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首页 2011年职称英语讲义2011年职称英语冲刺班_完形填空_讲义

2011年职称英语讲义2011年职称英语冲刺班_完形填空_讲义.doc

2011年职称英语讲义2011年职称英语冲刺班_完形填空_讲义

祺宝贝
2018-09-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《2011年职称英语讲义2011年职称英语冲刺班_完形填空_讲义doc》,可适用于文学艺术领域

年职称考试完形填空冲刺讲义屠皓民一、完形填空语法知识点介词·HisfindingsarebasedthenumberofpeopleworkinginthehospitalityindustryinBritainAonBinCatDof·Whereonce,intheschoolplayground,onechildmighthavepetulantlyshoutedanotherA)atB)inC)onD)farward·Thecarisfittedwitharemoteimmobilizerandaradiosignalfromacontrolcentermilesawaywillensurethatoncethethiefswitchestheengine,hewillnotbeabletostartitagainAoffBonCatDof平行结构·Whiletobaccoislinkedtoaboutpercentofcancercases,dietisinvolvedinanestimatedpercentandalcoholaboutsixpercentAatBinCofDfor·Acontroversialaspectof"defriending"isthat,unlikewithotherapplicationssuchasthe"whatareyouthinkingabout"postingadigitaldepositoryoftheoftendire,,dullanddesperate,A)excitingB)drearyC)cheerfulD)bright·ThesurveyandappearintheAprilthissueoftheJournaloftheAmericanMedicalAssociationA)analyzeB)analysisC)havinganalyzedD)beanalyzed动词相互关系·TheprofessorreallywantswhyhelostthecompetitionAknowingBtoknowCknownDknow·Moderncarsareafartougherproposition,astheirenginemanagementcomputerwillnotthemtostartunlesstnDspanApeopleBkillersCinventionDnationAmoreBlessChighDhighlyAdevelopedBlessdevelopedCundevelopedDdevelopingAmoredeadlyBdeadlyClessdeadlyDfatalAimprovementsBfactorsCjobsDmeasuresAmakesBcausesCmakeDcauseAagainstBforCtoDfromAAndBThereforeCInadditionDNeverthelessAwhenByetChoweverDwhileAspreadBaffectedCproducedDcreatedApoorBweakColderDyoungAandBleadingtoCfromDwith上世纪人类平均寿命的变化一百年以前发达国家的人均寿命大约是岁到世纪初美英两国的男性平均寿命约为岁女性则约为岁人们的平均寿命一直在延长。是什么造成了这样的变化呢?在研究一百年前的人们寿命的时候我们有必要注意当时一些不治之症。早在世纪初这些不治之症经常是像天花之类的急性的高传染病。许多儿童因此夭折(也有其他原因)年迈题弱的人也总是面临着它们的威胁。如今这些疾病在发达国家已远不能致命有一些都能被治愈。这一变化归于许多因素比如:环境及个人卫生的改善抗生素的发现及使用(抗生素大大降低了细菌病的危险)以及常见疾病预防疫苗的接种。除此之外更洁净的空气、更好的食物保鲜方法、更舒适温暖的屋子还有对营养的进一步认识这些总的环境的改善也促进了人们的整体健康。从基因角度看人都都能活到岁但尽管现在人们寿命确实比以前长了仍然有一些疾病使得我们不能都活到那个岁数。现在困扰人们的是像心脏病和中风那种更为慢性的疾病还有像流行性感冒和AIDS那些通过病毒传染的疾病。当然癌症也是一大杀手。上述疾病大多影响着老年人但是令人担忧的问题在发达国家日趋明显如:肥胖产生更多心脏病和糖尿病等其他疾病患者群渐呈年轻化。人们如今把这些疾病归为“生活方式疾病”这意味着人们生活方式的改善有可能阻止它们的进一步发展。理工类C级WhatIstheCoolestGasintheUniverseWhatisthecoldestairtemperatureeverrecordedontheEarthWherewasthislowtemperaturerecordedThecoldestrecordedtemperatureonEarthwas℃,whichinAntarcticainWeencounteraninterestingsituationwhenwediscusstemperaturesinTemperaturesinEarthorbitactuallyrangefromabout℃to℃ThetemperaturedependsuponyouareindirectsunlightorshadeObviously,iscolderthanourbodycansafelyendureThankNASAscienceforwelldesignedspacethatprotectastronautsfromthesetemperatureextremesThespacetemperaturesjustdiscussedaffectonlyourareaofthesolarObviously,itishotterclosertotheSunandcolderaswetravelawayfromtheSunAstronomersestimatetemperaturesatPlutoareabout℃HowcoldisthelowestestimatedtemperatureintheentireuniverseAgain,itdependsuponyourWearetaughtitissupposedlytohaveatemperaturebelowabsolutezero,whichis℃,atwhichatomsdonotmoveTwoscientists,whosenamesareCornellandWieman,havesuccessfullycooleddownagastoatemperaturebarelyabsolutezeroTheywonaNobelPrizeinPhysicsinfortheirworknotadiscovery,inthiscaseWhyisthetwoscientists’worksoimportanttoscienceInthes,SatyendraNathBosewasstudyinganinterestingaboutspeciallightparticleswenowcallphotonsBosehadtroubleotherscientiststobelievehistheoryhecontactedAlbertEinsteinEinstein’scalculationshelpedhimtheorizethatatomsbehaveasBosethoughtbutonlyatverycoldtemperaturesScientistshavealsodiscoveredthatatomscanhelpthemmaketheworld’satomicclocksevenmoreaccurateTheseclocksaresoaccuratetodaytheywouldonlyloseonesecondsixmillionyears!Suchaccuracywillhelpustravelinspacebecausedistanceisvelocitytimestime(d=v×t)Withthelongdistancesinvolvedinspace,weneedtoknowtimeasaccuratelyaspossibletogetaccuratedistanceAopenedBoccurredCopposedDoperatedAEarthBspaceCplanetDstarAwhetherBwhereCwhatDwhenAfoodsBbedsCtoolsDsuitsAwindBenergyCsystemDraysAeducationBstatusCknowledgeDlocationAreasonableBwonderfulCimpossibleDnecessaryAaboveBbelowCwithinDbeyondAinventionBtheoryCpaperDexperimentAconvincingBbeggingCorderingDforcingAandBthoughCbutDsoAwillBwouldCmustDcanAultrasmallBultrafastCultrahotDultracoldAanyBeachCeveryDsomeAtravelBresearchCwalkDstation宇宙中哪种气体温度最低?地球上记录到的最低温度是多少?出现在哪里?地球上最低的温度是℃。年出现在南极洲。我们讨论宇宙温度时会发现一种有趣的现象。地球轨道上的温度是介于℃至℃之间。温度的变化取决于是向阳还是背阳。很明显℃远低于人体能忍受的安全温度。幸亏美国国家航空和航天管理局生产出一种装置保护宇航员不受极端温度的侵害。刚才讨论是有关太阳系中环地球宇宙空间的温度。很明显离太阳越近温度越高反之温度越底。天文学家预测冥王星的温度大约是℃。整个宇宙的最低温度是多少呢?如前所述这仍要取决于你的位置。原子在℃时就不再移动了这就是所谓的绝对零度我们都知道不可能再有比绝对零度更低的温度了。科学家Cornell和Wieman成功地将气体的温度降到接近绝对零度并因此获得了年诺贝尔物理学奖。在这一案例中这两位科学家并不是因为重大的科学发现获奖的。那么这两位科学家的工作为什么对科学界来说很重要呢?早在世纪年代科学家SatyendraNathBose就在研究一种关于发光微粒的理论。这种微粒就是我们现在所说的光子。其他科学家不接受他的理论Bose对此一筹莫展只好求助于AlbertEinstein。Einstein的计算从理论上证实原子确实能像Bose猜想的那样移动但必须在超低的温度下。科学家还发现超低温度下的原子可以使原子表更精确。原子表精确之极每万年才慢一秒!如此精确的计时有利于人类的宇宙航行因为航行距离等于速度乘以时间。从地球飞向其他星球的宇宙航程很长计时越精确测算宇宙飞行器的即时距离就越精确。理工类B级SmokingCanIncreaseDepressiveSymptomsinteensWhilesometeenagersmaypuffoncigarettesto“selfmedicate”againsttheblues,scientistsattheUniversityofTorontoandtheUniversityofMontrealhavefoundthatsmokingmayactuallydepressivesymptomsinsometeens“Thisobservationalstudyisoneofthefewtoexaminetheperceivedbenefitsofsmokingamongteens,”saysleadresearcherMichaelChaiton,aresearchassociateattheOntarioTobaccoResearchUnitoftheUniversityofToronto“cigarettesmayappeartohaveselfmedicatingortoimprovemood,inthelongtermwefoundthatteenswhostartedtosmokereportedhigherdepressivesymptoms”Aspartofthestudy,somehighschoolteenagerscompleteduptoquestionnairestheiruseofcigarettesofaffectmoodSecondaryschoolswereselectedtoprovideamixofFrenchandEnglishparticipants,urbanandruralschools,andschoolsinhigh,moderateandlowsocioeconomicneighborhoodsParticipantsweredividedintothree:neversmokerssmokerswhodidnotusecigarettestoselfmedicate,improvemoodorphysicalsmokerswhousedcigarettestoselfmedicateDepressivesymptomsweremeasuredusingascalethataskedhowoftenparticipantsfelttootiredtodothingshadgoingtosleeporstayingfeltunhappy,sad,ordepressedfelthopelessaboutthefuturefeltvexed,antsyortenseandworriedtoomuchaboutthings“Smokerswhousedcigarettesasmoodhadhigherrisksofelevateddepressivesymptomsthanteenswhohadneversmoked,”sayscoresearcherJenniferO’Loughlin,aprofessorattheUniversityofMontrealDepartmentofSocialandPreventiveMedicine“Ourstudyfoundthatteensmokerswhoreportedemotionalbenefitsfromsmokingareathigherriskofdepressivesymptoms”Thebetweendepressionandsmokingexistsamongteensthatusecigarettestofeelbetter“It’stoemphasizethatdepressivesymptomscoreswerehigheramongteenagerswhoreportedemotionalbenefitsfromsmokingaftertheybegantosmoke,”saysDrChaitonAexamineBincreaseCdecreaseDdiagnoseAsocialBfinancialCemotionalDpoliticalAWhateverBAlthoughCWheneverDSWhatAeffectsBmethodsCstepsDdirectionsAbesideBbeyondCinDaboutAexposedBexpandedClocatedDdetectedAgroupsBsetsCspeciesDversionsAworldBactivityCstateDbeautyAtimeBcourageCenergyDtroubleAasleepBawakeCstillDsilentAreducersBimproversCcreatorsDremoversAchangingBidentifyingCdevelopingDovercomingAdifferenceBassociationCcooperationDagreementAoccasionallyBscarcelyCprobablyDprincipallyAillogicalBunscientificCmeaninglessDimportant吸烟会加重青少年的抑郁情绪有些青少年可能会一口接一口地吸烟来消除抑郁进行所谓的“自我治疗”。然而加拿大Toronto和Montreal大学的科学家却发现事实上吸烟会加重某些青少年的抑郁情绪。“这项研究是检验吸烟是否可以给青少年带来精神欢愉的几项研究之一”首席研究员MichaelChaiton如是说他是Toronto大学Ontario烟草研究组织的助理研究员“尽管吸烟能在短时间能起到自我治疗的作用能振奋精神但根据青少年自我报告的情况我们发现从长远看吸烟的青少年往往有更多的抑郁症状。”这项研究的内容之一是约名高中生完成一份包括道问题的问卷问卷的问题是关于吸烟对情绪的影响。入选的中学学生既有讲法语的也有讲英语的他们就读的学校有城市的也有乡村的并分布在高档、中档和低档不同社区。参与调查者分成三组:一组从不吸烟一组吸烟但不是为了自我治疗调节情绪或者改善身体状态另一组是利用吸烟自我治疗的吸烟者。参与者被问及下列问题:多久会感到倦怠不堪不想做任何事多久会出现难以入睡甚至不能入睡的情况每隔多久会不开心、难过或沮丧多久会出现对未来绝望的心态每隔多久会感到烦恼紧张对所有事情都过分焦虑。收集到的答案用来衡量抑郁症状的轻重。“通过吸烟缓解抑郁的吸烟者比不吸烟的青少年更容易加重抑郁症状”Montreal大学社会和预防医学系教授研究合作者JenniferO’Loughlin总结说“我们研究发现问卷反馈回来的那些利用吸烟获得精神慰籍的青少年更容易加重抑郁。”抑郁和吸烟之间的联系主要体现在那些利用吸烟愉悦心情的青少年身上。“值得重视的是那些在问卷中反映吸烟能带来精神安慰的青少年他们在问卷中所得的抑郁评分也较高”Chaiton博士说。理工类A级YoungAdultsWhoExerciseGetHigherIQScoresYoungadultswhoarefithaveahigherIQandaremoretogoontouniversity,revealsamajornewstudycarriedoutattheSahlgrenskaAcademyandSahlgrenskaUniversityHospitalTheresultswererecentlypublishedintheProceedingsoftheNationalAcademyofSciences(PNAS)ThestudyinvolvedmillionSwedishmendoingmilitaryservicewhowerebornbetweenandTheresearchgroupanalysestheofbothphysicalandIQteststheyoungsterstookrightaftertheystartedservingthearmyThestudyshowsaclearlinkgoodphysicalfitnessandbetterresultsfortheIQtestThestrongestlinksareforthinkingandverbalcomprehensionButitisonlyfitnessthatplaysaintheresultsfortheIQtest,andnotstrength“Beingfitmeansthatyoualsohavegoodheartandlungandthatyourbraingetsplentyof,”saysMichaelNilsson,professorattheSahlgrenskaAcademyandchiefphysicianattheSahlgrenskaUniversityHospital“Thismaybeoneofthereasonswecanseeaclearlinkwithfitness,butnotwithmuscularWearealsoseeingthattherearegrowthfactorsthatareimportant”Byanalyzingdatafortwins,theresearchershavebeentodeterminethatitisprimarilyenvironmentalfactorsandnotgenesthatexplainthelinkbetweenfitnessandaIQ“Wehavealsoshownthatthoseyoungsterswhotheirphysicalfitnessbetweentheagesofandincreasetheircognitiveperformance,”saysMariaAberg,researcherattheSahlgrenskaAcademyandphysicianatAbyhealthcentre“Thisbeingthecase,physicalisasubjectthathasanimportantplaceinschools,andisanabsolutemustifwewanttodowellinmathsandothertheoreticalsubjects”TheresearchershavealsocomparedtheresultsfromfitnesstestsnationalservicewiththesocioeconomicstatusofthemenlaterinThosewhowerefitatweremorelikelytogointohighereducation,andmanysecuredmorequalifiedjobsAcarefullyBsecretlyClikelyDhappilyAanswersBworksCscoresDresultsAbehindBbetweenCamongDwithoutAlogicalBcriticalCtypicalDpositiveAplaceBgameCroleDtrickAcapacityBdiseaseCshapeDtreatmentAchangeBhydrogenCoxygenDmemoryAwhatBwhyChowDwhereAexerciseBtrainingCstrengthDmovementAableBcleverCluckyDclearAmoderateBaverageClowerDhigherAignoreBimproveClikeDdetermineAexaminationBlabourCmovementDeducationAbeforeBafterCwithoutDduringAmarriageBlifeCresidenceDservice运动的年轻人智商更高瑞典歌德堡大学健康科学研究院和该校校医院的一项最新研究表明身体健康的年轻人智商更高进入大学学习的可能性也更高。研究结果发表在美国国家科学院学报上。这项研究的取样样本是年入伍的万新兵。这些新兵报到时接受了体能测试和智能测试研究人员对这两类测试数据进行了分析。研究表明健康的体能和优秀的只能测试结果之间的联系很明显。最突出的就是科学思维和语言理解能力与身体健康有关。但是智商测试结果中只是健康在起作用而与力量无关。“身体健康是指一个人心肺功能好能将充分的氧气源源不断地输入给大脑”瑞典歌德堡大学健康科学研究院教授和瑞典歌德堡大学健康科学研究院校医院首席内科医师MichaelNilsson如是说“也许这就是为什么智商测试结果与健康之间存在明显联系而与肌肉力量无关的原因之一。我们还发现生长因子也很重要。”通过研究双胞胎的数据研究人员可以得出结论智商差异来自后天的环境因素而不是先天的基因身体健康智商越高。“我们还发现在岁之间加强身体锻炼的青少年往往认知能力也较强”瑞典歌德堡大学健康科学研究院研究员Aby健康中心医师MariaAberg说“倘若情况果然如此那么体育应成为学校中重要的一门学科而且如果我们想要学好数学和其他理论学科体育课是非常有必要的。”研究人员还将新兵服兵役入伍报到时的体格测试和智商测试的结果与他们后来生活中的社会经济地位进行了比较。那些岁时身体健康的人学历更高很多都能胜任高要求的工作。卫生类C级InfluenzaInfluenzahasbeenwithusalongtimeAccordingsomeGreekwritersonmedicalhistory,theoutbreakofBCwasofinfluenzaThesamehasbeensuggestedofthesicknessthatsweptthroughtheGreekarmySyracuseinBCFluisadiseasethatmovesmostquicklyamongpeopleincrowdedconditions,hence,itislikelytoattackarmiesDuringthenineteenthcenturytherewerefivewidespreadofinfluenzaThelastofthefiveinandmarkedthebeginningofthestoryofinfluenzainourtimeLiketherecentoutbreak,startedinAsiaFormorethanfortyyearsbeforethatoutbreak,influenzahadsteadilyandwasbelievedtobedyingoutAnewgroupofoutbreakswasintroducedbythegreatoutbreakofandforthenextquarterofacenturyfluaconstantthreatInAprilflubrokeamongAmericantroopsstationedinFranceItquicklyspreadthroughallthearmiesbutcausedrelativelydeathsFourmonthslater,,asecondoutbreakstartedwhichprovedtobeakillerItkillednotonlytheoldandalreadysickbutalsoyoungadultsItwentthrougheverycountryintheworld,onlyafewdistantislandsintheSouthAtlanticandthePacificremainingItbroughtthelifeofwholecountries,foodsuppliesstoppedandworklosswasverygreatBeforethgreatoutbreakended,itatleastmillionpeopleThereaftertherehavebeenseveralgreatoutbreaksthroughouttheworldItisthusthatinfluenzaisaterribleinfectionthatwehavetopaymoreattentiontoAatBtoCinDfromAbeingattackedBhavingbeenattackedCattackedDattackingAsittingBstandingClivingDappearingAoutbreaksBincidentsCaccidentsDcasesAchangedBhappenedCariseDdescendAitBtheyCwhichDthoseAenlargedBstrengthenedCdecreasedDincreasedAwasnolongerBwentoutofCceasedtobeDremainedAfewBmanyCcountlessDinnumerableAinadditionBhoweverCthereforeDmoreoverAweakBdisabledCsickDhealthyAtouchingBtouchedCuntouchedDhavingtouchedAstopBstoppingCstoppedDtostopAkilledBhaskilledChadkilledDhasbeenkillingAclearBstrangeCuncertainDquestionable流行性感冒流行性感冒在人类历史中出现的时间很长了。根据一些希腊作家关于医学历史的记载公元前年流行性感冒曾大爆发。这让人联想到公元前年流感席卷了正在攻打意大利叙拉古的希腊军队。流行性感冒在群聚人群中传播最快因此极易在军队中传播。世纪全球爆发了次大规模的流行性感冒。这次大爆发中的最后一次发生在年它标志着现代流感的开始。像最近一次大爆发一样它起源于亚洲。在那次大爆发之前多年的时间里流感疫情本来在不断地减少人们认为这种疫情正在消失。然而年的流感大爆发又引起了新一轮的疫情暴发在此后四分之一世纪的时间内流感的威胁仍然经常不断。年美国驻法国军队爆发流感并很快席卷了整个军队但死亡相对要少。然而个月之后又爆发了第二次流感这一次可是一个真正的杀手。这次疫情不但夺取了年老病弱者的生病连健康的年轻人也未能幸免。全球每个国家都遭到疫情袭击只有处于南大西洋和太平洋的几个岛屿幸免于难。这次疫情使各个国家的正常生活被迫中断。食品供应停止失业严重。在结束之前这次大爆发已经造成了最少,万人死亡。显而易见流感是一种可怕的传染病我们应该给予足够的重视。卫生类B级ExerciseWhetherornotexerciseaddsthelengthoflife,itiscommonexperiencethatacertainofregularexerciseimprovesthehealthandcontributesafeelingofwellbeingFurthermore,exeriseinvolvesplayandrecreation,andrelievesnervoustensionandmentalfatigueinsodoing,isnotonlypleasantbutbeneficialHowmuchandwhatkindofexerciseoneshouldmeritscarefulconsiderationThegrowingchildandthenormalyoungmanandyoungwomanthrillwiththeexhilarationofstrenuoussportsTheyfatiguetotheofexhaustionbutrecoverpromptlywithaperiodofrestButnotsowithofmiddleageandbeyondForthemmoderationisvitalimportanceJusthowmuchexerciseapersonofagivenagecansafelytakeisquestiontoanswerIndividualvariabilityisgreattopermitofgeneralizationAgameoftennismaybeperfectlysafeforonepersonoffortybutfollyforanotherThesagelimitforexerciseontheconditionoftheheart,theconditionofthemuscles,thetypeofexercise,andtheregularitywithwhichitistakenTwogeneralsuggestions,however,willassoundadviceforanyoneThefirstisthattheconditionoftheheartandgeneralhealthshouldbeperiodicallybycareful,thoroughphysicalexaminationsTheisthatexerciseshouldbekeptbelowthepointofphysicalexhaustionWhattypeofexerciseoneshoulddepensuponone’sphysicalconditionYoungpeoplecansafelyenjoyvigorouscompetitivesports,butmostolderpersonsdobettertolimitthemselvestolessstrenuousactivitiesWalking,swimming,skatingareamongthesportsthatonecanenjoyandsafelyparticipatethroughoutlifeRegularityisimportantifoneistogetthemostenjoymentandbenefitoutofexerciseAforBtoCatDofAheavinessBhighnessCamountDnumberAwhichBwhereCwhenDwhyAcarryBmakeCbringDtakeApointBplaceCleftDreverseAtheseBthisCthoseDthatAagainstBbelowConDofAeasyBhardCimpossibleDunnecessaryAveryBtooCconstantlyDconsiderablyAdependsBbasesCactsDcarriesAreferBregardCserveDtreatAdelayedBdefendedCdesignedDdeterminedAotherBanotherConeDsameAendureBchooseCrebuildDproduceAwithBfromCinDon体育运动不论体育运动是否能延长人的寿命人们普遍认为适量而有规律的体育运动可以增强体质并使人愉悦。另外体育运动及玩乐和消遣于一体可以使人放松紧张情绪缓解精神疲劳。因此做运动一举两得:既能放松有有益于身心健康。一个人适合做什么样的体育运动运动强度如何?这些问题值得人们注意。发育中的儿童和一般的青年男女都会因紧张剧烈的运动而激动不已。即使累得筋疲力尽他们也能在一段休息之后很快恢复体力。但是中年及中年以上的人就做不到。对这些人来说运动适度是很重要的。不同年龄的人从事多少运动是一个难以回答的问题。个人的差异太大无法一概而论。某种网球运动可能对于某个岁的人来说是安全的但对于另一个人来说却不合适。运动的安全范围取决于认得心脏状况、肌肉状况、运动类型以及进行运动的规律性。但是下面两个一般性建议适合所有人。一个建议是应该定期进行细致的体检查看心脏情况和总体体质。另一个建议是运动强度要适度不应使人筋疲力尽。一个人选择哪种类型的运动取决于他的体质。年轻人可以放心地参加有力度的竞技性运动但大多数老年人最好还是把自己的活动限制在不太剧烈的程度之内。散步、游泳和滑冰是人们喜欢的运动并且各个年龄段的人都可以参加。任何人想从体育运动中获得最大的乐趣和益处那么有规律就很重要了。FoodSafetyandFoodborneIllnessFoodsafetyisanincreasinglyimportantpublichealthissueGovernmentsalloverworldareintensifyingtheireffortstoimprovefoodsafetyTheseeffortsareinresponseanincreasingnumberoffoodsafetyproblemsandconsumerconcernsFoodborneillnessesareasdiseases,usuallyeitherinfectiousortoxicinnature,causedbyagentsthatenterthebodythroughtheingestionoffoodEverypersonisriskoffoodborneillnessFoodbornediseasesareawidespreadandgrowingpublichealthproblem,bothindevelopeddevelopingcountriesTheglobaloffoodbornediseaseisdifficulttoestimate,butithasbeenreportedthatinmillionpeoplediedfromdiarrhoealdiseasesAgreatofthesecasescanbeattributedtocontaminationoffoodanddrinkingwater,diarrhoeaisamajorcauseofmalnutritionininfantsandyoungchildrenIndustrializedcountries,thepercentageofthepopulationsufferingfromfoodbornediseaseseachyearhasbeenreportedtobeIntheUnitedStatesofAmerica(USA),forexample,aroundmillioncasesoffoodbornediseases,,hospitalizationsand,deaths,areestimatedtooccureachyearWhilelesswelldocumented,developingcountriesbearthebruntoftheproblemduetothepresenceofawideoffoodbornediseases,includingthosecausedbyparasitesThehighofdiarrhoealdiseasesinmanydevelopingcountriessuggestsmajorunderlyingfoodsafetyproblemsInparternershipotherstakeholders,WHOisdevelopingpoliciesthatwillfurtherpromotethesafetyoffoodThesespoliciescovertheentirefoodchainfromproductiontoconsumptionandwilldifferenttypesofexpertiseAtoBagainstCwithDtowardsAraisingBarisingCrisingDrosenAdeclaredBdefinedCderivedDdemandedAwithBwithinCatDinAorBwithCofDandAincidentBincidenceCaccidentDinstanceAlonelyBaloneCalonelyDloneAsizeBpositionCproportionDamountANeverthelessBHoweverCWhateverDAdditionallyAuptoBdowntoCuptowardsDdowntowardsAresultingfromBresultinginCresultedfromDresultedinArangeBdistanceCorderDarrangementAprevailingBspreadingCprevalentDprevalenceAofBforCfromDwithAmakeuseofBtakeuseofCmakeuseDtakeuse食品安全与食源性疾病食品安全正在成为一个越来越重要的公众健康问题。世界各国政府都在努力加强管理提高食品安全性。这些努力主要是对越来越多的食品安全问题以及消费者越来越多的担忧作出的反应。食源性疾病被定义成这样一种疾病:通常在本质上既不传染也不是中毒而是致病因子通过人们摄入体内的食物引起的一种疾病。每个人都有得食源性疾病的危险。不管是在发达国家还是在发展中国家食源性疾病都是一种普遍存在的公众健康问题并且越来越严重。食源性疾病在全球的发病率很难估计但据报道仅年就有万人死于食源性疾病。相当多的这种病例可以归因于食物和饮用水的污染而且腹泻是幼儿和儿童营养不良的一大主因。据报道在工业化国家每年患有食源性疾病的人口比例从到不等。以美国为例每年大约有,万例左右食源性疾病患者造成约,例住院治疗,例死亡。虽然文献资料还不多但发展中国家是各种食源性疾病包括由寄生虫引发的疾病等首当其冲的受害者。许多发展中国家腹泻疾病发病率很高这就说明了潜在的严重食品安全问题。与其它机构一起WHO在不断制定能进一步提高食品安全的政策这些政策涵盖了从生产到消费整个食品链并将充分利用各种专业知识。卫生类A级PandemicHNThemostactiveareasofpandemicinfluenzatransmissioncurrentlyareincentralandeasternEuropeFocalincreasesinratesduringrecentweekswerereportedinatleasttwoasternEuropeancountriesAhighintensityofrespiratorydiseasesactivityconcurrentcirculationofpandemicinfluenzastillpartsofsouthernandeasternEurope,inGreece,Poland,andUkraineInWesternEurope,influenzaremainsactiveandwidespread,butoveralldiseaseactivityhaspeakedAllinfluenzavirusesinWesternEuropewerepandemicHN,however,verysmallofseasonalinfluenzaviruses,coveringlessthanofallinfluenzaviruses,werereportedinRussia,limitedavailabledataindicatethatactive,highintensitytransmissionisoccurringinNorthernAfricancountriestheMediterraneancoastInCentralAsia,limiteddatathatinfluenzaviruscirculationremainsactive,buttransmissionmayhaverecentlypeakedinsomeplacesInWestAsia,Israel,Iran,andIraqalsoappeartheirpeakperiodoftransmissionwithinthepastmonth,thoughareascontinuetohavesomeactivetransmissionandlevelsofrespiratorydiseaseactivityhavenotyetreturnedtobaselinelevelsInEastAsia,influenzatransmissionremainsactivebutappearstobeoverallincreaseinILIwerereportedinMongoliaafterweeksofdecliningactivityfollowingalargepeakofactivityoveronemonthagoInNorthAmerica,influenzatransmissionwidespreadbuthasdeclinedquicklyinallcountriesInthetropicalregionsofCentralandSouthAmericaandtheCaribbean,influenzatransmissionremainsgeographicallywidespreadbutoveralldiseaseactivityhasbeendecliningotremainsunchangedinmostparts,focalincreasesinrespiratorydiseaseactivityinafewcountriesAofBwithCforDinAremainsofBkeepsCexistsinDdevelopsAparticularlyBusuallyCexactlyDcompletelyAtransportBtransmissionCdevelopmentDoccurrenceAamountsBcountsCcalculationsDnumbersAtofindBfindingCfindsDfoundAHoweverBNeverthelessCButDInadditionAalongBonCatDaroundAadviseBproposeCsuggestDrecommendAtopassBpassingCtohavepassedDpassedAbothBallCnoneDneitherAdecliningBreducingCbelowDunderALittleBBigCSlightDGreatAreducesBremainsCincreasesDpreventsAapartfromBbesideCbesidesDexceptfor年甲型HN流感大流行近日欧洲中部及东部成为流感传染最为活跃的地区。近几周来在欧洲东部至少有两个以上的国家被报传染率急速攀升。在欧洲东南部尤其是希腊、波兰及乌克兰等地严重的呼吸系统疾病伴随着传染同时发生。在欧洲西部尽管流感仍在广泛但已出现下降趋势。根据来自俄罗斯的报道这些传染多由HN型病毒引发只有不到是由季节流感病毒引起的。该报道还指出根据有限的数据显示地中海沿岸的北非地区现在正为流感高发地带。在亚洲中部地区根据有限的数据表明虽然流感病毒传播仍然十分活跃但是在部分地区已呈现下滑迹象。在西亚的以色列、伊朗及伊拉克地区过去的一个月已经摆脱最高峰值开始下降。但中亚和西亚这两个地区的病毒传播仍然比较活跃呼吸系统疾病的发病数仍没有降到基线以下。东亚地区的传播速度也出现了明显的下滑。只有蒙古在数周前有峰值逐步下滑后出现了小幅度的回升。在北美地区流感传染依旧泛滥但已经开始出现快速下滑趋势。在中、南美洲的热带地区以及加勒比海地区流感传播仍然活跃但总体上已经得到控制并且开始好转只有少数几个国家的呼吸系统疾病发病率仍呈上升趋势。参考答案综合文章名称答案C级WhyPeopleUsePseudonymsCADBACDBBADABACB级SportorSpectacleCABDBADBCBDACBAA级LifeExpectancyintheLastHundredYearsABDBDACBCACDACB理工文章名称答案C级WhatIstheCoolestGasintheUniverseBBADCDCABADBDCAB级SmokingCanIncreaseDepressiveSymptomsinteensBCBADCACDABCBDDA级YoungAdultsWhoExerciseGetHigherIQScoresCDBACACBCADBDDB卫生文章名称答案C级InfluenzaBDCABACDABDCDCAB级ExerciseBCADACDBBACDABCFoodSafetyandFoodborneIllnessACBCDBBCDABADDAA级PandemicHNBCABDDDACCAACBDPAG
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