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首页 翻译学导论英文版和中文版

翻译学导论英文版和中文版.pdf

翻译学导论英文版和中文版

机械进出口-秦皇岛
2017-03-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《翻译学导论英文版和中文版pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

ddcorbjpgIntroducingTranslationStudislsquoIntroducingTranslationStudisisamongthfwrybsttxtbooksontranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisthatbringstogthrtranslationthoryandpracticInthbook,Mundayhasdonasuprbjobinprsntingthmyriadofuptodattranslationthorisinaconcis,lucidandintrstingmannrItrsquostranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudismadasy,hncgoodfortranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudnts,tachrs,profssionaltranslatorsorsimplyanyonwhowantsanintroductiontothsubjctrsquoDfngLi,SOAS,UKPraisforthfirstdition:lsquoJrmyMundayrsquosbookrspondstothchallngnotonlyofhaingtoproidforthprofoundpluralitynowcharactristicofthfild,butalsotoprsntasnapshotofarapidlydlopingdisciplininaclar,concisandgraphicwayThisisabookwhichraissstrongawarnssofcurrntissusinthfildandwillbofintrsttotranslationtrainrsandtrainsalikrsquoBasilHatim,AmricanUnirsityofSharjah,UAEAnstablishdbstsllingtxtbook,usdontranslationcourssandPhDprogrammsworldwid,IntroducingTranslationStudisproidsanaccssibloriwofthkycontributi<spanclass='wran'onandalsoincludingglobalizationlocalizationandcorpusbasdtranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisRisionofachchaptrwithnwmatrialonthdlopmntoftranslationthoryandpractic,includingcognititranslationthorisandrlancthory,thhistoriographyandsociologyoftranslation,andtranslationandidologyAnupdatddiscussiononthfuturoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisRisdxrcissandfullyupdatdfurthrradinglists,wblinksandbibliographyAnwcompanionwbsitThisisapractical,usrfrindlytxtbookwhichgisacomprhnsiinsightintotranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisAnaccompanyingwbsitcanbfoundat:http:routldgcomtxtbooksJrmyMundayisSniorLcturrinSpanishstudisandtranslationatthUnirsityofLdsandisafrlanctranslatorHisauthorofStylandIdologyinTranslation(Routldg,)andcoauthor,withBasilHatim,ofTranslation:AnAdancdRsourcBook(Routldg,)IntroducingTranslationStudisThorisandapplicati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>ScondEditionJEREMYMUNDAYFirstditionpublishdbyRoutldgParkSquar,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultanouslypublishdinthUSAandCanadabyRoutldgMadisonA,NwYork,NYScondditionpublishdRoutldgisanimprintofthTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinsscopy,JrmyMundayThrightofJrmyMundaytobidntifidasthAuthorofthisWorkhasbnassrtdbyhiminaccordancwiththCopyright,DsignandPatntsActAllrightsrsrdNopartofthisbookmaybrprintdorrproducdorutilizdinanyformorbyanylctronic,mchanical,orothrmans,nowknownorhraftrinntd,includingphotocopyingandrcording,orinanyinformati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>toragorrtrialsystm,withoutprmissioninwritingfromthpublishrsBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcatalogurcordforthisbookisaailablfromthBritishLibraryLibraryofCongrssCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrcordforthisbookhasbnrqustdISBN:ndashndashndash(hbk)ISBN:ndashndashndashx(pbk)ISBN:ndashndashndashndash(hbk)ISBN:ndashndashndashndash(pbk)ThisditionpublishdinthTaylorFrancisLibrary,TopurchasyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutldgrsquoscollctionofthousandsofBooksplasgotowwwBookstortandfcoukISBNMastrbookISBNParaCristina,qumhahchoflizContntsListoffigursandtablsxiAcknowldgmntsxiiiListofabbriati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>xIntroductionChaptrMainissusoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisThconcptoftranslationWhatistranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisAbrifhistoryofthdisciplinThHolmsTourylsquomaprsquoDlopmntssincthsAimofthisbookandaguidtochaptrsChaptrTranslationthorybforthtwntithcnturyIntroductionlsquoWordforwordrsquoorlsquosnsforsnsrsquoMartinLuthrFaithfulnss,spiritandtruthEarlyattmptsatsystmatictranslationthory:Drydn,DoltandTytlrSchlirmachrandthalorizationofthforignTranslationthoryofthnintnthandarlytwntithcnturisinBritainTowardscontmporarytranslationthoryChaptrEquialncandquialntffctIntroductionRomanJakobson:thnaturoflinguisticmaningandquialncNidaandlsquothscincoftranslatingrsquoNwmark:smanticandcommunicatitranslationKollr:KorrspondnzandAumlquialnzLatrdlopmntsinquialncChaptrStudyingtranslationproductandprocssIntroductionVinayandDarblntrsquosmodlCatfordandtranslationlsquoshiftsrsquo<spanclass='wran'><span>Czchwritingontranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>hiftsThcognitiprocssoftranslationChaptrFunctionalthorisoftranslationIntroductionTxttypTranslatorialactionSkoposthoryTranslationorintdtxtanalysisChaptrDiscoursandrgistranalysisapproachs<spanclass='wran'><span>Introduction<spanclass='wran'><span>ThHallidayanmodloflanguaganddiscoursHousrsquosmodloftranslationqualityassssmntBakrrsquostxtandpragmaticllanalysis:acoursbookfortranslatorsHatimandMason:thsmioticllofcontxtanddiscoursCriticismsofdiscoursandrgistranalysisapproachstotranslationChaptrSystmsthorisIntroductionPolysystmthoryTouryanddscriptitranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisChstrmanrsquostranslationnormsOthrmodlsofdscriptitranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudis:LambrtandanGorpandthManipulationSchoolChaptrCulturalandidologicalturnsIntroductionTranslationasrwritingTranslationandgndr<spanclass='wran'>P<span>ostcolonialtranslationthoryThidologisofththoristsOthrprspctisontranslationandidologyChaptrThrolofthtranslator:isibility,thicsandsociologyIntroductionThculturalandpoliticalagndaoftranslationThpositionandpositionalityofthlitrarytranslatorThpowrntworkofthpublishingindustryDiscussionofVnutirsquosworkCONTENTSVIIIThrcptionandriwingoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>ThsociologyandhistoriographyoftranslationChaptrPhilosophicalthorisoftranslationIntroductionStinrrsquoshrmnuticmotionEzraPoundandthnrgyoflanguagThtaskofthtranslator:WaltrBnjaminDc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tructionChaptrNwdircti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>fromthnwmdiaIntroductionCorpusbasdtranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisAudioisualtranslationLocalizationandglobalizationChaptrConcludingrmarksAppndix:intrntlinksNotsBibliographyIndxCONTENTSIXListoffigursandtablsFigursHolmsrsquoslsquomaprsquooftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisThapplidbranchoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisNidarsquosthrstagsystmoftranslationRissrsquostxttypsandtxtaritisTxttypandrlantcritriafortranslationRlationofgnrandrgistrtolanguagSchmforanalysingandcomparingoriginalandtranslationtxtsTouryrsquosinitialnormandthcontinuumofadquatandaccptabltranslationPrliminarynormsOprationalnormsTablsComparisonofNwmarkrsquossmanticandcommunicatitranslationDiffrntiationofquialncandcorrspondncCharactristicsofrsarchfocifordiffrntquialnctypsSgmntationoftxtintounitsoftranslationFunctionalcharactristicsoftxttypsandlinkstotranslationmthodsAcknowldgmntsIwouldliktothankthfollowingcopyrightholdrsforgiingprmissiontorproducthfollowing:Figur,rproducdfromGToury,DscriptiTranslationStudisndashAndByond,copyright,AmstrdamandPhiladlphia,PA:JohnBnjaminsFigur,rproducdfromENidaandCRTabr,ThThoryandPracticofTranslation,copyright,Lidn:EJBrillFigur,rproducdfromAChstrman(d),RadingsinTranslationThory,copyright<spanclass='wran'><spanclass='wran'><span><span>,Hlsinki:FinnLcturabasdonahandoutprpardbyRolandFrihoffprmissionkindlygrantdbythauthorFigur,rproducdfromMSnllHornby,TranslationStudis:AnIntgratdApproach,copyright,AmstrdamandPhiladlphia,PA:JohnBnjaminsFigur,rproducdfromJHous,TranslationQualityAssssmnt:AModlRisitd,copyright,Tuumlbingn:GuntrNarrTabl,translatdandadaptdfromKRiss,MoumlglichkitnundGrnzndrUumlbrstzungskritikthoriginaliscopyrightofKRissThcasstudyinChaptrisarisdandabridgdrsionofanarticlofmin:lsquoThCaribbanconqursthworldA<spanclass='wran'>nana<span>lysisofthrcptionofGarciacuteaMaacuterquzintranslationrsquo,publishdinBulltinofHispanicStudis,:ndashInthfirstdition,IindicatdmysincrdbttoLawrncVnuti(TmplUnirsity,USA)forhisncouragmntwiththisprojctandforhisdtaildcommntsandsuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>onarlirdraftsIagainacknowldgthisdbt,althoughIdidnotcallonhisadicforthchangsmadtothscondditionMythanksalsogotoRanaNayar(Radr,DpartmntofEnglishatPanjabUnirsity,Chandigarh,India)forhisassistancwiththcasstudyinChaptrIalsothankcollagusatthUnirsitisofLds,SurryandBradfordforthirsupportduringthwritingofthfirstandscondditi<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>thisbook,andtomystudntsatallthosinstituti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>whoharsponddtorsi<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>ofthismatrialMythanksalsotoallwhohacontactdmwithcommntsonthfirstditionwithsuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>forrision(includingJohnDnton,GrhardHupl,DaidLargandAnitaWston),tothosjournalriwrswhohamadc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tructisuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>andtothanonymousriwrsofthproposalforthisscondditionThrarmanyothrtranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudiscollaguswhohaoffrdsuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>andhlpinmanywaysIthankthmallIwouldalsoliktoxprssmyxtrmgratitudtoLouisaSmlyn,NadiaSmungalandUrsulaMllowsatRoutldg,whohabnrysupportiandpatintthroughoutthwritingandditingprocssAlsotocopyditorRosmaryMorlinandproofradrMaryDaltonforthircarfulattntiontodtailAnyrmainingrrorsarofcoursminalonFinally,butmostofall,mythankstoCristina,whosloandhlphamantsomuchtom,andtoNuriaandMarina,whohaadddsomuchtomylifJrmyMundayLondon,NombrListofabbriati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>BCEBforCommonEraCECommonEraDTSdscriptitranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisSLsourclanguagSTsourctxtTLtargtlanguagTTtargttxtIntroductionTranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisisthacadmicdisciplinrlatdtothstudyofththoryandphnomnaoftranslationByitsnaturitismultilingualandalsointrdisciplinary,ncompassinganylanguagcombinati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>,ariousbranchsoflinguistics,comparatilitratur,communicati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudis,philosophyandarangoftypsofculturalstudisincludingpostcolonialismandpostmodrnismaswllassociologyandhistoriographyBcausofthisdirsity,onofthbiggstproblmsintachingandlarningabouttranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisisthatmuchofitisdisprsdacrosssuchawidrangofbooksandjournalsHncthrhabnanumbroflsquoradrsrsquoofkywritingsonthsubjctthsincludHansJoachimStoumlrigrsquosDasProblmdsUumlbrstzns(),AndrwChstrmanrsquosRadingsinTranslationThory(<spanclass='wran'><spanclass='wran'><span><span>),AndreacuteLfrrsquosTranslationHistoryCultur:ASourcbook(b),RainrSchultandJohnBiguntrsquosThorisofTranslation:AnAnthologyofEssaysfromDrydntoDrrida(),DouglasRobinsonrsquosWstrnTranslationThoryfromHrodotustoNitzsch(b)andLawrncVnutirsquosThTranslationStudisRadr(,nddition)Othrs,suchasThRoutldgEncyclopdiaofTranslationStudis(Bakr),AnEncyclopdiaofTranslation(ChanandPollard)andThDictionaryofTranslationStudis(ShuttlworthandCowi),haattmptdtobringtogthrthmainconcptsandgiadscriptionofthfildSurysinothrlanguagsinclud,inSpanish,HurtadoAlbir(),inGrman,SnllHornbytal()andStolz()andthmultilinguallsquohandbookrsquobyMoutondGruytr,thfirstolumofwhichwaspublishdin(Kittltal)ThfirstditionofIntroducingTranslationStudis()prsntdapracticalintroductiontoanalradydirsfildThisscondditionisfullyrisdbuthasthsamaim,sttingouttogiacriticalbutbalancdsuryofmanyofthmostimportanttrndsandcontributi<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>totranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisinasinglolum,writtni<spanclass='wran'>nana<span>ccssiblstylThdiffrntcontmporarymodlsarapplidtoillustratitxtsinbrifcasstudissothatthradrcansthminoprationThnwrsarchcontaindinthscasstudis,togthrwiththlsquodiscussionandrsarchpointsrsquoscti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>,isdsigndtoncouragfurthrxplorationandundrstandingoftranslationissusThisnwditionfollowsthbasicstructuroftharlirditionbullyupdatsrfrncs,includsadscriptionofimportantnwmatrialthroughout:forinstanc,mormatrialonhistoricalsourcs,spciallyChina,inChaptr,somc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idrationofcognitithorisinChaptr,anupdatonlsquotranslationunirsalsrsquoinChaptr,andthadditionofnwworkonthics,idology,sociology,historiographyandthtranslationofgaytxtsinChaptrsandSomofthmatrialfromthoriginalfinalchaptronintrdisciplinarityhasbnincorporatdintoChaptrandanwfinalchaptrdiscussshowthpacofnwtchnologisisprsntingnwchallngsandopningupnwfildstotranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisThfocusinthislastchaptrisonaudioisualtranslation,localizationandcorpuslinguisticsThbookisdsigndtosrasacoursbookforundrgraduatandpostgraduattranslation,translati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisandtranslationthory,andalsoasasolidthorticalintroductiontostudnts,rsarchrs,instructorsandprofssionaltranslatorsThaimistonablthradrstodlopthirundrstandingofthissusandassociatdmtalanguag,andtobgintoapplythmodlsthmslsItisalsohopdthataclosrxaminationofspcificissusandfurthrradinginthosarasthatarofgratstintrsttothindiidualstudntwillbncouragdInthisway,thbookmayproidastimulatingintroductiontoarangofthorticalapproachstotranslationthatarrlantbothforthosngagdinthacadmicstudyoftranslationandforthprofssionallinguistEachofthchaptrssurysamajoraraofthdisciplinEachisdsigndtobslfstanding,sothatradrswithaspcificfocuscanquicklyfindthdscripti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>thatarofmostintrsttothmHowr,concptuallinksbtwnchaptrsarcrossrfrncdandthbookhasbnstructurdsothatitcanfunctionasacoursbookintranslation,translati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisandtranslationthoryThrarlnchaptrs,achofwhichmightbcordinonortwowks,dpndingonthlngthofthcours,tofitintoasmstrizdsystmThdiscussionandrsarchpointsadditionallyproidsubstantialinitialmatrialforstudntstobgintodlopthirownrsarchThprogrssionofidasisalsofromthintroductory(prsntingthmainissusoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisinChaptr)tothmorcomplx,asthstudntsbcommoraccustomdtothtrminologyandconcptsIngnral,thprogrssionischronological,fromprtwntithcnturythoryinChaptrtolinguisticorintdthoris(Chaptrsndashpassim)andtomorrcntdlopmntsfromculturalstudissuchaspostcolonialism(Chaptr)Butitisalsoconcptual,sincsomoftharlirthorisandconcpts,suchasquialncandunirsalsoftranslation,arc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tantlybingrisitdClarityhasbnamajorc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idration,soachchaptrfollowsasimilarformatof:anintroductorytablclarlyprsntingkytrmsandidasthmaintxt,dscribingindtailthmodlsandissusundrdiscussionanillustraticasstudy,whichapplisandaluatsthmainmodlofthchaptrsuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>forfurthrradingabrifaluatisummaryofthchaptrasrisofdiscussionandrsarchpointstostimulatfurthrthoughtandrsarchThradrslistdabowrncssarilyslcti,andthisolumisnodiffrntThthoristsandmodlscordhabnchosnbcausofthirstronginfluncontranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisandbcausthyarparticularlyrprsntatiofthapproachsinachchaptrExclusionofmuchothrworthymatrialhasbndutospacc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>traintsandthfocusofthbook,whichistogiaclarintroductiontoanumbrofthorticalapproachsOrrcntyars,andsincthpublicationofthfirstdition,thfildhascontinudtogrowwithac<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idrablincrasinthnumbrofpublicati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>(monographs,ditdolums,journals,onlinpublicati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>)andthborrowingofconcptsfromnwfildssuchascognitistudis,sociology,litrarythoryandcorpuslinguistics)Itisnotpracticabl,andinddwouldbimpossibl,toattmpttobfullycomprhnsiIamalsoawarthatthorganizationofthbookinitablygisprfrnctothosthoristswhoINTRODUCINGTRANSLATIONSTUDIEShaadancdmajornwidasandgislssthansufficintdutothmanyscholarswhoworkinthfildproducingdtaildcasstudisorlsshighprofilworkForthsras<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>,dtaildsuggsti<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>arginforfurthrradingThsardsigndtoncouragstudntstogotothprimarytxts,tofollowupidasthathabnraisdinachchaptrandtoinstigatthrsarchthatisbingcarridoutinthirowncountrisandlanguagsInthisway,thbookshouldidallybusdinconjunctionwiththradrsmntiondaboandbsupportdbyaninstitutionrsquoslibraryrsourcsAnattmpthasalsobnmadtorfrtomanyworksthatarradilyaailabl,ithrinrcntditi<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>orrprintdinonofthanthologisAcomprhnsibibliographyisproiddatthndofthbook,togthrwithabriflistofusfulwbsits,whruptodatinformationontranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisconfrncs,publicati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>andorganizati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>istobfoundInaddition,sincthisisarapidlychangingandxpandingfild,thintntionisforsomadditionalmatrialtobaailablonthRoutldgwbsit(shttp:wwwroutldgcomtxtbooksitshtml),includingpriodicupdatsofnwworksthatarpublishdThmphasisisonncouragingrflction,instigationandawarnssofthnwdisciplin,andonapplyingththorytobothpracticandrsarchAmajorissuhasbnthchoicoflanguagsforthtxtsusdinthillustraticasstudisThrarxamplsortxtsfromEnglish,Frnch,Grman,Italian,PortugusandSpanishSomadditionalxamplsarginfromBngali,Dutch,PunjabiandRussianYtthcasstudisarwrittninsuchawayastofocusonththorticalissusandshouldnotxcludthosunfamiliarwiththspcificlanguagpairsArangoftxttypsisoffrd,includingthBibl,Bowulf,thfictionofGarciacuteaMaacuterquzandProust,EuropanUnionandUnscodocumnts,atralbrochur,achildrnrsquoscookrybook,thtranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>ofHarryPottrandsubtitldfilmsfromBngali,FrnchandGrmanAboall,myhopisthatthisbookwillcontributtothcontinuddlopmntoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisbyhlpingandncouragingradrsoldandnwtothfildtopursuthirintrstinthisdynamicdisciplinINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERMainissusoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisKyconcptsThpracticoftranslatingislongstablishd,butthdisciplinoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisisnwInacadmiccircls,translationwaspriouslyrlgatdtojustalanguaglarningactiityAsplithasprsistdbtwntranslationpracticandthoryThstudyof(usuallylitrary)translationbganthroughcomparatilitratur,translationlsquoworkshopsrsquoandcontrastianalysisJamsSHolmsrsquoslsquoThnamandnaturoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisrsquoisc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idrdtobthlsquofoundingstatmntrsquoofanwdisciplinTranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudishasxpanddhugly,andisnowoftnc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idrdanintrdisciplinKytxtsChstrman,A()lsquoOnthintrdisciplinarityoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisrsquo,Logos:ndashFrriraDuart,J,AAssisRosaandTSruya(ds)()TranslationStudisatthIntrfacofDisciplins,AmstrdamandPhiladlphia:JohnBnjaminsGil,D()lsquoTranslationrsarchrsusintrprtingrsarch:kinship,diffrncsandprospctsforpartnrshiprsquo,inChristinaSchaumlffnr(d),ppndashHolms,JS(b)lsquoThnamandnaturoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisrsquo,inLVnuti(d)(),ppndashJakobson,R()lsquoOnlinguisticaspctsoftranslationrsquo,inLVnuti(d)(),ppndashSnllHornby,M()ThTurnsofTranslationStudis,AmstrdamandPhiladlphia:JohnBnjamins,ChaptrTHECONCEPTOFTRANSLATIONThmainaimofthisbookistointroducthradrtomajorconcptsandmodlsoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisBcausofthrapidgrowthinthara,particularlyorthlastdcad,difficultdcisi<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>hahadtobtaknrgardingthslctionofmatrialWhadcidd,forras<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>ofspacandc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>istncyofapproach,tofocusonwrittntranslationrathrthanoraltranslation(thlattriscommonlyknownasintrprtingorintrprtation),althoughthorlapsmakaclardistinctionimpossibl(cfGil)Thtrmtranslationitslfhassralmanings:itcanrfrtothgnralsubjctfild,thproduct(thtxtthathasbntranslatd)orthprocss(thactofproducingthtranslation,othrwisknownastranslating)Thprocssoftranslationbtwntwodiffrntwrittnlanguagsinolsthtranslatorchanginganoriginalwrittntxt(thsourctxtorST)inthoriginalrballanguag(thsourclanguagorSL)intoawrittntxt(thtargttxtorTT)inadiffrntrballanguag(thtargtlanguagorTL)ThistypcorrspondstolsquointrlingualtranslationrsquoandisonofththrcatgorisoftranslationdscribdbythRussoAmricanstructuralistRomanJakobsoninhissminalpaprlsquoOnlinguisticaspctsoftranslationrsquo(Jakobson:)Jakobsonrsquoscatgorisarasfollows:()intralingualtranslation,orlsquorwordingrsquo:lsquoanintrprtationofrbalsignsbymansofothrsignsofthsamlanguagrsquo()intrlingualtranslation,orlsquotranslationproprrsquo:lsquoanintrprtationofrbalsignsbymansofsomothrlanguagrsquo()intrsmiotictranslation,orlsquotransmutationrsquo:lsquoanintrprtationofrbalsignsbymansofsignsofnonrbalsignsystmsrsquoIntralingualtranslationwouldoccur,forxampl,whnwrphrasanxprssionorwhnwsummarizorothrwisrwritatxtinthsamlanguagIntrsmiotictranslationwouldoccurifawrittntxtwrtranslatd,forxampl,intomusic,filmorpaintingItisintrlingualtranslation,btwntwodiffrntrballanguags,whichisthtraditional,althoughbynomansxclusi,focusoftranslati<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>tudisAswshallsasthbookprogrsss,notablyinChaptrsto,thrynotionoflsquotranslationproprrsquoandofthstabilityofsourcandtargthasnowbnchallngdandthqustionofwhatwmanbylsquotranslationrsquo,andhowitdiffrsfromlsquoadaptationrsquo,lsquorsionrsquo,tc,isaralonThus,whrasSandraHalrson()claimsthattranslationcanbc<spanclass='wran'>ons<span>idrdasaprototypclassification(ithatthrarbasiccorfatursthatwassociatwithaprotot

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