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首页 性别的未来.pdf

性别的未来.pdf

性别的未来.pdf

上传者: 云帆Ching 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《性别的未来pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含TheFutureofGender‘Gender’isusedtoclassifyhumansandtoexplaintheirbehaviouri符等。

TheFutureofGender‘Gender’isusedtoclassifyhumansandtoexplaintheirbehaviourinpredominantlysocialratherthanbiologicaltermsButhowusefulistheconceptofgenderinsocialanalysisTowhatdegreedoesgenderrelatetosexHowdoesgenderfeatureinshiftsinfamilialstructuresanddemographyHowshouldgenderbeconceivedintermsofcontemporaryinequalityandinjustice,andwhatisgender’sfunctioninthedesignandpursuitofpoliticalobjectivesInthisvolumeacollectionofinternationalexpertsfromthefieldsofpoliticalphilosophy,politicaltheory,sociology,economics,law,psychoanalysisandevolutionarypsychologyscrutinisetheconceptualeffectivenessofgenderbothasamodeofanalysisandasabasisforenvisioningthetransformationofsocietyEachcontributorconsidershowgendermightbeconceivedincontemporaryterms,offeringavarietyof(oftenconflicting)interpretationsoftheconcept’susefulnessforthefutureJudeBrowneisaNuffieldFoundationFellowattheCentreforResearchintheArts,SocialSciencesandHumanities,aDirectoroftheCambridgeUniversityCentreforGenderStudiesandaFellowinSocialandPoliticalSciencesatDowningCollege,UniversityofCambridgeTheFutureofGenderEditedbyjudebrowneCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNCambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressISBNISBNCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackeBook(NetLibrary)eBook(NetLibrary)hardbackContentsListoffigurespageviiListoftablesviiiListofcontributorsixAcknowledgementsxIntroductionPartIReorientingthefeministimaginationMappingthefeministimagination:fromredistributiontorecognitiontorepresentationNancyFraserPerspectivesongenderequality:challengingthetermsofdebateValerieBrysonWhenwillsocietybegenderjustIngridRobeynsPartIIVariationsonthethemeofgenderDoesbiologyplayanyroleinsexdifferencesinthemindSimonBaronCohenSexandthesocialconstructionofgender:canfeminismandevolutionarypsychologybereconciledSusanHurley‘Trans’trouble:transsexualityandtheendofgenderTerrellCarvervGenderandsocialchangeTonyLawsonProcreativemothers(sexualdifference)andchildfreesisters(gender)JulietMitchellPartIIIGenderandpoliticalpracticeThepoliticsoffemalediversityinthetwentyfirstcenturyCatherineHakimGenderinequalityandthegendereddivisionoflabourRosemaryCromptonTheprincipleofequaltreatmentandgender:theoryandpracticeJudeBrowneIndexviContentsFigureAmodelofthedifferentbraintypespage(SimonBaronCohen)viiTablesMaintypesofanalysablesystemspage(SimonBaronCohen)Themainbraintypes(SimonBaronCohen)Thefourcentraltenetsofpreferencetheory(CatherineHakim)Classificationofwomen’swork–lifestylepreferencesinthetwentyfirstcentury–(CatherineHakim)Nationaldistributionsoflifestylepreferencesamongwomenandmen–(CatherineHakim)viiiContributorsSimonBaronCohen,ProfessorofDevelopmentalPsychopathology,UniversityofCambridge,andFellow,TrinityCollegeJudeBrowne,NuffieldFellow,CentreforResearchinArts,SocialSciencesandHumanities,UniversityofCambridge,andFellow,DowningCollegeValerieBryson,ProfessorofPolitics,UniversityofHuddersfieldTerrellCarver,ProfessorofPoliticalTheory,UniversityofBristolRosemaryCrompton,ProfessorofSociology,CityUniversityNancyFraser,HenryAandLouiseLoebProfessorofPoliticsandPhilosophy,NewSchoolUniversityCatherineHakim,SeniorResearchFellowinSociology,LondonSchoolofEconomicsSusanHurley,ProfessorofPhilosophy,BristolUniversity,andFellow,AllSoulsCollege,OxfordTonyLawson,ReaderinEconomics,UniversityofCambridgeJulietMitchell,ProfessorofPsychoanalysisandGenderStudies,UniversityofCambridge,andFellow,JesusCollegeIngridRobeyns,ResearchFellowinPoliticalTheory,UniversityofAmsterdamixAcknowledgementsIthanktheNuffieldFoundationforfundingmyresearchandBobHepple,myacademicmentorduringtheperiodIputthisbooktogetherIamparticularlygratefultoMarcStearswithwhomIworkedontheoriginalideasforthiseditionandwhoputinagreatdealoftimeandeffortattheearlystagesofitsdevelopmentIamalsoindebtedtoDanielBeerforhelpingmetocraftthefinalversionandtoUmarSalamforcommentingonseveraldraftsIwouldalsoliketothankJohnHaslamandRichardFisheratCambridgeUniversityPressforbeingincrediblysupportiveandgivinginvaluableguidancexIntroductionThisbookoffersananalysisoftheconceptualefficacyof‘gender’,bothasamodeofanalysisandasabasisforenvisioningtheemancipatorytransformationofsocietyItshouldbepointedoutatonce,however,thatwhilstitstitlesuggeststhat‘gender’hasafuture,notallthevolume’scontributorsarepersuadedthatthisisthecaseToday,theterms‘gender’and‘sex’aredeployedindiscriminately–or,tobemoreprecise,‘gender’isincreasinglybeingusedtocoverbothtermsItis,then,worthreestablishingthetraditionaldifferencebetweenthetwoconceptsAsproselytizedfromthelates,‘sex’isdeemedacategoryofanalysiswhichrelatestotheidentificationofanindividualbybiologicalendowmentsandfunctions‘Gender’isconcernedwiththeascriptionofsocialcharacteristicssuchas‘womanly’,‘manly’,‘feminine’and‘masculine’,allofwhichcanbeseenasculturallyvariableandnotnecessarilyassociatedwiththesexofanindividualWhilstthisdistinctionisadmittedlyrougharoundtheedges,itsgeneralacceptancesincetheshasheraldedarare,albeitminimal,consensusacrossmainstreamacademia:thattheconceptofsexisinadequateforthedescriptionofsocialidentitiesPreviously,‘sex’invokedananalysisofmenandwomenbaseduponanapriorisetofassumptionsabouthoweachsexbehavesInanattempttoovercomewhatwasseenasculturalbias,theterm‘gender’wasintroducedasawayofclassifyingindividualssociallyratherthanjustbiologicallyTheramificationsofthisostensiblyobviouspointhavebeenprofoundandhaveremainedtheobjectoffierceintellectualandideologicalconflictPostmoderntheoriesofsubjectivityandidentityhaveattackedearlytheorizingandinterpretationsof‘gender’forrelyingonabinaryaccountofeither‘male’or‘female’Instead,thepostmodernistssoughttodestabilizethenotionofgenderbyinsistinguponaspectrumoffluididentitiesThisviewhasinturnbeenhugelycomplicatedbythedevelopmentofradicalnewtechnologiesinsexreassignmentandreproductiontechniquesMoreover,inarelatedattackontheuniversalizingclaimsofthegenderbinary,manyhavecriticizedtheconceptforitshomogenizationoffemaleexperiencepittedagainstasingularunderstandingofoppression,discriminationandpatriarchySuchdescriptionsandanalysesofgenderhavelargelybeengeneratedbywhite,liberal,relativelywealthywomenwhoserangeofexperienceisinadequatetoappreciatethemultiplefacesofsubjugationConsequentlytherehavebeenmanychallengestotheimpositionofpredominantlywesternnormsonawidevarietyofmulticultural,racial,ethnic,religiousandsocioeconomicgroupsandtheirvarioussocialrelations,roles,livingconditions,beliefsandpracticesHowever,theseprincipallyculturalanalyses,whichquicklyembracedmethodologiesfromacrossthesocialsciencesandhumanities,havethemselvesrecentlybeenchallengedbywhatwemighttermareinvigorationof‘thebiologyofgender’Newtheoriesfromthenaturalsciencesandthefieldofevolutionarypsychologyareemergingtoconfrontthestandardlatetwentiethcenturyviewofhow‘gender’and‘sex’relate,demandinginsteadthatwerevisitthepossibilitythat‘genderedbehaviour’isbiologicallyderivedAtthecoreof‘genderanalysis’isaconcernwithunjustinequalitiesbetweenmenandwomenOneonlyneedstoscanthemissionstatementsofmajorinternationalbodiessuchastheUnitedNationsandtheEuropeanUniontofind‘genderequality’statedasaprincipalpoliticalobjectiveOfcourse,enormousprogresshasbeenmaderegardingthesituationofwomenwhoprofitfromthehighlysophisticatedlegalandpoliticalstructuresofwesterndemocraciesUndertheindividualistliberaldoctrineofequalrights,menandwomenalikeare,inprincipleatleast,protectedfromprejudicialtreatmentHowever,whilstthefruitsofthishegemonicconstructionhavebeenhailedbysomeasemancipatory,tootherstheyservetoobfuscatepatternsofinjusticeandgroupdiscriminationEvenwithinsuchprogressiveenvironments,substantiveequalityremainselusiveineverydaylifeasmenandwomenfailtoenjoyequalrightsandprivilegesinpractice:unrelentingpaygapsbetweenmenandwomeninemploymentpersistentinstitutionalstereotypingandbigotrytheunderrepresentationofwomenindecisionmakingandauthoritativepositionsthedifficultiesfacedinseekingtoTheFutureofGenderreconcileprofessionalandfamilyresponsibilitiesAllthese,asfeaturesofmodernsociety,showthatamultitudeofsystemicinequalitiesandinjusticesbetweenmenandwomenremaindeeplyentrenchedIntheadventofnewtechnological,methodological,theoreticalandsocialadvancesthen,wereturntovitalquestionsforgenderanalysisOneprimarychallengeistodecidewhetheranyinnatedifferencesbetweenmenandwomenshouldbeacceptedaslegitimatelycausingnaturallyunequalsocialoutcomesIfso,shouldtheseoutcomesbecelebratedorcompensatedforthroughsocialengineeringIf,however,variousdifferencesbetweenthesexesareconsiderednegligibleandnotjustifyingsubstantiallydifferentsocialoutcomesforeach,thenwearefacedwithwhatmustbeinstitutionalprejudicesanddiscriminatorytraditionsasthecausesofinequality,andoughttoorientateourpoliticalpracticesaccordinglyTowhatdegreedoes‘gender’infactrelatetosexHowusefulistheconceptof‘gender’insocialanalysisHowdoes‘gender’featureinshiftsinfamilialstructuresanddemographyHowshouldweconceiveof‘gender’intermsofcontemporaryinequalityandinjusticeWhatis‘gender’s’functioninthedesignandpursuitofpoliticalobjectivesThesearetheessentialquestionstowhichtenthinkers,whotogetherspanthedisciplinesofevolutionarypsychology,psychoanalysis,sociology,socioeconomics,sociolegalstudies,socialtheory,politicaltheoryandpoliticalphilosophy,applythemselvesandoffertheirinterventionsStructureofthebookPartIofthebook,‘Reorientingthefeministimagination’,containsthreeessays,byNancyFraser,ValerieBrysonandIngridRobeyns,whichconsiderthefailingsofpreviousfeministimaginationsandconsequentlyofferquitecontrastingfuturetheoreticalorientationsforthepursuitof‘genderjustice’TheauthorsinPartII,‘Variationsonthethemeofgender’,SimonBaronCohen,SusanHurley,TerrellCarver,TonyLawsonandJulietMitchell,offerprovocativeandconflictingperspectivesonthechallengeswhichfacetraditionalunderstandingsof‘sex’and‘gender’Finally,PartIII,‘Genderandpoliticalpractice’,consistsofessaysbyCatherineHakim,RosemaryCromptonandJudeBrowne,whoexaminethevariousimplicationsIntroductionforpublicpolicyofdifferentunderstandingsof‘gender’andoffersomeradicallydivergentviewsonwhymenandwomenexperiencesuchdissimilarsocialoutcomesPartI:ReorientingthefeministimaginationThebookbeginswithNancyFraser’sassertionthattherehasbeena‘majorshiftinthegeographyoffeministenergies’HerclaimthatthecuttingedgeofgenderanalysishasmigratedfromtheUSAtoEuropehasconsiderableimplicationsforhowweconceiveofthewholetopicandhowwemightreinventsomeofthecoreelementsoffeminisminordertosecure‘genderequality’andjusticeinthecontemporaryageofglobalizationFraserintroducesustoanew‘practicalmapping’forhowtoproceedInsettingthecontext,shedividesthepostwarfeministimaginationsintothreemajorphasesThefirstisthatoftheNewSocialMovementsofthesinwhichfeminismjoinedthevariouscollectivesofmarginalizedsocialcategoriesdemandinginclusionintheegalitarianobjectivesofwelfarestateismThesecondisthatofidentitypolitics,pioneeredintheUSA,whichdominatedtheintellectualhuboffeminismfortwodecadesfromtheendofthesThefinalphase,towhichFrasercommitsherownallegianceanddesignsoffuture‘genderjustice’,isthatof‘transnationalpolitics’,whichemergedpostThisphase,sheargues,istheonlypossiblesiteofsubstantiveprogressinthatithastheactualcapacitytotranscendandoverturnhabitualbiaseswithinmodernterritorialstatetraditionsentrenchedingenderedstereotypesandunaccommodatinghistoricallegaciesThroughoutthechapter,Fraserchartshowfeministsturnedawayfromredistributioncentredeconomicreform,whichsheidentifiesasan‘indispensabledimensionofafeministpolitics’,andinsteadconcentratedonrecognitionandidentitypoliticsThisapproachwaned,however,intheshadowofincreasingcapitalisticatomization,continuedeconomicretrenchmentpoliciesandarevivalofconservativefamilyvalues(astypifiedintherecentspreadofevangelicalismintheUSA)AccordingtoFraser,onlyavisionwhichencompassestherenovationandsynthesizingofbothredistributionandrecognitiontogetherwithanewformofrepresentationatthetransnationallevelcanprovidethenecessarymechanismsandobjectivesfor‘genderjustice’inwhatshetermsthecontemporary‘postsocialist’orderTheFutureofGenderValerieBryson’schapterprovidesacritiqueofhegemonicwesternliberalmovementswhich,sheargues,havefirmlycastindividualequalrightsastheresponsetoissuesofinequalityClaimingsuchrightsasfundamentallyandrocentric,sheinsiststhatnothinglessthanaresuscitationofspecificelementsofradicalfeminism,inparticulartheconceptof‘patriarchy’,canprovideaneffectiveviewofpresentdaygenderrelationsBrysonsuggeststhatthisapproach,incombinationwithareturntosocialistandMarxistanalysesofsocietalrelations,is,albeitunsavourytosome,theonlyroutetosecuring‘genderequality’Ifwearetotakeequalityasaseriousandgenuinesocietalgoal,sheargues,wemustacceptthatcurrentliberalstrategieswillunequivocallyfailtosecurethenecessarystepstowardsitBrysonrecognizesthattheconceptofpatriarchyhasbecomeratherunfashionable,butinreconceptualizingit,notasaconsciouscollectiveprojectonthepartofmentosubordinatewomen,butratherasadescriptivedevicewhichenablesanaccurateexplanationofthestatusquo,shereintroduces‘patriarchy’tothecentrestageof‘genderequalityanalysis’ShedescribeshowthelargelyunchallengedfocusonliberalrightsdiscoursehasobscuredpatriarchyandthediscriminatoryrepercussionsitharboursWithoutconceivingofliberalsocietalworkingsthroughthelensofpatriarchy,sheassertsthatwecannothelpbutbeseducedbytheideathatanyunequaloutcomesapparentbetweenthesexesareaconsequenceofchoice,meritorluckInevitablythen,wearelikelytoconcludethatsuchoutcomes,setagainstabackdropofequalrights,mustbejustifiedThisdoctrineiswhatBrysonreferstowithironyas‘commonsense’,whichsheassertsisbyfarthedominantthinkinginliberaldemocraciesInaMarxistvein,Brysonarguesthat‘commonsense’renderspeopleincapableofrecognizingsocietalinequalityanddiscriminationwhicharenotinfact,as‘commonsense’wouldleadustobelieve,merelyasequenceofunfortunateindividualexperiences,butareratherinstantiationsofsystematic‘genderinjustice’Brysonnotonlycallsforanalternativeanalysisof‘genderequality’throughareinterpretednotionofpatriarchy,butalsodemandsthatcertainactivitieswhichcausegendereddivisions,suchasresponsibilityfordomesticwork,beredefinedassocialresponsibilitiesandnotpurelyastheconsequencesofprivatechoicesDespiteemphasizingwidespreadpoliciesofwelfarestateretrenchmentandthecommondemiseofsocialistobjectives,sheconcludesbyexplainingIntroductionhowsucharedefinitionisnotbeyondourcurrentandplausiblepoliticalreachIngridRobeynspresentsaninnovativeaccountof‘genderjustice’,basedonAmartyaSen’scapabilityapproachThecapabilityapproachisonewhichprescribesthatindividualsshouldbefreetopursuecertain‘functionings’–thismeansthatonehasthefreedomtobeandtodosomethingonehasgoodreasontoconsiderworth‘being’and‘doing’CapabilitiesthenarethefullsetsoffunctioningsoneidentifiesasbeingthecompositepartsofthelifeonehasgoodreasontoconsiderlivingAsametricofwellbeingthecapabilityapproachisanequalopportunitybasedapproachwhichisabletofocusontheindividualinawaythatisparticulartoneedsandpreferencesratherthanassuming‘wellbeing’byextraneousoraggregatemeasuressuchashouseholdincome,forexample,whichmaynotbedistributedsatisfactorilybetweenindividualinhabitantsSimilarly,asimplecomparisonofmen’sandwomen’spaydoesnot,inandofitself,tellusanythingaboutanindividual’srealfreedomtolivesatisfactorilySen’s‘conversionfactors’aresocial,personalandenvironmentalfactorswhichaffectthewayinwhichoneisabletoconvertone’sresources,suchaseducationaldegreesandprofessionalorsocialskills,intodesiredcapabilitiesRobeynidentifies‘gender’assuchaconversionfactorandillustratesitsrelationshiptosocialnorms,stereotypes,identitiesandsocialinstitutionsInsodoing,shearguesthatstereotypesandsocialnormsreinforcegenderinequalitiesandgenderedbehaviourwhichinturnrenderwomen’spositioninsocietystructurallyweakerthanmen’sInthiswayshedescribeshowweshouldconsider‘gender’asmorallyrelevantwhenconstructingpoliticalstrategiestoeradicateinjusticeRobeynsintroducesthreeprinciplestothecapabilityapproachwithoutthefulfilmentofwhic

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