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首页 A Cantonese phonetic reader(1912).pdf

A Cantonese phonetic reader(1912).pdf

A Cantonese phonetic reader(191…

上传者: mikoyan 2011-03-10 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《A Cantonese phonetic reader(1912)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ChisVolumebusbeettpurckasebfromtket^tathispwrpos^bgntheir^llexanberCbtotnH符等。

ChisVolumebusbeettpurckasebfromtket^tathispwrpos^bgntheir^llexanberCbtotnHamilton,A(Co,),oteasttturtTinttcitt((allegeduringthegearltlDIttokoitiebotttke$fyofJittkistkirtgfoitrtkACANTONESEPHONETICREADERXondonpboneticWeaversEDITEDBYDANIELJONESAGermanPhoneticReaderByAEGAXAnItalianPhoneticReaderByACAMILIIACantonesePhoneticReaderByDJONESandKWINGTONGWooAFrenchPhoneticReaderByDANIELJONESInternationalPhoneticSymbolsarcusedinalltheaboveReadersXononpboncticTKcaScrsACANTONESEPHONETICREADERBYDANIELJONES,MALectureronPhoneticsatUniversityCollege,LondonANDKWINGTONGWOO,LLBLateGilchristScholarforChineseintheUniversityofLonaonWITHANINTRODUCTIONBYDANIELJONESHontion:BnibersttfiofILontionI'UBLISHtDFORTHKUMVEKSITVOFLONDONPRESS,LTDBYHODDERSTOUGHTON,WARWICKSQUARE,LONDON,ECPRINTED*ORTHEUNIVERSITYOFLONDONPRESS,LTD,BYRICHARDCLAYANDSONS,LIMITED,LONDONANDBUNGAYINTRODUCTIONALTHOUGHphoneticmethodsarenowsowidelyusedinconnexionwiththeteachingofmodernEuropeanlanguages,yethithertoverylittlehasbeendoneinthewayofapplyingthesemethodstothestudyoflanguagesoftheChinesetypeItiswithaviewtoinitiationofthesemethodsthatthepresentreaderhasbeenpreparedThefollowinghintsregardingtheuseofthisbookmaybefoundusefulThefirstthingapersonhastodowhenhewishestoacquirethecorrectpronunciationofaforeignlanguageistolearntopronouncetheindividualsoundsForthispurposeagoodteacherisessentialThebestresultsareachievedbyimitationofthesoundspronouncedbytheteacheraidedbyastudyofphonetictheory(thatistosayastudyofthepositionsoftheorgansofspeechinformingthecorrectsounds)andthepracticeofsuitableexercisesSee,however,anarticleonCantonese,PhoneticsbySeersintheM'litrePhom'tifjm,JanFeb,AlsofortheMandarinlanguageNotessurlaJ^ronondationdelaLangueMandarinebyRChGuernier,publishedbytheInternationalPhoneticAssociation,(obtainablefromDJones,UniversityCollege,London,WC,priceIs)AMandarinPhonetictextbySeersappearedintheM'iifr>Phonetique,NovDec,JapaneseliasIHHMItreatedbythemethodsofmodernphoneticsintheEttJ<*itrlaLangueJaponaisepnrlteToyKItKdwards(Teubner,Leipzig)viINTRODUCTIONIamhopingtosupplementthisreadershortlybyashorttreatiseonCantonesepronunciationinwhichtherequisitephonetictheorywillbefound,andinwhichmethodswillbeindicatedforacquiringthedifficultsoundsWhenthestudentisabletopronouncetolerablywelltheisolatedCantonesesounds(alistofwhichisgivenonppxixiv)heisinapositiontostartreadingphonetictextsItishardlynecessarytopointoutthatphonetictextsshouldalwaysbereadaloudStudentsshouldreadcarefullytheremarksonppixxvibeforebeginningtostudythetextsTheInternationalPhoneticsystemoftranscriptionisusedinthisbook,asintheotherbooksofthisseriesofreadersThissystemisnowalmostuniversallyusedfortheteachingofFrenchandotherEuropeanlanguages,andthesuccesswithwhichithasbeenattendedisamplejustificationforitsintroductiontoalanguagetowhichitisasyetalmostnewItshould,however,bepointedoutthattheapplicationofInternationalPhoneticscripttoChineseisstillinitstrialstage,andthatitmaybepossibleinthefuturetoeffectimprovementsinthetranscriptionInparticularIThereareinexistenceseveralhundredbooksinwhichtheInternationalPhoneticsymbolsareemployedThesebooksincludetendictionariesandnumerousgrammarsandschooltextbooksforthestudyofvariouslanguages,besidestreatisesonpronunciationAlistofabouttwohundredofthemoreimportantworksisgiveninabookletentitledTheV>o'>Yst,ftinInitrnntionulI'lioiiffitAssociation(priceG^)SeealsoTinMrnn*<,fhniti'myinrhmnfunmiiilnUcforMothraIjiu<iit<j<>Ti<},:<byLHAlthaus(publishedbytheInternationalPhoneticAssociation,piice!()<)whereitisstated(p)that"oftwentythree(Knglish)universitiesindcollegesinwhichFrenchphoneticsistaughttwentytwousetheinoftheInternationalIMionetieAssociation"Thesystemisalsovervwidelyusedinschools(Theabovepamphletsmaybeobtainedfrom)lonesI'nivcrsityCollege,London,WC)INTRODUCTIONviiwouldmentionthatthemodeofrepresentingtheplos'mconsonantshereadopted(viz,pc,t',ts',k'fortheaspiratedsounds,andp,t,ts,kfortheunaspirated)hasbeendeeidedupononlyaftermuchthoughtandconsiderablehesitationThealternativeplanofwritingp,t,ts,kfortheaspiratedsoundsandb,d,dz,gfortheunaspiratedisinmanyrespectsmoreconvenient,especiallyforEnglishreadersThefactwhichfinallyledmetodecideonthepresentsystemofrepresentingthesesoundsisthatinsomelanguagesoftheChinesetype(cjjBurmese)thefully"voiced"b,d,gexistinadditiontotheaspiratedandunaspiratedp,t,kThereisnoalternativebuttowritep',t',k'fortheaspiratedsoundsinsuchlanguagesThatbeingso,itseemspreferableforthesakeofuniformitytoadoptthesamesysteminwritingCantoneseReadersmust,however,bearinmindcontinuallythattheCantoneseaspiratedp',tk'areidenticalwiththeordinary(Southern)Englishp,t,k,andthatitistheunaspiratedsoundswhicharedifficultformostEnglishpeopleAnotherdetailwhichmaybeopentocriticismistherepresentationofthesoundsheregivenasts',tsThetwoelementsofthesecompoundsoundsaresocloselyconnectedEveryteacherofFrenchpronunciationisfamiliarwiththisfactFrenchp,t,kareunaspiratedandarerarelypronouncedcorrectlybyEnglishpeoplewithoutconsiderablepracticeItisworth}'ofnotethatIhesamedifficultywithregardtothephoneticrepresentationoftheplosiveconsonantsoccursinthecaseofDanishFrkHForchhammerinherexcellentbookHowtofffiniDanish(publishedbyGyldendal,Copenhagen),whichisintendedforEnglishreaders,hasadoptedp,t,kfortheaspiratedsoundsandb,d,gfortheunaspiratedIntheFrencheditionofthesamework(Ledanoi*parh',publishedby(irons,Heidelberg)slulias,however,beenobligedtorepresenttheaspiratedsoundsbyph,th,khandtheunaspiratedbyp,t,kviiiINTRODUCTIONthatthegroupsmaypracticallyberegardedassimplesoundsandmightifdesiredberepresentedbysinglesymbols(egto',to,or,ifthealternativemodeofrepresentingtheotherplosiveconsonantsbeabopted,to,d,)Again,iftheyaretreatedascompoundsounds,shouldtheybewrittents',tsortf',tjTheactualsoundsappeartovarybetweenthesealternativevaluesAgain,thesyllablesherewrittensi,ts'i,tsi(withtheconventionmentionedatthebottomofpxii)mightalsobewrittensz,ts'z,tszthesyllablesherewrittenji,jy,wumightequallywellbewrittensimplyi,y,u(seepxii)Inspiteofthepossibilitiesofimprovementinregardtotheabovepoints,thereadermayrestassuredthatthesystemasitstandsgivesexcellentresultsinpractice,asmycollaboratorMrKwingTongWooisabletotestifyThetextsincolloquialstylewerespeciallywrittenbyMrWooThetranscriptionsweremadebymefromMrWoo'sdictationMrWoospeakstypicalgoodCantonese,andhispronunciationmaybereliedonasanexcellentstandardMoreover,thetranscriptionofeverywordhasbeenrepeatedlychecked,andinnocasehasthetranscriptionofawordbeenfinallysettleduntilthewordhasbeenpronouncedbymetoMrWoo'ssatisfactionTheliteraltranslationshavebeenpreparedwithgreatcareMrWoohasanexceptionallygoodknowledgeofEnglish,andwehavecheckedtogetherthetranslationofeverywordTherhythmwhichissuchacharacteristicfeatureofChinesepronunciationisindicatedthroughoutthisbookInthetextsaccompaniedbymusicalnotesitisshownbytinlengthvaluesofthenotes(crotchets,quavers,etc)inJisth(iEnglishsoundof*<isthemedialconsonantinini*n,<tj,dgaretheinitialsoundsofchin,joyINTRODUCTIONixtheothertextsIhelengthenedsyllablesaregiveninthicktvpeaiultlieveryshort,syllablesinitalicsAvonlastothetonesmaybeusefulhereTheIKsityforacquiringtheexactvaluesofthetonescannotbeurgedtoostronglyCantonesepronouncedwithwrongtonesisabsolutelymectningless,anddiffersinthisrespectfromMandarinwhereitappearsthatisispossibletomakeoneselfunderstoodwithouttroublingmuchaboutthetonesTheplanhereadoptedofgivinglongconnectedtextswithmusicalnotationthroughoutis,Ibelieve,new,butIconsiderthisarrangementtobeoneofthegreatestutilityThecontinualpresenceofthemusicalnoteshelpsthebeginnertorememberandacquirethecorrecttonesfarbetterthanthetonemarksalonecanThetonemarksusedinthisbookindicatebytheirformandpositionthemusicalvalueofthetonesIcannothelpfeelingthatthedifficultyofthetonesisgenerallymuchexaggeratedAnyonewhohasamusicalearcanlearntheminaveryshorttimebypractisingthefollowingtune,singingitonanyvowelorononeoftheconsonantsm,norI)untilitisfirmlyfixedinhismind:Forladies'voicesthistunemightbetransposedthus:Itisalsousefultopractisesingingthetunesofthetextstowhichmusicalnotesareadded(NosI,IIandVI)withoutanywordsStudentswhoareignorantofmusicshouldgotoasingingmaster,preferablytooneaccustomedtoteachontheTonicSolfasystem,andbotaughttosingtheabovetuneandthetunesoccurringintextsI,IIandVI(ThexINTRODUCTIONtunesmayofcoursebetransposedintohigherorlowerkeystosuitthevoiceoftheindividual)BysettingtoworkinthiswaytolearnthetonesandpractisedifferentcombinationsoftonesindependentlyofordinaryspeechsoundsthepronunciationofCantonesewillbefoundshornofitsprincipaldifficultyDANIELJONESUMVKUSITYOOLLECK,LONDONXovemlttr,'JEXPLANATIONSOFPHONETICSYMBOLSTm<followingisalistofthephoneticsymbolsusedinthisbookwiththeirvaluesLCONSONANTSpe,t',k'AsinthenormalSouthernEnglishpronunciationofpin,ten,come,thatis,pronouncedwithdistinctaspiration(Aspirationmaybedescribedastheinsertionofaslightpuffofbreath,orhsound,betweentheexplosionoftheconsonantandthebeginningofthevowel)tscThetwoelementsofthisgrouparesocloselyconnectedthatthegroupmightberegardedasasinglesoundIthasadistinctaspirationandbearsacertainresemblancetotheEnglishsoundofchinchin(seepreface,ppvii,viii)p,t,kAsinFrenchpax,to,<*,thatis,pronouncedwithoutaspirationInotherwords,thevoiceofthefollowingvowelbeginsattheinstantoftheexplosionoftheconsonantTheseconsonantsstrikeanEnglishearasrathersimilartob,d,gAttheendofaword(evenwhenfollowedbyanotherword)thesoundsp,t,karepronouncedwithoutexplosionFinaltandkareoftenreplacedbythe"glottalstop"(phoneticsymbol),especiallywhenthenextwordbeginswithh,jorwxiiEXPLANATIONSOFPHONETICSYMBOLStsAsoundsimilartots'butpronouncedwithoutaspirationItisthemostdifficultoftheCantoneseconsonants,therebeingnoEnglishsoundatalllikeitItresemblesasoundintermediatebetweenthesoundsofchinchinandjinjam(seepreface,ppvii,viii),m,nAsinEnglishqTheEnglishsoundofnginlongf,s,hAsinEnglishWGenerallyasinEnglishInthegroupwu(butnotinkwu)itis,however,pronouncedwithconsiderablefrictionthisfrictioniscontinuedduringthevowelu,sothatitisdifficulttosaywhetherthesyllablereallyconsistsoftwosoundsoronethesyllablemightequallywellbewrittensimplyuwiththeconventionthatthevowelisinthiscaseaccompaniedbyconsiderablefrictionjGenerallytheEnglishsoundofyinyetPronounced,however,withconsiderablefrictioninthesyllablesji,jyAsinthecaseofwuthefrictioninthesesyllablesiscontinuedduringthevowel,sothatitisdifficulttosaywhetherthesyllablesreallyconsistoftwosoundsorofoneji,jymightequallywellbewrittensimplyi,y,withtheconventionthatthevowelsarcinthesecasesaccompaniedbyconsiderablefrictionnVOWELSiResemblestheEnglishsoundofiinit,buthasthetongueappreciablyretractedtowardsthe"mixed"positionBeforekandI)itbecomesalmosteTnthesyllablessi,tsi,ts'i,thevowelisarompaniedI>considerablefriction,andconsequentlyresemblesaveryfullyvoicedzEXPLANATIONSOFPHONETICSYMBOLSxiiiyThesamewithliproundingaddedItisverysimilartotheGermansoundofuinfiinfAvowelintermediatebetweeniandy,ie,aniwithslightliproundingaddedeOccurschieflyinthediphthongeiThisdiphthongisaboutthesameasthatheardintheSouthernEnglishpronunciationofdayealoneisoccasionallysubstitutedforeiinunimportantwordswhenpronouncedveryshortotherwiseedoesnotoccurbyitselfEThesoundofFrencheinmemeThenearestEnglishequivalentisthesoundofainmanOBThesoundofFrencheuinneufaThesoundofFrenchainpatte,sometimesinCantonesesomewhatobscuredandtendingtowardsthesoundofuinmuchInCantonesethesoundaonlyoccursinparticlesaSimilartothesoundofaincalmItmaybelong(asinNsa:m"three")orshort(asinvsom"heart")SimilartothesoundofoinnotOccurschieflyinthediphthongonThisdiphthongismuchthesameasthatheardintheSouthernEnglishpronunciationofgooaloneisoccasionallysubstitutedforouinunimportantwordswhenpronouncedveryshortotherwiseodoesnotoccurbyitselfUSimilartotheEnglishsoundofuinputBeforekandqittendstowardsoItisdifficulttoavoidacertainamountofinconsistencj''inthereductionofthediphthongsandOUinunimportantwords,suchastoil("reach")(sometimesreducedto~to),,("you")(frequentlyreducedto,)IhaveendeavouredtogivetheshorterformsonlywheretheywouldundoubtedlybeusedinnormalpronunciationxivEXPLANATIONSOFPlioNKTICSYMBOLSThesoundofainalongThisvowelissometimessubstitutedforothervowelsinunimportantwords:thus,sap'one'sometimesbecomessaporS(egintextVII,sentence),theparticlestse,~losometimesbecome~tsa,~la(eg,intextII,sentence)ThefollowingsoundsoccurinEnglishwordsouotedinthetexts:seThevowelinmanThesoundofthinthinIIIDIPHTHONGSThefollowingdiphthongsoccurinCantoneseDiphthongsendingini:ei,tti(short),a:i(long),oi,uiDiphthongsendinginu:iu,U,au(short),a:u(long),ouDiphthongendinginy:oeyIVTONESAveragemusicalvalue(men'svoicesororEEGthToneSuggestedname"PI*!falling(withvariantuppermostlevel)upperrisingupperlevellowerfallinglowerrisinglourIru'lAlternativestTone,infinilonls(setbelow)KXI'LANATIONS()FPHONETICSYMIJoLSxvTheabovesignsui<lnamesindicatelliemusicaleharaeleroftlietonesOfthetwoformsofthestTonethelevel:EE^^isbyfartheeoininonerTli(falling^^=JJis,however,thenorma*formattheendofagroup,orwhenawordwiththestToneispronouncedbyitselfInsomecasestheleveljjSJjjlrrappearstobenecessaryattheendofagroupinsteadofthefalling^jErjiSInthesecasesthemark~~issubstitutedforthemarkThetwoformsofthethTonemaybeusedindifferentlyThelevel^^istheeasierforEuropeansandisthereforerecommendedAttheendofagroupitisperhapssafertousethefalling:^^EHj}^Infinalparticlesthetoneisoftenslightlylowerthanthenormalthusfinal~lamightbepronouncedontheuoteEiiEinsteadofB$^^^JThetonesmaybetransposedintoahigherorlowerkeytosuitthevoiceoftieindividualstudent,buttheirrelativevaluesshouldremainconstantForladies'voices(average)theyshouldbetransposedornoteshigher(seepreface,pix)VLENGTH:indicatesthatthevowelrepresentedbytheprecedingsymbolislongiV>isonlynecessarytomarkthisinthecaseofthevowelsaandiinothercaseswordscannothedistinguishedbythepresenceorabsenceoflengthItisusefultonotethatiisgenerallyratherlongwhenfollowedbyn,andoeisgenerallyratherlongwhenfoliowidxviEXPLANATIONSOFPHONETICSYMBOLSVowelsnotfollowedbyaconsonantinthesamewordareusuallylong,thoughtheymaybecomeshortifthewordisunimportantInwordsendinginp,torkthevowelsareextremelyshortVIRHYTHMTherhythmisindicatedinthetextsaccompaniedbymusicalnotesbythelengthvaluesofthenotes(crotchets,quavers,etc)intheothertextsthelengthenedsyllablesareshowninthicktypeandtheveryshortsyllablesinitalicsf*j~I!ji^X^"^^='IIiECOxviiiCANTONESENAMESOFTHETONESItwillbeobserved()thattheCantonesenamesofthest,rd,thandthtonesdonotindicatethemusicalvaluesofthesetones,()thatCantonesehasnonamestodescribethetonesofwordsendinginp,torkandhavingthendorrdtone(ey,'jat'sun,'kwok'country'),()thatthesocalledjap('entering')tonesarenotreallyspecialtonesatall,theirmusicalvaluesbeingidenticalwiththoseofthetonesknownassoegp'irjandhcrhceyrespectivelyThedifferencesbetweenwordsfallingundertheclassesscer)j)'ir)andsoer)jap,orhcrhoeyandhajap,aredifferencesofarticulation,notofmusicaltoneThecombinationofndtonewithfinalp,torkoccursonlyincolloquialspeechInformalspeech"JQtwouldbecomejdtTABLKOFCANTONESEVOVVKLSANDCONSONANTSTin:Cantonesevowelsandconsonantsmaybearrangedinatableaccordingtotheirmodeofformationasfollows:CONSONANTSSCRIPTFORMSOFPHONETICSYMBOLSrn>I,Thest,ndandrdtonemarksmaybeconvenientlywrittenabove,andtheth,thandthtonemarksbelow,thevowelsofthewordstowhichtheybelongTheaspirationmarksmaybewrittenabovetheconsonantstowhichtheybelongSPECIMENOFCANTONESEPHONETICWRITINGFIRSTEIGHTSENTENCESOFTEXTV,PACEnil,moJiaKwnMMndnlLISTOFBOOKSRECOMMENDEDFORTHESTUDYOFPHONETICSThebooksmarked*useInternationalPhoneticSymbol*PASSY,PetitePhone'tiqueCompare'eLeipzig(Teubner),ndedition,s'd*VIKTORANDRIPPMANN,ElementsofPhoneticsLondon(Dent),*sGd*LSOAMES,IntroductiontoPhoneticsLondon(Macmilkn),ndedition,sVVIKTOR,ElementederPhonetikLeipzig(Reisland),r>thedition,sHSWEET,PrimerofPhoneticsClarendonPress,rdeditionsGd*>JOXKS,ThePronunciationofEnglishCambridgeUniversityPress,*GdTl)JONES,AnOutlineofEnglishPhoneticsLeipii(Teubner)InpreparationIISWEET,PrimerofSpokenEnglishClarendon

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