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首页 朗文英语常见错误词典.pdf .pdf

朗文英语常见错误词典.pdf .pdf

朗文英语常见错误词典.pdf .pdf

上传者: datou 2011-03-10 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《朗文英语常见错误词典.pdf pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ContentsPrefacevHowtousetheDictionaryviTheDictionaryListofcommonmisspellin符等。

ContentsPrefacevHowtousetheDictionaryviTheDictionaryListofcommonmisspellingsListofIrregularverbsGlossalyAcknowledgementsTheauthorswouldliketothankDellaSummers,DirectorLongmanDictionaries,forgrantingthempermissiontousetheLongmanLearners'CorpusandtheBritishNationalCorpusassourcesofinformationforthisneweditionAtthesametime,wearedeeplyindebtedtoallthosewhohavedesigned,managedandcontributedtotheseinvaluabledatabanksOursincerethanksarealsoextendedtoJudithAgudaforeditingtheentiremanuscriptwithmeticulouscareandsuperhumanpatience,toAlisonSteadmanforcoordinatingtheproductionstages,andtoLizzieWarrenforoverseeingtheprojectfromstarttofinishWehavenotforgottenthosewhomadeimportantcontributionstothefirsteditionandwewouldliketoreacknowledgeourdebttoSueMaingay,KellyDavis,DianeSuttonandMonaScheraga,andtotheUniversityofCambridgeLocalExaminationsSyndicateFinally,wemustthankthecountlessforeignstudentsofEnglishwhohaveprovidedthecontentofbotheditionsPrefaceTheLongmanDictionaryofCommonErrorsprovideslearnersandteachersofEnglishwithapracticalguidetocommonerrorsandtheircorrectionItcontainsthewordsandphraseswhichregularlycausedifficultyforforeignlearners,regardlessofnationalityandlanguagebackgroundArrangedalphabeticallyforeaseofuse,theentriesdealwiththoseerrorsthatregularlyappearinthewrittenEnglishoflearnersattheintermediatelevelofproficiencyandaboveEacherrorisaccompaniedbyacorrectionandashort,simpleexplanationSincetheappearanceofthefirsteditionofthisdictionaryalmostadecadeago,dictionarymakinghasbeentransformedbymajordevelopmentsininformationtechnologyToday'sdictionarymakersareabletodrawuponhugecomputerizeddatabankstodiscoverexactlyhowlanguageisusedThisneweditionoftheLongmanDictionaryofCommonErrorsowesitsauthoritytotwosuchdatabanks:theLongmanLearners'CorpusandtheBritishNationalCorpusTheLongmanLearners'CorpuscontainssamplesofthewrittenEnglishproducedbystudentsfromoverdifferentcountriesWiththiscarefullycodedcorpusoftenmillionwords,itispossibletoidentifymoreclearlythaneverbeforethewordsandphraseswhichcauseproblemsforparticulargroupsoflearnersandforlearnersingeneralAsaresult,thissecondeditioncontainsalargenumberofnewentries,whilefirsteditionentrieswhichareinsufficientlysupportedbythecorpushavebeenremovedTheinvestigationofcommonerrorssometimesraisesquestionsaboutusageforwhichtherearenoreadilyavailableanswersForexample,whatdonativespeakersusuallysay'Idisagreethathearttransplantsshouldbestopped'or'Idon'tagree*thathearttransplantsshouldbestopped'Accordingtomodernusage,isitusualtosay'Shefailedherexamination'or'Shefailedinherexamination'Isitincorrecttosay'Morehousesarebuiltyearly'and,ifso,whyisyearlyunacceptablehereInhelpingustoanswerquestionssuchasthese,theBritishNationalCorpushasbeenanindispensablesourceofinformationThislargecorpusofmodernBritishEnglishusagehasbeenparticularlyusefulinrevealingthesubtledifferencesthatmakeonewordorphraseexactlyrightinaparticularcontext,andothersunsuitable,Despitetherecognizedusefulnessofcomputerizedcorporaindictionarymaking,thisapplicationofinformationtechnologyisstillrelativelynewAccordingly,whilewebelievethatthisneweditionisamajoradvanceontheoriginal,wewelcomeallcommentsandsuggestionsaGuidetotheDictionaryFindingtheinformationyouneedTheentriesinthisdictionaryareinalphabeticalorder:aboutisatthefrontofthebookandyouthisatthebackTohelpyoufindanentryquickly,thereisawordinheavytypeatthetopofeachpageThewordatthetopofalefthandpageisthenameofthefirstentrythewordatthetopofarighthandpageisthenameofthelastentryTousethisdictionarytocorrecterrors,youneedtoknowwhichwordtolookupInmanycases,youwillfindtheinformationyouneedattheentryforthekeywordThisisthemostimportantwordinagroupofwordswhichregularlyoccurtogetherForexample,tofindoutwhy'aholeonmysock'isincorrect,youshouldlookuptheentryforhole(noton)Tofindoutwhatiswrongwith'He'llbehereatDecember',youshouldturntotheentryforat(notDecember)Incaseslikethis,thereisnofixedgroupofwordsandthereforenokeywordSometimes,thekeywordisseparatedfromthepartofthesentencecontainingtheerrorForexample,in:'Sheneverletsthechildrentogooutontheirown',yourteachermayunderlinetoortoooIncaseslikethis,theinformationyouneedistobefoundattheentryforthewordorphrasewhichrequiresaparticularformtobeusedlateroninthesentenceForexample,youallowsomeonetosomething,butyouletsomeonesomething(not'todo')keywordIstudyShowsthesentencecontainrngtheerrorIShowsthecorrectedsentenceShowsthattheparticularusageISinappropriateExplainsthebeenusedincorrectlyandtellsyouwhichwordshouldhavebeenusedHere,thewordwhichhasbeen'usedincorrectlyISd~rectlynexttothewordsucceedlhatcontrolsitZNeaJulyI'mgoingtotheUSAlocontinuemystudyJNextJulyI'mgoingbtheUSAtocontinuemystudiesTolo~wA*~aslIa!a~or~,uwMudla:'AflerIhswarh,resumedhissludesheUnuersitycdTurln'Compare:'TheyareconductingasludyolgaredmhinlocalsemndaIqchoolS''She'sstuqmghtstoryonOxlor"n~versltyJShe'ssludylnghlsloryatOxfordUnlversllyinZHe'dIenallhislennisslullsathomeHe'dleftallhistennisstunathomeShinIsanunmurdeblemun:HeaskedHheauldhbslullmrlomypiace'styleI'dliketoliveabroadandhaveadilferenlstylelifeI'dliketoliveabroadandhavaadinerentIlfeslyieIlindthislivingswlevenattracliveJIflndthisllfeslyleveryanradlveSeenoteatLNFE'subconscZThedriveroftheCarwastakenlohospilalsubconscious~OUSJThedriverofthecarwastakantohoseitalunconsciousExplainshowtousethewordcorrectlyShowsthatthereismoreinformat~onattheentryforIN,atsubentrynumberShowsthatthereismoreinformationattheexplanat~onoftheentryforLIFEsub(~aor=mistlingorocwningin*emndWnoulInspsraonMngawareofil:'Hlsareamaboulcmssmgthsnslnalenarmed~mbabhamlromas~bconsclo~sdemm,lame'uncmdolu(ofapsraon)=Inasleepllkestale,especlaliybecaucorrectusageywamIllwhavebeenhitonhehead:'ThecleanerfoundhimUIICMISC~~USonthebalhroomIloor'JLateoneevening,asIwasgenlngnthebath,IsuddenlyheardastrangenolseseebnguageNoleatNWAYStShowsthattheresmore~nforrnationatIheCLanguageNoteforfbALWAYSsubjectZThesubjectofmythesisisaboulwomeninIhepopularpressJmesublectofmytheslsiswomeninthepopularpressSubleclisnolollowadbyakaNolsheallemalive:'MythesisisaboutwomenInthepopularpress'fromthewordsubject'succeedrNotmanyofussucceedtoachieveourambitionsthatcontrolsitNotmanyofuasucceedInachievingourambltlona~ucdIndolngth(NOTtodoMh):WavingballysucceededInmountingIhehoneIwasdeterminedloslayon',IftheexplanationsuchrShewasalwaysasuchintelligenlwoman,:ShewasalwayssuchanintelligentwomanSuchalwaysmmeaatthebeginningolamnphrase:'lI'agoodmthatvdlikeloseeagaln'suddenlyrLateoneevening,asIwasgeningintotheb,suddenlyIheardastranoenoisecontainsatechnicallermthatyoudounderstand,lookintheOnpage'viiSomeentrieshavesubentries,eachwiththeirownnumberswillPWhencapitalpunishmentwasabolished,peoplethoughtthatErrorsinvolvingvocabularyusuallymurderswillbecomemorenumerousWhencapitalpunlshmenlwasabolished,peoplethoughtcomebeforeerrorsingrammar,andthatmurderswouldbecomemorenumerousverycommonerrorscomebeforethosewhichoccurlessfrequentlyWhenthereisalotofinformationaboutagroupofrelatederrors,thisispresentedinaLanguageNoteArepmngverbonmepanImse(eg'IhoughlIsurwlylollowedbyvould~could(MOTwllllcan)CompereIlhmkshewtllwcemanyloblhalComesalong'Ilhoughlshewouldaneolanyloblhdlcamealong''adevelop~ngcountrywillbecomeadevelopedcountryhastoattractloretgnInvestorsIfadevelopingcountryIslobecomeadevelopedcountryIthastoattractforeignInvestorsWhenyouaretalkingaboutwhatmusthappeninorderlomakesomethingpossible,useIfnnvlalaralodoth(NOTwill):'Iwearelogelmarebysixo'ckd~,we'llhavelogelataxi'SeeLanguageN~lebelowITalkingaboutthefutureIWhenyoutalkaboutsomethinghappen~nginIheluture,youoftenuseoneoftheIollowlngconiuclions:ITIMEaller,assoonasbsfore,immadlately,oncethemomanlunlilwhenwhenever,whlleIICONDITIONIf,whetheraslonoas,Incase,unlessI*TOrefertothefutureanertheseconlunctlonsusethepresentslrnpletense(NOTwlllhhall):I'llphoneyouassoonasImiveatIheairponITheplaneshouldbetak~ngoffshotlly,aslongasthereanydelaysINote:ISometimesitisoossibletousetheoresen!oerfecltenseinsleadoftheDresenlsimoleTheIpresentperfectexpressesasenseolcompleiion:IShedoesn'twanttobuyacaruntilshe'srwfherdriv~ngtestOnceyou'alewlrrendsyouwon'tfeelsolonelyWhenIheclausebeglnn~ngwllh,whether,when,elcistheobjectofthesentence,willmaybeusedao~~~~WIKUSU~oontdlurr~rUaIAlsoIfwlllISpossiblewhenwillexpressesIheIdeawllllngness:Whatareyougoinglodoilshewon'thelpyouIIyou'lltakeaseatloramomentI'lltellMrFoxyou'rehereaIhopeyouallhaveaenjoyablestayJIhopeyouallhaveanenjoyablestayAlwaysusean(NOTa)beforeawordbeginningwithavowelsound:'anegg'Ianegl,'anenvelope'Ian'envalaoplPMyhusbandisdoingaMScincivilengineeringJMyhusbandisdoinganMScincivilengineeringUsean(NOTa)beforeanabbreviationthatbeginswithavowelsound:'anMSc'Ian,emes'si:,'anMP'Ian,em'pi:PSometimesitisdifficulttoliveahonestlifeJSometimesitisdifficulttoliveanhonestlifeUsean(NOTa)beforewordsbeginningwithhwhenthehisnotpronounced:'anhonour'Ian'nna'l,'anhour'Ianaua'laanPThechildhadbeenadeafsincebirthJThechildhadbeendeafsincebirthOneofthegirlsIsharewithisaBritishJOneofthegirlsIsharewithisBritishDonotuseaanbeforeanadjective(eg'deaf','British')unlesstheadjectiveisfollowedbyanoun:'Herhusbandisdisabled'Compare:'Thefootbridgecannotbeusedbythedisabled'(=allpeoplewhoaredisabled)SeeANOTHERabandonSincecapitalpunishmentwasabandoned,thecrimeratehasincreased(JSincecapitalpunishmentwasabolished,thecrimeratehasincreasedabandon=giveupaplan,activityorattempttodosomethingrwithoutbeingsuccessful:'Badweatherforcedthemtoabandonthesearch''Withoutgovernmentsupport,theprojectwillhavetobeabandoned'abolish=removealaw,traditionorsystem,ofienbyintroducinganewlawdoawaywith:'InwhichyearwasslaveryabolishedIntheUnitedStates''I'dhatetoseethemonarchyabolished'PItisd~fficulttoreachabandonedplacessuchassmallcountryvillagesaJItisdifficulttoreachremoteplacessuchassmallcountryvillagesabandoned=leftforeverbyffieohnersoroccupiers:'Thefieldwaslitteredwithabandonedcars''Someoftheseoldabandonedcoalminescouldbedangerous'abilityremote=farawayanddifficulttoreach:'Thetribelivesinasmallremotemountainvillage''Wehavenowmanagedtobringfaminerelieftopeopleineventhemostremoteareas'abilityrThesemachinesaredestroyingourabilityofthinkingJThesemachinesaredestroyingourabilitytothinkabilitytodosth(NOTofdoing):'Nobodydoubtshisabilitytogetthejobdone''Weneedsomeonewiththeabilitytoworkunderpressure'XIwanttoimprovemyabilityofreadingJwanttoimprovemyreadingabilityJreadinglwrltinglteachinglactingability:'Heractingabilitywasrecognizedataveryearlyage'rIwanttoimprovemyabilityofEnglishJIwanttoimprovemyabilityinEnglishabilityinalanguageorsubject:'Sarahhasdemonstratedconsiderableabilityinbothmathsandchemistry'ablexOnemanisabletodestroythewholeworldJOnemaniscapableofdestroyingthewholeworldIfsomeoneisabletodosomething,theycandoitanditisnotunusualorsurprisingiftheydoit:'ThedoctorsaidthatafterafewdaysI'dbeabletogetoutofbed''WillyoubeabletoplayonSaturday'Ifsomeoneiscapableof(doing)something,theydonotusuallydoitbutitispossibleforthemtodoitiftheywantto:'I'msurehe'squitecapableofgettinghereontime,buthecan'tbebothered''Thepowerstationiscapableofgeneratingenoughelectricityforthewholeregion'XTherearesomanyplacestovisitinLondonthatI'mnotabletodecidewheretogoJTherearesomanyplacestovisitinLondonthatIcan'tdecidewheretogoWeweren'tabletostoplaughingJWecouldn'tstoplaughingWithverbsofperception(egsee,hear,smell)andverbsofthemind(egunderstand,decide,remember),weusuallyusecan,can't,etc:'Ican'thearyouCouldyouspeakabitlouder,please''IthinkIcansmellsomethingburning''Havingmethernewboss,Icanseewhyshedoesn'tlikehim'Notealsothephrasecan'tlcouldn'tstop''something:'ThebookwassofascinatingIcouldn'tstopreSeealsoCOULDfInsomecountriesyouarenotabletodrinkuntilyouareJInsomecountriesyoucan'tdrinkuntilyouareForactionsthatarecontrolledbylawsorrules,usecan,can't,etc,orbe(not)allowedto:'Nowthattheyarebothsixteen,theycangetmarried''Thegoalkeepercantouchtheball,butnobodyelsecan'XTechnologyhasmadethemabletcrgrowtheirownfoodJTechnologyhasenabledthemtogrowtheirownfoodenable=makesomeoneabletosomething:'Thisschemeisdesignedtoenableyoungpeopletofindwork'Notealsothephrasecan'tcouldnltstopdongsomething:'ThebookwassofascinatingIcouldn'tstopreadingit'SeealsoCOULDaboveaboutfJaboveI(JIamalwaysdelightedwhenIreceivealetterfromyouAboutthepartyonDecemberth,IshallbeverypleasedtoattendIamalwaysdelightedwhenIreceivealetterfromyouWithregardtothepartyonDecemberth,IshallbeverypleasedtoattendPeopleusuallysleepwiththedoorsandwindowsclosedAboutpublictransport,thebusandtrainservicesareexcellentPeopleusuallysleepwiththedoorsandwindowsclosedAsforpublictransport,thebusandtrainservicesareexcellentAboutmaybeusedtointroduceatopic(orchangeoftopic),butonlyininformalstyles:'AboutthatbookyouaskedforI'llgetyouacopywhenIgotoLondon'Inotherstyles,usewithregardto,regarding,asfor,asregardsorasfarasisconcerned:'Withregardtothematterofunemployment,Iwouldliketoaddafewremarkstothoseofthepreviousspeaker''IregrettoinformyouthatLanguageandCultureisoutofprintAsregardsyoursecondquestion,IsuggestthatyouwritetotheBritishMuseum'ItalldependsonhowdifferentthenewcountryisfromyourownAboutmyself,Ihaven'texperiencedanycultureshockbutthenthisismysecondtriptotheStatesItalldependsonhowdifferentthenewcountryisfromyourownInmyowncase,Ihaven'texperiencedanycultureshockbutthenthisismysecondtriptotheStatesToshowthatyouaregoingtostarttalkingaboutyourownpersonalexperienceorsituation,useinmyowncaseor(especiallyininformalstyles)asformelmyself:'ManypeoplehavebenefitedfromtheoperationInmyowncase,Ibegantofeelbetterimmediately''MostofmyfriendslikeschoolAsforme,Ican'twaittoleave'IwasaboutleavingwhenthetelephonerangIwasabouttoleavewhenthetelephonerangbeabouttodosth(NOTdoing)Compare:'Iwasjustleavingwhenthetelephonerang'TherewereaboveahundredpeopleinthecrowdTherewereoverahundredpeopleinthecrowdA,Donotuseabovewithnumbers(unlessreferringtopointsonaseal):'Heisovereightyyearsofage''Ireceiveovertwentylettersaday'Compare'Don'tletthetemperaturegetabovethirtydegrees'IliketostayathomeonaSunday,asI'vesaidaboVeIliketostayathomeonaSunday,asI'vealreadysaidWhatdoyouthinkoftheabovesuggestionWhatdoyouthinkofmylthissuggestionAboveisusedinformalwritingtorefertosomethingthathasbeenmentionedearlier:'Fromtheaboveargumentsitcanbeseenthatsupportersofthedamprojectfallintotwocamps'Ininformalstyles,thisuseofaboveisinappropriateTakingalltheaboveintoaccdunt,onecouldsaythattourismdoesmoreharmthangoodaboveallaboveallrJabovermentionedJabroadrJJabsentrJJabsolutelyrJJTakingalltheaboveargumentsintoaccount,onecouldsaythattourismdoesmoreharmthangoodInsteadofusingtheaboveasaloosereferencetosomethingmentionedearlier,makethereferencemoreprecisebyusingtheabovenoun(orthenounabove):'theabovereasons','thestatementabove'Helikesreading,aboveallnovelsHelikesreading,especiallynovelsAboveallmeans'mostimportantly':'Getplentyofsleep,eatlotsofgoodfood,andabovealltrytorelax''ThereweremanyqualitiesthatmadehimagreatleaderAboveall,hehadcharisma'ThisyearEnglishisaboveallmymostimportantsubjectThisyearEnglishisbyfarmymostimportantsubjectWithasuperlativeform('themostimportant'),usebyfar:'TheriotwasbyfarthemosthorrificsceneI'deverwitnessed'WherewouldyouliketogoaboveallWherewouldyouliketogo

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