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首页 初中英语总复习知识点归纳(基本全了)

初中英语总复习知识点归纳(基本全了)

初中英语总复习知识点归纳(基本全了)

小猫腻
2018-10-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《初中英语总复习知识点归纳(基本全了)doc》,可适用于初中教育领域

初中英语总复习知识点归纳冠词aan的用法a用于辅音音素前ausefulbook,auniversity,aldquourdquoOnceaweekhaveaswimwalktalklookdancedrinkresthaveacoldheadachefevercoughhaveagoodtimehaveatryinahurryafterawhilekeepadiarygoforawalkinaminuteinawordinashortwhilean则用于元音音素前anhour,anhonestboy,anldquoAEFHILMNORSXrdquokeepaneyeon定冠词the的用法:)特指双方都明白的人或物:Givemethebook)上文提到过的人或事:DoyouknowtheladyinbluendashYes,sheisateacherofauniversity)指世上独一物二的事物thesun(skymoonearthworldnatureuniverse))单数名词连用表示一类事物如:thedollar美元Thelionisawildanimal或与形容词或分词连用表示一类人:therichpoorblindagedlivingimpossible)用在序数词和形容词最高级及形容词onlyvery,same等前面:Iliveonthesecondfloor)用在表示身体部位的名词前:Shecaughtmebythearm)用在表示乐器和表方位的名词之前: SheplaysthepianoviolinguitarinthenorthofChina)用在普通名词构成专有名词前:thePeople#sRepublicofChina theUnitedStatestheGreatWalltheSummerPalace)用在姓氏的复数名词之前表示一家人:theGreensareplayingthepiano)intheday,inthemorning(afternoonevening), inthemiddle(of), intheend,allthetimeatthesametimeonthewhole, bytheway, gotothecinemaatheageofsixatthebeginningofthetwentyfirstcenturyontheothersideofatthemomentthedayaftertomorrow thedaybeforeyesterday, thenextmorning, inthesky(waterfieldcountry) inthedark,intherain,  不用定冠词的情况)国名人名前通常不用定冠词:China,Europe欧洲LeiFeng雷锋)物质名词和抽象名词表示一般概念时通常不加冠词当表示特定的意思时需要加定冠词Failureisthemotherofsuccess 失败乃成功之母。)在季节、月份、节日、假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前不加冠词ChildrenrsquosDayMotherrsquosDayFatherrsquosDay)在称呼或表示官衔职位的名词前不加冠词Heiscaptainoftheteam)在三餐、四季球类运动、学科、娱乐运动的名称前不加冠词如:havebreakfastsupperlunchplaybasketballfootballvolleyballchess,inspringsummerautumnwinter)当by与火车等交通工具连用表示一种方式时中间无冠词bybustraintaxibusship)DayandnightfacetofacesidebysidestepbystepwatchTVatschoolworkhomeatfirstlastindangerintroubleonfootondutyonwatchinbedontimeintimegotoschoolgotoworkbytaxibikeatnoonatnightonTVattown部分词组有无冠词的区别inhospital生病住院inthehospital在医院里infrontof在的前面inthefrontof在内部的前面gotoschool上学gototheschool到学校去anumberof=alotof许多谓语动词用复数。Thenumberof的数目的总数谓语动词用单数(第三人称单数)名词:专有名词和普通名词(个体名词、集体名词、物质名词、抽象名词)可数名词的单数变复数①一般情况加s②以s,xshch,等结尾的词加es busbuseswatchwatches③以o结尾的名词无生命的加s如:photophotospianopianos有生命的es如:potatopotatoes tomatotomatoes均可如:zerozeroszeroes ④以f或fe结尾的名词去f,fe加ves如:halfhalves knifeknives leafleaves wolfwolveswifewives lifelives thiefthieves(加s如:beliefbeliefs roofroofssafesafes gulfgulfs)⑤以辅音字母y结尾的词变y为i再加es babybabies⑥不规则:a单复数形式一样。Sheep,deer,Chinese,JapanesePeople,police,scissors,trousersb其他的。footmdashfeettoothteethchildmdashchildrenmousemicemanmenwomanwomenbusinessmanbusinessmenGermanGermanswomendoctors集体名词:People,police,(一般表示一个整体谓用复数)class,family,glasses不可数名词:常见的不可数名词有:information,news,room(空间)work,work,weather,advice,bread,food,milk,tea,ice,glasses,meat①Alittle,abitof,some,much,alotof,quitealotof常修饰不可数名词②不可数名词作主语谓语动词用单数。③如果用and连接两个不可数名词作主语时谓语动词用复数。Timeandmoneyare④AcupglassbottleboxkilogroupcrowdclasspairofTwoandahalfkilosof=twokilosandahalfof名词所有格在英语中有些名词可以加#s来表示所有关系带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格如:ateacher#sbook。名词所有格的规则如下:)单数名词词尾加#s复数名词词尾没有s也要加#s如theboy#sbagmen#sroomChildrenrsquosDayMotherrsquosDayFatherrsquosDay)若名词已有复数词尾s只加#如:TeachersrsquoDayladiesrsquoroomtwentyminutesrsquowalk)凡不能加#s的名词都可以用名词of名词的结构来表示所有关系如:thetitleofthesong歌的名字ApictureoffamilyamapofChina)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词如:thebarber#s理发店。)如果两个名词并列并且分别有#s则表示分别有只有一个#s则表示#共有#。John#sandMary#sroom(两间)  JohnandMary#sroom(一间))复合名词或短语#s加在最后一个词的词尾。如:amonthortwo#sabsence)双重所有格afriendofminehershistheirsafriendofMaryrsquosmotherrsquos代词1、人称代词、物主代词和反身代词Imdashmemdashmymdashminemdashmyselfyoumdashyoumdashyourmdashyourself(yourselves)hemdashhimmdashhismdashhismdashhimselfshemdashhermdashhermdashhersmdashherselfitmdashitmdashitsmdashitsmdashitselfwemdashusmdashourmdashoursmdashourselvestheymdashthemmdashtheirmdashtheirsmdashthemselves人称顺序you,he,she,Iwe,you,they主格作主语宾格作宾语动词和介词之后通常作宾格形容词性物主代词不能单独使用通常放在名词之前名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词ldquoof+名词性物主代词rdquo表示所属关系。Afriendofmine我的一位朋友teacherofhers 她的老师代词it的用法:①指代前面提到过的事物。②表天气。③表距离。④指婴儿和不明身份的人。John,someoneinyourclassphonedyouthismorningOh,whowasit⑤用作形式主语。ItrsquoskindgoodnicecleverpolitefoolishofsbtodosthItrsquosimportantnecessarypossibleeasydifficultforsbtodosth,ItrsquostimetogetupItrsquostimeforlunchItrsquosonersquosturntodoItseemsthatIttakessbsometimetodosth⑥用作形式宾语。FindthinkfeelitadjtodosthItone的区别It特指上文提到的同一对象同一事物。one同类而不同一。that常用于比较结构中代替前面提到的名词以避免重复。反身代词  构成规则:一、二物主三为宾。运用:hurtteachwashbuyenjoyoneselfbyHelponeself(oneselves)toLookafteroneselfSaytooneselfCometooneself2、不定代词little,alittle,few,afew=several(some),some,anymuch,toomuch,muchtoo,morethen=over,lessthan=nearlysomething某事某物用于肯定句。注意:⑴由复合不定代词作主语时谓语动词用第三人称单数。Everyoneishere⑵修饰不定代词的形容词后置。Ihavesomethingimportanttotellyou⑶在反意疑问句中表示人的复合代词在陈述句中作主语时附加问句中的主语用he或they表物的用it。anything任何事物某事物用于否定句、疑问句。everything每件事一切事物用于各种句型。nothing没什么没有任何东西。=notanythingsomebody某人有人=someoneanybody任何人(用于否定句、疑问句条件从句中)nobody没有人little几乎没有表示否定意思用以修饰不可数名词。Alittle①一点点表示肯定用以修饰不可数名词。Onlyalittle仅一点点②也可修饰形容词和副词。③一点点放在动词、动词宾语后。few几乎没有表示否定意思用以修饰可数名词。afew=several几个一些表示肯定意思用以修饰可数名词。some一些修饰可数名词后跟复数形式名词或ones,也可修饰不可数名词。在表示请求、委婉语气的疑问句和表示希望得到对方的肯定回答的问句中常用someCouldyougivemesomeapplesany一些任何一些。一般用于疑问句中或否定句中和IF引导的条件句中。much许多。修饰不可数名词放在不可数名词前可用alotof替换。toomuch太多的用法相当于much放在不可数名词前。HeathisveryimportanttousWeshouldeatmorevegetablesandfruitinsteadoftoomuchrichfoodmuchtoo太用法相当于too,放在形容词和副词前。Keepquiet!Itrsquosmuchtoonoisyheremorethan超过多于。=overmoreorless或多或少差不多。=aboutatleast至少alot许多修饰动词。Thanksalotalotof=lotsof许多的可修饰可数名词和不可数名词。anumberof许多的,=many只用于修饰复数形式名词放在可数名词复数前。every用于三个或三个以上着眼于整体。后可跟数词。词组有everytenminuetseach用于两个或两个以上着眼于个体。词组有eachofeither两个中任何一个eitherorboth两个都bothandbothofneither两个中一个也没有egDoyouliketalkingwithyourfriendsonthetelephoneormobilephoneNeither,IenjoyusingQQneithernorany三个以上中任何一个all三个以上中全部none三个以上中一个也没有。Noneof中没有一个表示三个或以上数目的人或物中没有一个表否定作主语时谓语动词一般用单数。others表示ldquo泛指rdquo除自己外别的人。Some,otherstheother表示两个中的另一个。One,theothertheothers表示特指的另一些。another后跟单数名词。表示泛指另一个人。后跟带数词的复数名词表示ldquo再还要rdquo的意思。other别的另外的一般后跟复数名词或ones,在other前可加some,many或数词表示ldquo几个一些别的rdquoSuchatallbuildingsuchanexcitingfootballmatchsomanypeopleeachother相互彼此指两个或两个物时。oneanother相互彼此指三者或三者以上的彼此。oneanotherrsquos相互的彼此的。数词表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词数词分为基数词和序数词。表示数目多少的数词叫基数词表示顺序的数词叫序数词。一、基数词和序数词)基数词写法和读法:①百位与十位用and,十位与个位写时用ldquomdashrdquo②先确定分节号从右至左每隔三位数是一个分节号。③第一个分节号是千位thousand第二个分节号是千位million⑤第三个分号节是十亿位billion,,, onebilliontwohundredandthirtyfourmillionfivehundredandsixtyseventhousandeighthundredandninetytwo)分数表示法构成:分子基分母序分子大于时分母在序数词后加S:ahalfonethirdtwothirdsthreequarters=threefourthstwoandthreefourths)表示年代用inthe数词复数inthes(世纪年代))表某人几岁时:in物主代词数词的复数形式inonersquostwenties)HelivesinRomOneplustwoisthreeThreetimesfiveisfifteen)hundred,thousand,million等词前有具体的数字时不能加S如threehundreds这种说法是错误的)hundredsofthousandsofmillionsof)ayearoldgirlthreedaysandahalf=threeandahalfdaysoneandahalfhours=onehourandahalfwersquollhavetwoweeksrsquoholiday(twoweekholiday))(基数词变序数词的口诀)一、二、三特别记th从四以上记怎么加很容易八减t九减ef来把ve替见y变ie若是遇到几十几变换个位就可以。Onefirsttwosecondthreethirdfivefiftheighteighthnineninthtwelvendashtwelfththirteenthirteenthfifteenfifteentheighteeneighteenthtwentytwentiethtwentyonetwentyfirstthirtythirtiethfortyfortiethfiftyndashfiftiethsixtysixtiethseventyseventietheightyeightiethninetyninetieth序数词的缩写形式:firstst secondnd thirtyfirstst 形容和副词①修饰something,anything,everything,anybody等不定代词的形容词形容词要放在不定代词之后。IhaveSomethingimportanttotellyou②enough修饰形容词、副词时enough要放在形容词和副词之后。Farenough③interesting,exciting,boring,amazing,surprising,moving主语为物。Interested,excited,amazed,surprised,frightened,tired,pleased主语为人。④Much,far,alot,alittle,even等后要用形容词或副词的比较级。Ifellevenworsenow连系动词be,感官动词(look,smell,taste,sound,feel)三个变(get,become,turn,)keep后跟形容词⑥既可作形容词又可作副词的词有:hard作形容词=difficult,作副词放在work,rain等后,表努力地做。well作形容词身体好作副词做得好。long作形容词表事物的长度作副词放在last,talk等后,表动作持续。Fast作作形容放在系动词后作副词放在rain,makesth等词后表ldquo做得快rdquo。High作形容词ldquo山海浪的高。作副词,放在fly,jump等后表飞得高跳得高。⑦五、形容词变为副词①lyuseful,wide,strong②改y为i,再加lyhealthy,heavy,happy,lucky,noisy,③goodmdashmdashwellterribleterriblyprobableprobably⑧多数以ly结尾的词是副词。但friendly,lonely,lovely,likely,daily,lively是形容词。⑨ChinaislargerthananyothercountyinAsia(同一范围内)ChinaislargerthananycountyinAfirca(不同范围内)⑩howmany对可数名词数量的提问。HowmanypeoplearethereinyourfamilyHowmuch对不可数名词数量的提问和提问价格。Howlong多久多长时间。回答常用:for段时间since点时间。Howsoon多快多久以后。回答常用:in段时间Howoften多长时间一次提问频率。回答常用:once(twice)aweek,threetimesaday,oftenHowfar多远对距离提问。回答常用:fifteenminutesrsquowalk,metersaway形容词和副词的比较级和最高级:原级:as原级asnotasso原级as=反义词thanEnglishisasinterestingasChineseMrZhangisnrsquotasoldasMrLi=MrZhangisyoungerthanMrLi比较级的标志词①than,Lilyrsquosbagisbiggerthanhers②much,far,alittle,even,nexttime③whichwhoA,BWhichismorebeautiful,Tom,Jim④the比较级,the比较级Themorewegettogether,thehappierwersquollbe⑤比较级and比较级(多音节词和部分双音节词用moreandmore原级)越来越harderandharder,ourhometownisbecomingmoreandmorebeautiful最高级标志词:①the最高级ofinShanghaiisthebiggestcityinChina②Oneofthe最高级名词复数ZhouJiekunisoneofthemostpopularsingers③Whichwho最高级,A,BorCWhocityisthemostbeautiful,Beijing,ShanghaiorKunming④序数词最高级表ldquo第几最rdquoChangjiangisthefirstlongestriverinChinathesecondlargestpopulation形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成规则(略)不规则:goodwellbetterbestbadbadlyillworseworstmanymuchmoremostlittlelessleastfarfarther(较远)farthestfarfurther(进一步)furthesttiredmoretiredthemosttired(right,tired,gladpleasedreal)动词的时态时态名称结构标志词被动语态难点与要点一般现在时amisaretherebe结构行为动词sometimes,often,usually,always,everyday,onceaweekamisaredone注意第三人称单数情况现在进行时amisareVingnow,look,listen,rightnow,atthemoment,it#s几点amisarebeingdone动词ING形式的构成一般过去时waswere表语结构Vedyesterday,last,ago一家justnow,intheolddays,amomentago,longago,ihtheswasweredone注意动词的过去式的构成一般将来时willshallV原形begoingtoV原形tomorrow,nextyear,thisyear,attheendofthisterm,fromnowon,inthefuture,inafewdays#timewillshallbedonebegoingtobedone注意动词过去分词的构成(与过去式的区别)P过去进行时waswereVingat具体时间,atthistime,when一般过去时从句waswerebeingdone与一般过去时的区别现在完成时havehasdonealready,yet,just,never,ever,for,since,sofar注意瞬间动词在现在完成时中的运用过去将来时wouldshouldV原形wasweregoingtoV原形宾语从句中,从句动作在主句动作之后发生Wouldshouldbedonebegoingtobedone过去完成时haddoneby过去某一时点before过去某一时间点bythetime从句从句动作在主句动作前发生Hadbeendone情态动词情态动词bedone注:不规则动词过去式和过去分词详见初三课本的页。祈使句祈使句用以表达命令要求请求劝告等。)祈使句否定在句首加Don#t:Don#tmoveDon#tbelate)Letrsquosshallweletushimwillyouwon#tyou感叹句How形容词或副词主语谓语其它Howlovelythebabyis!Whataan形容词可数名词单数主语谓语其它Whatacleverboyheis!What形容词可数名词复数主语谓语其它Whatwonderfulideas(wehave)!What形容词不可数名词主语谓语其它Whatcoldweatheritis!反意疑问句) 陈述部分用no,nothing,nobody,never,few,seldom,hardly,rarely,little,tooto等否定含义的词时疑问部分用肯定含义。Someplantsneverblown(开花),dothey) 陈述部分有havetov(hadtov)疑问部分常用don#t主语(didn#t主语)。Wehavetogetthereateighttomorrow,don#twe) 陈述部分的谓语是usedto时疑问部分用didn#t主语或usedn#t主语。Heusedtotakepicturesthere,didn#theusedn#the) 陈述部分有hadbetterv疑问句部分用hadn#tyouYou#dbetterreaditbyyourself,hadn#tyou) 陈述部分由neitherhellipnor,eitherhellipor连接的并列主语时疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。NeitheryounorIamengineer,arewe) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything,that,nothing,this,疑问部分主语用it。Everythingisready,isn#tit) 陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句疑问部分有三种情况:a并列复合句疑问部分谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。MrSmithhadbeentoBeijingforseveraltimes,heshouldhavebeeninChinanow,shouldn#theb带有定语从句宾语从句的主从复合句疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定:Heisnotthemanwhogaveusatalk,isheHesaidhewantedtovisitJapan,didn#thec上述部分主句谓语是think,believe,expect,suppose,imagine等引导的定语从句疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。Idon#tthinkheisbright,isheWebelieveshecandoitbetter,can#tshe)陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody,anyone,somebody,nobody,noone等疑问部分常用复数they有时也用单数he。Everyoneknowstheanswer,don#tthey (doeshe)Nobodyknowsaboutit,dothey(doeshe)) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句疑问部分用willyou。Don#tdothatagain,willyouGowithme,willyouwon#tyou注意:Let#s开头的祈使句后用shallweLet#sgoandlistentothemusic,shallweLetus开头的祈使句后用willyouLetuswaitforyouinthereadingroom,willyou) 陈述部分是therebe结构的疑问部分用there省略主语代词。Thereissomethingwrongwithyourwatch,isn#tthereTherewillnotbeanytrouble,willthere) 否定前缀不能视为否定词其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。Itisimpossible,isn#titHeisnotunkindtohisclassmates,ishe并列句and和并且workhard,andyoucanpasstheexambut但是heisrichbutheisnothappyOr否则要不然或者(在否定句中表和)Hurryup,oryoursquollbelateso因此所以KatewasillsoshedidnrsquotgotoschoolFor因为Ihavetostayuplate,forIhavealotofworktodo状语从句当状语从句的引导词为If,when,before,after,until,assoonas等主句和从句有下列情况:主句从句①一般将来时(主将从现)一般现在时Iwillgototheparkifitdoesnrsquotraintomorrow②祈使句一般现在时③含有情态动词的句子一般现在时④一般过去时一般过去时英语句子中如果一看到Thoughtbutbecauseso这种结构,就是错误倒装句so助动词BE动词情态动词另一主语表示后者与前者一致。so上句主语助动词BE动词情态动词真的确实如此。TomwatchedTVlastnight,sodidAnnTomdidnrsquotwatchTVlastnightNeitherdidAnnYoursquoveleftthelightonSoIhaveIrsquollgoandturnitoff宾语从句从句用陈述句语序。主句与从句的关系。A.主现从不限B.主过从过C.真金不怕火炼。Theearthmovesaroundthesun③常见的宾语从句。ShesaysthatIhopethinkfeelwonderIwonderifhewilljoinusinthediscussiontonightCouldyoutellshowmeCouldyoupleasetellmewheretheteacherrsquosofficeisDoyouknowDoyouknowwhereMrLilivesPleasetellmeSheaskedmeIdonrsquotknowIdonrsquotknowwhetherTomwillgoornot定语从句that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换,但在下列情况下,一般用that而不用which。()先行词为all,everything,nothing,something,anything,little,much等不定代词时。Iamsureshehassomething(that)youcanborrow()先行词被all,every,no,some,any,little,much等修饰时。Irsquovereadallthebooksthatarenotmine()先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。Thisisthefirstbook(that)hehasread()先行词被theonly,thevery,thesame,thelast修饰时。Thisistheverybookthatbelongstohim一般用that而不用who()先行词是who或who引导的主句。Whoisthegirl(that)drovethecarWho(that)brokethewindowwillbepunished()主句以Therebe引导时。Therearepeople(that)didnrsquotthat和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换,但在下列情况下,一般用which而不用that。()关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作宾语(介词提前)。Thosearemanytreesunder(which)theycanhavearest()在非限制性定语从句中。Football,(which)isaverypopulargame,isplayedallovertheworld后跟ing的词有FinishdoingBeforeBeijingwewillfinishbuildingtheOlympicParkenjoydoing喜欢做某事IenjoyreadingEnglishloudlyminddoing介意(反对)做某事wouldyoumindopeningthewindowpracticedoingsth练习做某事weshouldpracticespeakingEnglishasoftenaspossiblebebusydoingsth忙于做某事beworthdoingsth值得做某事feellikedoingsth=wanttodosth想要做某事spend(in)doingsth花费时间做某事stoppreventkeepfromdoing阻止某人做某事havetroubleproblemahardtimedoingsth做某事很困难Havefundoingsth=haveagoodtimedoingsth做某事很快乐goondoingsth接着做原来做着的事goshoppingswimmingskatingsurfingdosomerunningwashingcooking介词(for,with,without,about)后跟动词原形:whydon#tyouwhynotyou#dbetter(not)wouldyouplease(not)makelethave注意:在被动语态中,to要加上后跟ing和TO的区别developingcountry发展中国家developedcountry发达国家stoptodosth停下手中的事而去做另外的事(事情有两件)Stopdoingsth停止正在做的事情(事情只有一件)Remembertodosth记住要去做某事(事情没有做)Rememberdoingsth记得曾经做过某事(事情已经做)Forgettodosth忘记去做某事(事情没做)Forgetdoingsth忘记曾经做过的事情(事情已经做)Trytodosth努力去做某事Trydoingsth试着去做某事Goontodosth做完一件事接着改做另外一件事Goondoingsth继续不停地做某事Seehearsbdoingdo情态动词Can①能可能表示能力猜测。过过式could②可能也许。主要用在疑问句、否定句中表示怀疑、估计不用肯定句中。③对could的委婉语气回答一般不直接用yes和no要用certainly,ofcourseOkSure④wouldyoupleasenotdo⑤wouldyouliketoplayfootballwithmetonightYes,IrsquodlovetoSorry,IambusyYes,IrsquodlovetoBut⑥wouldyoulikesomebananasYes,pleaseNothanks⑦在表示请求、委婉语气的疑问句和表示希望得到对方的肯定回答的问句中常用someCouldyougivemesomeapplesMay①可以表许可。mayI?回答:Yes,youmayYes,ofcourseNo,youmaynotNo,yoursquodbetternot②也许可能。表猜测但把握性不是很大。③maybe=perhaps是副词放在句首或句末。Maybe和Maybe不同。Must①MustI否定回答用No,youneednrsquotNo,youdonrsquothaveto②必须。应该。mustnrsquot禁止绝对不能。③must表主观。Haveto表客观。Donrsquothaveto=neednrsquot④must一定。用于表推测。表示有很大的把握时用只用于肯定句、不用疑问句。否定句中canrsquot有不可能之意。Need①donrsquothavetodosth=neednrsquotdosth②肯定回答Yes,must否定回答No,neednrsquot不定式不定式常跟在以下及物动词后面作宾语:want,like,wish,hope,try,ask,start,begin,forget,remember,learn,choose,agree,tell,decide,needEgWanttodosthAsksb(not)todosthTellsbtodosthDecidetodosthWouldliketodosthSet

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