirleadershipentailscreatingfunctionalstrategythatenablesthemtodosomethingbetterthanthecompetitionWhetherit'scomingupwithamethodtodesignmoreinnovativeproductsorreachnewcustomergroups,thesemanagersmustpushthefunctionalenvelopeTheymustalsopushitintothefuture,lookingatsustainablecompetitiveadvantageratherthanjustanimmediatebuttemporaryedgeTom'sexperiencesillustratethechallengesnewfunctionalmanagersfaceSixmonthsago,TomwasnamedthedirectorofplantoperationsInthiscapacityhehasfivedirectreports:fourrunlargefactoriesandonewhorunspurchasingofrawmaterialsAlthoughTom'sexperienceshavemadehimappreciativeofsales,financial,andotherfunctionalareas,TomhastroubleplanningbeyondimmediatefunctionalrequirementsandkeepingintouchwithlineworkerswheretheactionisNotonlyisitdifficultforTomtodefinethestepsnecessaryfortheplantstobecomeamoreintegratedmanufacturingfacility,buthe'salsofindingthathe'slosttouchwithmanyoftheworkersheusedtocommunicatewithonaregularbasisAtmanyorganizations,aguylikeTomwouldjustmuddlethrough,andhisstrengthswouldcompensateforhisweaknesses,atleastonthesurfaceButuponcloserinspection,TomwouldnotbeafullperformerinhisleadershippositionForinstance,it'simportantthatTomdeveloptheskillofskiplevelcommunicationheneedstoknow,withoutdiminishingtheauthorityoftheplantmanagersandthefirstlinemanager,whatindividualcontributorsareworkingonandhowwellthey'rebeingmanagedIfTomdoesn'tdevelopthisskill,hemayalienatetheplantmanagerandthefirstlinemanagersbyusurpingtheirauthorityorhemaybeoutoftouchwithhowwellhisdirectreportsaresupervisingtheirpeopleLuckily,Tom'sorganizationhasanassessmentprograminplacethathasidentifiedhisstrugglewithPassageThreeandisprovidinghimwithcoachingandthechancetoattendafirstrateexecutivedevelopmentprogramthatwillhelphimbuildtheskillsrequiredatthisleadershiplevelPassageFour:FromFunctionalManagertoBusinessManagerThisleadershippassageisoftenthemostsatisfyingaswellasthemostchallengingofamanager'scareer,andit'smissioncriticalinorganizationsBusinessmangersusuallyreceivesignificantautonomy,whichpeoplewithleadershipinstinctsfindliberatingTheyalsoareabletoseeaclearlinkbetweentheireffortsandmarketplaceresultsAtthesametime,thisisasharpturnitrequiresamajorshiftinskills,timeapplications,andworkvaluesIt'snotsimplyamatterofpeoplebecomingmorestrategicandcrossfunctionalintheirthinking(thoughit'simportanttocontinuedevelopingtheabilitiesrootedinthepreviouslevel)NowtheyareinchargeofintegratingfunctionswhereasbeforetheysimplyhadtounderstandandworkwithotherfunctionsButthebiggestshiftisfromlookingatplansandproposalsfunctionally(Canwedoittechnically,professionally,orphysically)toaprofitperspective(Willwemakeanymoneyifwedothis)andtoalongtermview(Istheprofitabilityresultsustainable)NewbusinessmanagersmustchangethewaytheythinkinordertobesuccessfulThereareprobablymorenewandunfamiliarresponsibilitiesherethanatotherlevelsForpeoplewhohaveonlybeeninonefunctiontheirentirecareers,abusinessmanagerpositionrepresentsunexploredterritorytheymustsuddenlybecomeresponsibleformanyunfamiliarfunctionsandoutcomesNotonlydotheyhavetolearntomanagedifferentfunctions,buttheyalsoneedtobecomeskilledatworkingwithawidervarietyofpeoplethaneverbeforetheyneedtobecomemoresensitivetofunctionaldiversityissuesandcommunicatingclearlyandeffectivelyEvenmoredifficultisthebalancingactbetweenfuturegoalsandpresentneedsandmakingtradeoffsbetweenthetwoBusinessmanagersmustmeetquarterlyprofit,marketshare,product,andpeopletargets,andatthesametimeplanforgoalsthreetofiveyearsintothefutureTheparadoxofbalancingshorttermandlongtermthinkingisonethatbedevilsmanymanagersatthisturnandwhyoneoftherequirementshereisforthinkingtimeAtthislevel,managersneedtostopdoingeverysecondofthedayandreservetimeforreflectionandanalysisWhenbusinessmanagersdon'tmakethisturnfully,theleadershippipelinequicklybecomescloggedForexample,acommonfailureatthislevelisnotvaluing(oreffectivelyusing)stafffunctionsDirectingandenergizingfinance,humanresources,legal,andothersupportgroupsarecrucialbusinessmanagerresponsibilitiesWhenmanagersdon'tunderstandorappreciatethecontributionofsupportstaff,thesestaffpeopledon'tdeliverfullperformanceWhentheleaderofthebusinessdemeansordiminishestheirroles,staffpeopledeliverhalfheartedeffortstheycaneasilybecomeenergydrainersBusinessmanagersmustlearntotrust,acceptadvice,andreceivefeedbackfromallfunctionalmanagers,eventhoughtheymayneverhaveexperiencedthesefunctionspersonallyPassageFive:FromBusinessManagertoGroupManagerThisisanotherleadershippassagethatatfirstglancedoesn'tseemoverlyarduousTheassumptionisthatifyoucanrunonebusinesssuccessfully,youcandothesamewithtwoormorebusinessesTheflawinthisreasoningbeginswithwhatisvaluedateachleadershiplevelAbusinessmanagervaluesthesuccessofhisownbusinessAgroupmanagervaluesthesuccessofotherpeople'sbusinessesThisisacriticaldistinctionbecausesomepeopleonlyderivesatisfactionwhenthey'retheonesreceivingthelion'sshareofthecreditAsyoumightimagine,agroupmanagerwhodoesn'tvaluethesuccessofotherswillfailtoinspireandsupporttheperformanceofthebusinessmanagerswhoreporttohimOrhisactionsmightbedictatedbyhisfrustrationhe'sconvincedhecouldoperatethevariousbusinessesbetterthananyofhismanagersandwisheshecouldbedoingsoIneitherinstance,theleadershippipelinebecomescloggedwithbusinessmanagerswhoaren'toperatingatpeakcapacitybecausethey'renotbeingproperlysupportedortheirauthorityisbeingusurpedThislevelalsorequiresacriticalshiftinfourskillsetsFirst,groupmanagersmustbecomeproficientatevaluatingstrategyforcapitalallocationanddeploymentpurposesThisisasophisticatedbusinessskillthatinvolveslearningtoasktherightquestions,analyzetherightdata,andapplytherightcorporateperspectivetounderstandwhichstrategyhasthegreatestprobabilityofsuccessandthereforeshouldbefundedThesecondskillclusterinvolvesdevelopmentofbusinessmanagersAspartofthisdevelopment,groupmanagersneedtoknowwhoamongthefunctionmanagersisreadytobecomebusinessmanagersCoachingnewbusinessmanagersisalsoanimportantroleforthislevelThethirdskillsethastodowithportfoliostrategyThisisquitedifferentfrombusinessstrategyanddemandsaperceptualshiftThisisthefirsttimemanagershavetoaskthesequestions:DoIhavetherightcollectionofbusinessesWhatbusinessesshouldbeadded,subtracted,orchangedtopositionusproperlyandassurecurrentandfutureearningsFourth,groupmanagersmustbecomeastuteaboutassessingwhethertheyhavetherightcorecapabilitiestowinThismeansavoidingwishfulthinkingandtakingahard,objectivelook

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