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首页 Entrepreneurship in China.pdf

Entrepreneurship in China.pdf

Entrepreneurship in China.pdf

上传者: cowboy 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Entrepreneurship in Chinapdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含ENTREPRENEURSHIPINCHINATomyparentsEntrepreneurshipinChinaKEMINGYANGUnivers符等。

ENTREPRENEURSHIPINCHINATomyparentsEntrepreneurshipinChinaKEMINGYANGUniversityofReading,UKKemingYangAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherKemingYanghasassertedhismoralrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkPublishedbyAshgatePublishingLimitedAshgatePublishingCompanyGowerHouseSuiteCroftRoadCherryStreetAldershotBurlington,VTHampshireGUHRUSAEnglandAshgatewebsite:http:wwwashgatecomBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataYang,KemingEntrepreneurshipinChinaEntrepreneurshipChinaChinaEconomicpolicyChinaEconomicpolicyChinaEconomicconditionsChinaEconomicconditionsITitle''LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataYang,KemingEntrepreneurshipinChinabyKemingYangpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN:ChinaEconomicconditionsEntrepreneurshipChinaBusinessenterprisesChinaCasestudiesITitleHCY'dcISBNPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyMPGBooksLtd,Bodmin,CornwallContentsListofFiguresviiListofTablesviiiPrefaceixThePuzzleofChina,thePuzzleofEntrepreneurshipHowthefirstpuzzleleadstothesecondWhoareentrepreneursinChinaTheriseofentrepreneurshipinChina’seconomicreformResearchdesignOutlineofthebookRulesandEntrepreneurshipDoentrepreneursfollowrulesWhataretheoptimalrulesforentrepreneurshipEntrepreneurshipandinstitutionalambiguitiesConcludingremarksInstitutionalHolesandDoubleEntrepreneurshipAgapbetweenstructuralandinstitutionaltheoriesStructuralholesandinstitutionalholesSomerepresentationsofinstitutionalholesDoubleentrepreneurshipunderinstitutionalchangeTheoreticalimplicationsTowardacomparativesociologyofentrepreneurshipandinstitutionalchangeSummaryInstitutionalChangeandEntrepreneurialStrategiesPartypoliciesasrulesThedisappearanceofprivatebusinessesinthePeople’sRepublicofChina,–Newrules,newentrepreneursEntrepreneurialopportunitiesandstrategiesConcludingremarksTheEntrepreneurialProcessinChinaAbriefsocialdemographicprofilePreviousemploymentandmotivationStartingupthebusinessStylesandstrategiesofmanagementEntrepreneurshipinChinaviPoliticalrelationsandparticipationsPublicrelationsConcludingremarksTheEntrepreneur,theBureaucrats,andtheJournalists:HuoHongminandtheHuaqiGroupTheinitialsuccessTheconfrontationConcludingobservationsTheLimitsonPlayingInstitutionalHoles:MouQizhongandtheNandeGroupAbusinessmanwithapoliticalambitionMakingprofitsfromthedisunionofothersTheorizingentrepreneurialstrategiesEnteringintothedangerouszoneDealingwithlegitimacycrisesConcludingobservationsEntrepreneurialAuthorityandInstitutionalAutonomy:XuWenrongandtheHengdianGroupAnoverviewEntrepreneurialauthorityInstitutionalautonomyCommunalownershipMobilizationanddeploymentofresourcesConcludingobservationsDoubleGamblesThecontextThefirstgenerationTheprocessTheeffectsThesecondgenerationAppendixBibliographyIndexListofFiguresIdentifyingthepuzzleRuleexploitationandlegitimacyinprofitseekingactivitiesTheinfluencesoflegitimacyandprofitabilityontheviabilityofentrepreneurshipAgeofprivatebusinessownersinChina,toLevelofeducationofprivatebusinessownersinChina,toMakersofmostimportantdecisionsinprivateenterprisesinChina,toSelectedwelfareprovisionsbyprivateenterprisesinChina,,,,andFeesandchargesaspercentagesofannualprofitforprivateenterprisesinChina,toLegitimacyandprofitabilityintheexperienceofHuaqiLegitimacyandprofitabilityinthelifecourseofNandeTradingrattanchairsTradingdeskclocksTradingairplaneswiththeRussiansListofTablesGrowthofindividualhouseholdbusinessesinChina,toGrowthofprivateenterprisesinChina,toThemostimportantmotivationforstartingupownbusiness,,,andEntrepreneurialmotivationsandwaysofleavingoriginalworkunit,andPercentageofprivateenterprisesineachindustry,toFirstthreemostimportantsourcesofstartupcapital,andOwnershipsofprivateenterprisesinChina,toRegistrationsofprivateenterprisesinChinabytimeperiodChangeinthenumberofemployeesatinitialregistrationamongprivateenterprisesinChinaMostimportantsourcesofemployeesforprivateenterprisesinChina,andLevelsofdifficultyinobtainingbasicbusinessconditions,toMosthelpfulorganizationorpersonwhenfacingdifficultyforprivateentrepreneursinChina,andDisputesreportedbyprivateenterprisesinChina,,,andAbinarylogisticregressionmodellingtheeffectoflabourunionsonemployeewelfare,Reportedsupportivenessofgovernmentagenciesandtheirassociationwithpoliticalmemberships,Relationshipbetweenpoliticalmembershipsandleveloffeesandchargespaidbyprivateentrepreneurs,,,andSelfassessedpositionsinincomeandsocialreputationbyprivateentrepreneursinChina,toSelectedindicatorsofHengdian’sgrowth(millionyuan),toPrefaceTwoyearsafterthepoliticalconfrontationatTiananmenSquarein,IstartedmyfirstjobasalectureratNankaiUniversityintheCityofTianjinVerymuchtomydismay,IwastoldthatIwouldhavetospendthefirstyearofmycareerinaremotevillageattheCity’soutskirtsThearrangementwaspartofthe‘SocialistEducationProgramme’organizedbytheMinistryofEducationItwastheyoungacademicslikemewhoweretobeeducated,notthefarmers,ofcourse,althoughuniversityofficialsclaimedthatthefarmershadalottolearnfromusaswellWewereexpectedtotakeahardlookatChina’srealityandconsequently,tostopadmiringdemocraticmovementsThewholethingmightsoundpreposteroustopeopleintheWest,butitwasquitesuccessful,perhapseventothesurpriseofitsorganizerAtitscompletion,manyofuswerebusyhelpinglocalofficialsandnascententrepreneurslookforopportunities,networkwithclientsandsuppliers,orsearchforatechnologicalpatentofpromisingbusinessvalueMoneyandbusiness,notpoliticsanddemocracy,dominatedourconversationsSomekepttheirconnectionswiththebusinessworldevenafterreturningtotheiruniversitylifeotherswereevenplanningtosetuptheirownbusinessesJustthreeyearsafterthedemocraticprotests,entrepreneurialventureshadbeatendemocracyinpopularityamongyoungacademicsinChinaTheimportanceofbusinessandentrepreneurshipwasrepeatedlyreinforcedinmymindonthefieldtripsbacktoChinawhileIwaspursuingaPhDdegreeinsociologyatColumbiaUniversityfromtoEverytimeIwentbacktoChina,Icouldn’thelpbutobserveandtalkaboutbusiness:storiesabouthighflyingentrepreneursconstantlymadetheheadlines,newbooksaboutsuccessfulentrepreneursorhowtostartyourownbusinessweredisplayedinthemosteyecatchingpositionsinbookshops,newbusinesseswereannouncedandcelebratedinnewspapers,andpeople,eitherthosewhomIknewpersonallyorthoseonthestreet,weretalkingabouttheirexperienceswithdifferentkindsofbusinessesIhadmyfirstdissertationproposalinabag,whichwasaboutacomparativestudyofdemocraticdevelopmentinRussiaandChina,butitwasdifficultformetofindanopportunitytopullitoutandtalkaboutitwithothersIsoonrealizedthatIwantedtowriteanotheroneBackinStinchcombeobservedthat‘eachchoiceofaresearchtopicorstrategyisachoiceofwhatkindofpersontobe’HavingdecidedtowriteadissertationaboutentrepreneurshipinChina,IwasaskingmyselfwhetherIcouldmakemyacademicworksomehowentrepreneurialThishasturnedouttobeaverytrickyquestionOntheonehand,allacademicsarestrivingtosaysomething‘new’,ortobeentrepreneurialacademicallySomehavebecomeacademicentrepreneursbyopeningupanewresearchfield,institutionalizinganewdiscipline,orinventing‘Ongetting“hungup”andotherassortedillness’,inStratificationandOrganization:SelectedPapers(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),pEntrepreneurshipinChinaxanewresearchmethodOntheotherhand,thenumberofsuchentrepreneurshasbeentinyitseemstobeabusinessreservedfortheveryestablishedJunioracademicsusuallyshyawayfromwordslike‘invention’,‘innovation’,‘new’,or‘breakthrough’ThisisespeciallytrueforsocialsciencestudentsIndeed,intoday’ssocialsciences,itisalltooeasytofindaliterature,inmostcasesalargeone,onalmostanytopicthataPhDcandidateinsociologycanthinkofAsallcandidatesknow,abigchallengeistoargueforwhat‘new’thingsonecansayaftersomuchhasalreadybeensaidIfindthatPhDcandidatesaremoreentrepreneurialintermsofdealingwiththischallengethantheyareintermsofconductingtheresearchitselfForexample,apopularstrategyforcandidateswhosenativetongueisnotEnglishistocollectfirsthandandlargescaledataandtoapplyhighlysophisticatedtechniquesMyEnglishisstillfarworsethanmyChinese,butIhaveurgedmyselftosaysomethingtheoreticallyinterestingNotwithoutdiscouragement,howeverAfellowstudenttoldme,‘PeoplewillcertainlywanttoknowwhathashappenedtoChineseentrepreneurs,butnoonecaresaboutwhatyouwillsayabouttheory’Inthemeantime,aseniorprofessorurgedmetofocusondataanalysisbecauseIdidnothavegreyhairyet(NowIstarttohavesomeafterfinishingthisbook!)SociologyisanempiricalaswellastheoreticaldisciplineTomyunderstanding,thatmeansthatweshouldconstantlygobackandforthbetweentheoryandempiricalevidence,notthatanyresearchquestionaccompaniedbyqualitydataandexcellenttechnicalanalysisisworthourtimeandeffortRejectingsuchawayofdoingsociologysuggestedbyRalfDahrendorf,Mertonwarnedthat‘ifthisformulaweresound,problemsforsociologicalinvestigationcouldbemultipliedatwillbyturningtoanycompendiumofsocialdata…androutinelyputtingthequestion“Why”toeachsetoffactsreportedthere’Inthisbook,thereaderwillfindsomedataanddataanalyses,butmyprimaryobjectiveistodeveloptheoreticalideasforunderstandingsocialprocessesAndby‘theory’Imeanasetofstatementsthat,atleasttothesatisfactionoftheresearcher,canmeaningfullyexplaintheconnectionofatleasttwophenomenaThephenomenaunderthisstudyareinstitutionalchange,economicdevelopment,andentrepreneurshipinChina,withentrepreneurshipservingthefunctionofaworkingmechanismthatlinkstheothertwoIbelieveitissafetoassumethatentrepreneurshipisakeycontributortoChina’sfasteconomicgrowthSo,thenextbutlessobviousquestionis,wheredoesthisentrepreneurshipcomefromHere,severalfactors(andthetheoriesfocusingonthem)comeinascandidatesofexplanations,suchashistoricallegacy,financialimpetus,personalityoftheChinese,theChineseculture,kinshipsupportandsocialconnections(guanxi),politicalstruggles,etcIseeanopportunitytobridgeinstitutionaltheoriesandstructuraltheoriesforidentifyingthesourcesofentrepreneurshipinChinaTheexplanationthatIproposeinthisbookisthatitisthe‘gaps’betweeninstitutionalrules(inconsistencies,ambiguities,different‘NotesonProblemFindinginSociology’,pp–inSocialResearchandthePracticingProfessions(Cambridge,Massachusetts:AbtBooks,),originallypublishedinRobertKMerton,LeonardBroomandLeonardSCottrell,Jr(eds),SociologyToday:ProblemsandProspects(NewYork:BasicBooks,)Prefacexiwaysofenforcement,etc)thathaveinduced,quiteunexpectedly,theemergenceanddevelopmentofentrepreneurshipinChinaThisisacompleterewritingofmydissertationIthasbeenadifficultprojectfromitsverybeginningTwopeoplehavehelpedmepullthroughFirst,itwasimpossibleformetocompletethefirstdraftofthedissertationwithoutreceivingfrequentandtimelycommentsfrommyadvisor,ChuckTillyAlthoughIhavetriedtocopyhimasamodelsocialscientist,Ihavefailedtolearnfromhimhowhemanagestoproducesomanypublications,advisesomanystudentsandjuniorcolleagues,teachcoursesregularly,andatthesametimefightagainstcancerTheotherpersonwhohasconstantlyupheldandboostedmymoraleismydaughter,MarieAlthoughherconstantbutirregularcriesduringthefirstsixmonthsofherlifewereinterruptionstomywritingandthinking,itwasinhereyesthatIgainedcourageandsawthevalueofmyworkIhavealsobeenluckyenoughtohavesomepracticalsupportsHarvardYenchingInstituteprovidedmewithagenerousthreeyearfellowshipforcompletingmystudyatColumbiaTheFordFoundationsponsoredmyfieldworkduringthesummersofandTheUniversityofReadingprovidedavaluable,althoughsmall,amountofmoneythatenabledmetopurchasethedatacollectedfromtheNationalSurveyofPrivateBusinessOwnersinChinaTheBritishAcademyalsoofferedtheirvaluablefinancialsupportIwouldliketothankalltheentrepreneurs,theirmanagersandemployees,localofficials,journalists,andmanyothersinChinafortalkingtomeininterviewsandallowingmetoattendmeetingsandreaddocumentsMembersofmydissertationcommittee–AllanSilver,DavidStark,AndrewNathanandDouglasGuthrie–offeredtheirhelpindifferentwaysFromAllan,IcanalwaysaskforadviceandsupportwithouthesitanceIfeltsettledwhenProfessorStarktoldme,twice,thatmydissertationwassomethingworthdoingIhadastrangefeelingofhavingtobeverycarefulwhentalkingwithProfessorNathanaboutChina,whoknowssomuchaboutthecountryinwhichIgrewupIhaveusedGuthrie’sbook,DragoninaThreePieceSuit,notonlyasanexcellentstudyonChina’seconomicdevelopmentbutasagoodwritingexampleaswell,althoughIdonothavemuchhopeofcatchingupwithhiscommandofEnglishWhileworkingonmyproposal,IalsohadthegoodfortuneofgettingsomevaluablecommentsandsuggestionsfromPatrickHellerandWangNianzuWithunusualcourage,IsentafewdraftchapterstoAndrewWalder,whocouldn’tjointhecommitteebutshowedhisgreatgenerositybysendingmanyharshcritiquesbacktomeRobertoFranzosiprovidedmuchneededsupportandencouragementafterItookmysecondjobatUniversityofReadingPartsofChapterwereadaptedfromtwojournalarticles:‘DoubleEntrepreneurshipinChina’sEconomicReform:AnAnalyticalFramework’,JournalofPoliticalandMilitarySociology,():–(SociologyDepartment,NorthernIllinoisUniversityallrightsreserved)and‘InstitutionalHolesandEntrepreneurshipinChina’,TheSociologicalReview,():–(TheEditorialBoardofTheSociologicalReviewallrightsreserved)IwanttosincerelythanktheeditorsandtheanonymousreviewersforsendingmesomanyvaluablecommentsinrevisingthepapersEntrepreneurshipinChinaxiiHadInotmetandtalkedtoMarySavigar,myeditoratAshgate,IwouldhavegivenuptheattemptofpublishingthisbookIwanttothankherandothersatAshgateforpolishingthemanuscriptandbringingittothereaderInaddition,IamverygratefulformanyusefulcommentsandsuggestionsmadebyananonymousreviewerThanksalsogotoClaireAnnalsforeditingandproofreadingthewholedraftIwouldneverhavebeenabletofinishmystudy,andthisbook,withouttheencouragementofmywife,LixinDuringtheharshwinterof,sheusedtoaskmetowriteforseveralhoursintheeveningatUniversityofToronto’sRobartsLibraryathome,shewassufferingfrominfectionsandlonelinessSheisthekindofwomanabletotakeonaprofessionalcareer,bringuptwokids,andhelpanacademichusbandFinally,Iwishtodedicatethisbooktomyparents,whosacrificedsomuchoftheirownlivesinorderthatIcouldbeawelleducatedpersonChapterThePuzzleofChina,thePuzzleofEntrepreneurshipHowthefirstpuzzleleadstothesecondAtthetimeofwriting(early),thatChinaisonthewaytobecomingaglobalpowerisnolongerindisputeOnedoesnothavetoanalyzecomplicatedeconomicfigurestohaveasenseofhowpowerfulChina’seconomyhasbecomeWelearnfromthemediathatChinahasovertakentheUKtobecomethefourthlargesteconomyintheworld,somethingMaoZedongwishedtoachieveduringhislifetimeInAmerica,‘TheChinaPrice’hasbecome‘thethreescariestwordsinUSindustry’MillionsofjobshavebeenlostintheUSandrecreatedinChinaandIndiaTheUStradedeficitwithChinahasbeengrowingatanaveragerateofpercentperyearWiththeambitionofbuildingupseveralbusinessflagshipsthatareinternationallyvisible,Chinahasstarteda‘ShoppingSpree’ofAmericanandEuropeancompanies,includingRover,IBMPC,andsomeoilproducersJusttwodecadesago,‘MadeinChina’wasstillasynonymofpoorqualityNow,itwouldbedifficultforpeoplelivinginEuropeandAmericatoenjoyshoppinginsupermarketswithoutclothes,appliances,andmanyotherthingsmadeinChinaTheseeconomicpowerswilldoubtlesslybetranslatedintopolitical,diplomatic,andmilitaryonesTrue,asChinaspecialistsandbusinessanalystshavepointedout,bothIndiaandChinaarefacinghugeobstaclestogrowth,butitisexactlytheirgrowthdespitetheobstaclesthatissoremarkableandpuzzlingMostpeopleintheWesthavenowtakenChina’sremarkableeconomicdevelopmentasa‘given’Tothem,aquestionofgreaterurgencyis‘WhatshallwedotodealwithChina’sgrowth’,notanacademicquestionlike‘WhyhasChinabeengrowinginsuchaspeedymanner’Evenacademicsseemtohaveshiftedtheirattent

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