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首页 1 Selected Readings for William Wordsworth

1 Selected Readings for William Wordsworth.pdf

1 Selected Readings for William…

vincenthpan
2011-02-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《1 Selected Readings for William Wordsworthpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

SelectedReadingsforWilliamWordsworthPrefacetoLyricalBallads(excerpt)Theprincipalobject,then,whichIproposedtomyselfinthesePoemswastochuseincidentsandsituationsfromcommonlife,andtorelateordescribethem,throughout,asfaraswaspossible,inaselectionoflanguagereallyusedbymenand,atthesametime,tothrowoverthemacertaincolouringofimagination,wherebyordinarythingsshouldbepresentedtothemindinanunusualwayand,further,andaboveall,tomaketheseincidentsandsituationsinterestingbytracinginthem,trulythoughnotostentatiously,theprimarylawsofournature:chiefly,asfarasregardsthemannerinwhichweassociateideasinastateofexcitementLowandrusticlifewasgenerallychosen,becauseinthatcondition,theessentialpassionsoftheheartfindabettersoilinwhichtheycanattaintheirmaturity,arelessunderrestraint,andspeakaplainerandmoreemphaticlanguagebecauseinthatconditionoflifeourelementaryfeelingscoexistinastateofgreatersimplicity,and,consequently,maybemoreaccuratelycontemplated,andmoreforciblycommunicatedbecausethemannersofrurallifegerminatefromthoseelementaryfeelingsand,fromthenecessarycharacterofruraloccupations,aremoreeasilycomprehended,andaremoredurableandlastly,becauseinthatconditionthepassionsofmenareincorporatedwiththebeautifulandpermanentformsofnatureThelanguage,too,ofthesemenisadopted(purifiedindeedfromwhatappeartobeitsrealdefects,fromalllastingandrationalcausesofdislikeordisgust)becausesuchmenhourlycommunicatewiththebestobjectsfromwhichthebestpartoflanguageisoriginallyderivedandbecause,fromtheirrankinsocietyandthesamenessandnarrowcircleoftheirintercourse,beinglessundertheinfluenceofsocialvanitytheyconveytheirfeelingsandnotionsinsimpleandunelaboratedexpressionsAccordingly,suchalanguage,arisingoutofrepeatedexperienceandregularfeelings,isamorepermanent,andafarmorephilosophicallanguage,thanthatwhichisfrequentlysubstitutedforitbyPoets,whothinkthattheyareconferringhonouruponthemselvesandtheirart,inproportionastheyseparatethemselvesfromthesympathiesofmen,andindulgeinarbitraryandcapricioushabitsofexpression,inordertofurnishfoodforfickletastes,andfickleappetites,oftheirowncreationIcannot,however,beinsensibleofthepresentoutcryagainstthetrivialityandmeannessbothofthoughtandlanguage,whichsomeofmycontemporarieshaveoccasionallyintroducedintotheirmetricalcompositionsandIacknowledge,thatthisdefect,whereitexists,ismoredishonorabletotheWriter'sowncharacterthanfalserefinementorarbitraryinnovation,thoughIshouldcontendatthesametimethatitisfarlessperniciousinthesumofitsconsequencesFromsuchversesthePoemsinthesevolumeswillbefounddistinguishedatleastbyonemarkofdifference,thateachofthembasaworthypurposeNotthatImeantosay,thatIalwaysbegantowritewithadistinctpurposeformallyconceivedbutIbelievethatmyhabitsofmeditationhaveThePrefacetotheLyricalBalladsisanessay,composedbyWilliamWordsworthforthesecondedition(publishedinJanuary,andoftenreferredtoasthe"Edition")ofthepoetrycollectionLyricalBallads,andthengreatlyexpandedinthethirdeditionofThisexcerptisfromTheNortonAnthologyofEnglishLiteratureedStephenGreenblattetalVolthedNewYork,London:Norton,ppsoformedmyfeelings,asthatmydescriptionsofsuchobjectsasstronglyexcitethosefeelings,willbefoundtocarryalongwiththemapurposeIfinthisopinionIammistaken,IcanhavelittlerighttothenameofaPoetForallgoodpoetryisthespontaneousoverflowofpowerfulfeelings:butthoughthisbetrue,Poemstowhichanyvaluecanbeattached,wereneverproducedonanyvarietyofsubjectsbutbyaman,whobeingpossessedofmorethanusualorganicsensibility,hadalsothoughtlonganddeeplyForourcontinuedinfluxesoffeelingaremodifiedanddirectedbyourthoughts,whichareindeedtherepresentativesofallourpastfeelingsand,asbycontemplatingtherelationofthesegeneralrepresentativestoeachotherwediscoverwhatisreallyimportanttomen,so,bytherepetitionandcontinuanceofthisact,ourfeelingswillbeconnectedwithimportantsubjects,tillatlength,ifwebeoriginallypossessedofmuchsensibility,suchhabitsofmindwillbeproduced,that,byobeyingblindlyandmechanicallytheimpulsesofthosehabits,weshalldescribeobjects,anduttersentiments,ofsuchanatureandinsuchconnectionwitheachother,thattheunderstandingofthebeingtowhomweaddressourselves,ifhebeinahealthfulstateofassociation,mustnecessarilybeinsomedegreeenlightened,andhisaffectionsamelioratedLinesComposedaFewMilesaboveTinternAbbey,onRevisitingtheBanksoftheWyeduringaTourJuly,Fiveyearshavepastfivesummers,withthelengthOffivelongwinters!andagainIhearThesewaters,rollingfromtheirmountainspringsWithasoftinlandmurmur–OnceagainDoIbeholdthesesteepandloftycliffs,ThatonawildsecludedsceneimpressThoughtsofmoredeepseclusionandconnectThelandscapewiththequietoftheskyThedayiscomewhenIagainreposeHere,underthisdarksycamore,andviewTheseplotsofcottageground,theseorchardtufts,Whichatthisseason,withtheirunripefruits,Arecladinonegreenhue,andlosethemselves'MidgrovesandcopsesOnceagainIseeThesehedgerows,hardlyhedgerows,littlelinesOfsportivewoodrunwild:thesepastoralfarms,GreentotheverydoorandwreathsofsmokeSentup,insilence,fromamongthetrees!Withsomeuncertainnotice,asmightseemFirstpublishedin,astheconcludingpoemofLyricalBalladsComposedonJuly,,whileWordsworthandhissisterwerereturningbythevalleyoftheWye,insouthWales,toBristolafterawalkingtourofseveraldays"NotalineofitwasalteredandnotanypartofitwrittendowntillIreachedBristol"ThepoemsplannedforLyricalBalladswerealreadyinthehandsoftheprinterinBristolwhenTinternAbbey,sodifferentinthemeandstyle,wasaddedtothevolumeTheriverisnotaffectedbythetidesafewmilesaboveTinternOfvagrantdwellersinthehouselesswoods,OrofsomeHermit'scave,wherebyhisfireTheHermitsitsaloneThesebeauteousforms,Throughalongabsence,havenotbeentomeAsisalandscapetoablindman'seye:Butoft,inlonelyrooms,and'midthedinOftownsandcities,Ihaveowedtothem,Inhoursofweariness,sensationssweet,Feltintheblood,andfeltalongtheheartAndpassingevenintomypurermindWithtranquilrestoration:–feelingstooOfunrememberedpleasure:such,perhaps,AshavenoslightortrivialinfluenceOnthatbestportionofagoodman'slife,Hislittle,nameless,unremembered,actsOfkindnessandofloveNorless,Itrust,TothemImayhaveowedanothergift,Ofaspectmoresublimethatblessedmood,Inwhichtheburthenofthemystery,InwhichtheheavyandthewearyweightOfallthisunintelligibleworld,Islightened:–thatsereneandblessedmood,Inwhichtheaffectionsgentlyleaduson,–Until,thebreathofthiscorporealframeAndeventhemotionofourhumanbloodAlmostsuspended,wearelaidasleepInbody,andbecomealivingsoul:WhilewithaneyemadequietbythepowerOfharmony,andthedeeppowerofjoy,WeseeintothelifeofthingsIfthisBebutavainbelief,yet,oh!howoft–IndarknessandamidthemanyshapesOfjoylessdaylightwhenthefretfulstirUnprofitable,andthefeveroftheworld,Havehunguponthebeatingsofmyheart–Howoft,inspirit,haveIturnedtothee,OsylvanWye!thouwandererthro'thewoods,Howoftenhasmyspiritturnedtothee!Andnow,withgleamsofhalfextinguishedthought,Withmanyrecognitionsdimandfaint,Andsomewhatofasadperplexity,Thepictureofthemindrevivesagain:WhilehereIstand,notonlywiththesenseOfpresentpleasure,butwithpleasingthoughtsThatinthismomentthereislifeandfoodForfutureyearsAndsoIdaretohope,Thoughchanged,nodoubt,fromwhatIwaswhenfirstIcameamongthesehillswhenlikearoeIboundedo'erthemountains,bythesidesOfthedeeprivers,andthelonelystreams,Wherevernatureled:morelikeamanFlyingfromsomethingthathedreads,thanoneWhosoughtthethinghelovedFornaturethen(ThecoarserpleasuresofmyboyishdaysAndtheirgladanimalmovementsallgoneby)Tomewasallinall–IcannotpaintWhatthenIwasThesoundingcataractHauntedmelikeapassion:thetallrock,Themountain,andthedeepandgloomywood,Theircoloursandtheirforms,werethentomeAnappetiteafeelingandalove,Thathadnoneedofaremotercharm,Bythoughtsupplied,notanyinterestUnborrowedfromtheeye–Thattimeispast,Andallitsachingjoysarenownomore,AndallitsdizzyrapturesNotforthisFaintI,normournnormurmurothergiftsHavefollowedforsuchloss,Iwouldbelieve,AbundantrecompenseForIhavelearnedTolookonnature,notasinthehourOfthoughtlessyouthbuthearingoftentimesThestillsadmusicofhumanity,Norharshnorgrating,thoughofamplepowerTochastenandsubdue–AndIhavefeltApresencethatdisturbsmewiththejoyOfelevatedthoughtsasensesublimeOfsomethingfarmoredeeplyinterfused,Whosedwellingisthelightofsettingsuns,Andtheroundoceanandthelivingair,Andthebluesky,andinthemindofman:Amotionandaspirit,thatimpelsAllthinkingthings,allobjectsofallthought,AndrollsthroughallthingsThereforeamIstillAloverofthemeadowsandthewoodsAndmountainsandofallthatwebeholdFromthisgreenearthofallthemightyworldOfeye,andear,–bothwhattheyhalfcreate,AndwhatperceivewellpleasedtorecogniseInnatureandthelanguageofthesenseTheanchorofmypurestthoughts,thenurse,Theguide,theguardianofmyheart,andsoulOfallmymoralbeingNorperchance,IfIwerenotthustaught,shouldIthemoreSuffermygenialspiritstodecay:ForthouartwithmehereuponthebanksOfthisfairriverthoumydearestFriend,Mydear,dearFriendandinthyvoiceIcatchThelanguageofmyformerheart,andreadMyformerpleasuresintheshootinglightsOfthywildeyesOh!yetalittlewhileMayIbeholdintheewhatIwasonce,Mydear,dearSister!andthisprayerImake,KnowingthatNatureneverdidbetrayTheheartthatlovedher'tisherprivilege,Throughalltheyearsofthisourlife,toleadFromjoytojoy:forshecansoinformThemindthatiswithinus,soimpressWithquietnessandbeauty,andsofeedWithloftythoughts,thatneithereviltongues,Rashjudgments,northesneersofselfishmen,Norgreetingswherenokindnessis,norallThedrearyintercourseofdailylife,Shalle'erprevailagainstus,ordisturbOurcheerfulfaith,thatallwhichwebeholdIsfullofblessingsThereforeletthemoonShineontheeinthysolitarywalkAndletthemistymountainwindsbefreeToblowagainstthee:and,inafteryears,WhenthesewildecstasiesshallbematuredIntoasoberpleasurewhenthymindShallbeamansionforalllovelyforms,ThymemorybeasadwellingplaceForallsweetsoundsandharmoniesoh!then,Ifsolitude,orfear,orpain,orgrief,ThislinehasacloseresemblancetoanadmirablelineofYoung,theexactexpressionofwhichIcannotrecollectShouldbethyportion,withwhathealingthoughtsOftenderjoywiltthourememberme,Andthesemyexhortations!Nor,perchance–IfIshouldbewhereInomorecanhearThyvoice,norcatchfromthywildeyesthesegleamsOfpastexistence–wiltthouthenforgetThatonthebanksofthisdelightfulstreamWestoodtogetherandthatI,solongAworshipperofNature,hithercameUnweariedinthatservice:rathersayWithwarmerlove–oh!withfardeeperzealOfholierloveNorwiltthouthenforget,Thataftermanywanderings,manyyearsOfabsence,thesesteepwoodsandloftycliffs,Andthisgreenpastorallandscape,weretomeMoredear,bothforthemselvesandforthysake!IWanderedLonelyasaCloudIwanderedlonelyasacloudThatfloatsonhigho'ervalesandhills,WhenallatonceIsawacrowd,Ahost,ofgoldendaffodilsBesidethelake,beneaththetrees,FlutteringanddancinginthebreezeContinuousasthestarsthatshineAndtwinkleonthemilkyway,TheystretchedinneverendinglineAlongthemarginofabay:TenthousandsawIataglance,TossingtheirheadsinsprightlydanceThewavesbesidethemdancedbuttheyOutdidthesparklingwavesinglee:Apoetcouldnotbutbegay,Insuchajocundcompany:Inaletteroftoafriend,Wordsworthdeniedthathewas"AworshipperofNature"Heblamedthemisunderstandingon"Apassionateexpression,utteredincautiouslyinthepoemupontheWye"Wordsworthmadeuseofthedescriptioninhissister'sdiary,aswellasofhismemoryofthedaffodilsinGowbarrowPark,byUllswaterCfDorothyWordsworth'sJournal,April,:"IneversawdaffodilssobeautifulTheygrewamongthemossystonessomerestedtheirheadsuponthesestones,asonapillowforwearinessandtheresttossedandreeledanddanced,andseemedasiftheyverilylaughedwiththewind,thatblewuponthemoverthelaketheylookedsogay,everglancing,everchanging"Forthisreason,somereaderswillknowthispoemas"Daffodils,"atitleused,forinstance,byArthurQuillerCouchinhisedition,TheOxfordBookofEnglishVerse:–():noIgazed–andgazed–butlittlethoughtWhatwealththeshowtomehadbrought:Foroft,whenonmycouchIlieInvacantorinpensivemood,TheyflashuponthatinwardeyeWhichistheblissofsolitudeAndthenmyheartwithpleasurefills,AnddanceswiththedaffodilsTheSolitaryReaperBeholdher,singleinthefield,YonsolitaryHighlandLass!ReapingandsingingbyherselfStophere,orgentlypass!Aloneshecutsandbindsthegrain,AndsingsamelancholystrainOlisten!fortheValeprofoundIsoverflowingwiththesoundNoNightingaledideverchauntMorewelcomenotestowearybandsOftravellersinsomeshadyhaunt,AmongArabiansands:Avoicesothrillingne'erwasheardInspringtimefromtheCuckoobird,BreakingthesilenceoftheseasAmongthefarthestHebridesWordsworthsaidthatthese(ll)werethetwobestlinesinthepoemandthattheywerecomposedbyhiswifeColeridge,Wordsworth,andhissisterhadvisitedtheScottishHighlandsinDorothy'sRecollectionsforSeptemberthatyearnotes:"Itwasharvesttime,andthefieldswerequietly–mightIbeallowedtosaypensively–enlivenedbysmallcompaniesofreapersItisnotuncommoninthemorelonelypartsoftheHighlandstoseeasinglepersonsoemployed"Inanotetotheedition,Wordsworthtracedthepoem'ssource:"ThisPoemwassuggestedbyabeautifulsentenceinaMSTourinScotlandwrittenbyaFriend,thelastlinebeingtakenfromitverbatim"ThomasWilkinson'smanuscript,TourstotheBritishMountains(London,),states:"PassedaFemalewhowasreapingalone:shesunginErseasshebendedoverhersicklethesweetesthumanvoiceIeverheard:herstrainsweretenderlymelancholy,andfeltdelicious,longaftertheywereheardnomore"()Highland:mountainousregioninnorthernScotlandassociatedwiththeCelticclansValeprofound:broad,deepvalleybetweentwohighrangespossiblytheworlditself,asaplaceofsuffering(OED"vale"b)WordsworthtakesthisfromconventionalpoeticdictionNightingale:asmallsongbird,wellknownforthemale'smusicalnotesinthematingandnestingseasonInClassicalmyth,thefemalenightingaleisthattowhichPhilomela,tragicallyrapedandmutilatedbyhersisterProcne'shusband,metamorphosesoncarryingoutherrevengeCuckoobird:songbirdmigratingtoBritaininthespringandassociatedwithrenewalWillnoonetellmewhatshesings–PerhapstheplaintivenumbersflowForold,unhappy,faroffthings,Andbattleslongago:Orisitsomemorehumblelay,FamiliarmatteroftodaySomenaturalsorrow,loss,orpain,Thathasbeen,andmaybeagainWhate'erthetheme,theMaidensangAsifhersongcouldhavenoendingIsawhersingingatherwork,Ando'erthesicklebending–Ilistened,motionlessandstillAnd,asImountedupthehill,ThemusicinmyheartIbore,LongafteritwasheardnomoreTasksQuestions:Summarizethemainideasof“IWanderedLonelyasaCloud”and“TheSolitaryReaper”Talkabouttherhymeschemeandmeterofthelasttwopoems“IWanderedLonelyasaCloud,”oneoftheloveliestandmostfamousintheWordsworthcanon,revisitsthefamiliarsubjectsofnatureandmemoryasdiscussedforexamplein“TinternAbbey”“TheSolitaryReaper”alsoshowshowmemoryworksonthehumancharacterPleaseelaborateonthis(Tips:payattentiontotheoccurrenceofamemoryinbothpoems)In“Iwanderedlonelyasacloud,”howdoesWordsworthachievetheseeminglyeffortlesseffectofimplyingtheunityofhisconsciousnesswithnatureDoesthistechniqueappearinanyotherWordsworthlyrics(Tips:payattentiontothefirstlineandthe“dance”image)In“Iwanderedlonelyasacloud,”howcanwetellthatthesceneofthelongbeltofdaffodilsisonlyamemoryofthepensivespeaker(Tips:comparethelaststanzawiththepreviousones)ManyreadersskimmedWordsworth’sdescriptionofthedaffodilsandquicklyrejecteditwithdisdainasa“Romanticblubber”ofsortsDoyouagreewiththisideaPleaseexplainhowWordsworthtouchesuponthelimitationsoflanguageandpraisesthebeautyofmusicanditsfluidexpressivebeautyin“TheSolitaryReaper”WordsworthisknownforhispreachingofeverydaylanguagePleaseprovethisbyanalyzingoneofthelasttwopoemsPleaseanalyzethestructureof“TheSolitaryReaper”Pleaseexplainhow“TheSolitaryReaper”repeatsthesameideasinvaryingwordsHebrides:islandsnorthwestofScotlandintheAtlantic

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1 Selected Readings for William Wordsworth

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