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首页 未完成的革命:美国新一代是如何塑造家庭、工作和性别的.pdf

未完成的革命:美国新一代是如何塑造家庭、工作和性别的.pdf

未完成的革命:美国新一代是如何塑造家庭、工作和性别的.pdf

上传者: 张靠谱Q 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《未完成的革命:美国新一代是如何塑造家庭、工作和性别的pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含TheUnfinishedRevolutionThispageintentionallyleftblankkathleengersonTheUnfini符等。

TheUnfinishedRevolutionThispageintentionallyleftblankkathleengersonTheUnfinishedRevolutionHowaNewGenerationIsReshapingFamily,Work,andGenderinAmericaOxfordUniversityPress,Inc,publishesworksthatfurtherOxfordUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamCopyrightbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncPublishedbyOxfordUniversityPress,IncMadisonAvenue,NewYork,NYwwwoupcomOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofOxfordUniversityPressLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGerson,KathleenTheunfinishedrevolution:howanewgenerationisreshapingfamily,work,andgenderinAmericaKathleenGersonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNFamilyUnitedStatesWorkandfamilyUnitedStatesProfessionalemployeesUnitedStatesWomenemployeesUnitedStatesMaleemployeesUnitedStatesSexroleUnitedStatesITitleHQGdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperForEmilyThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgmentsixchapteroneTheShapingofaNewGenerationpartoneGrowingUpinChangingFamilieschaptertwoFamiliesbeyondtheStereotypeschapterthreeTheRisingFortunesofFlexibleFamilieschapterfourDomesticDeadlocksandDecliningFortunesparttwoFacingtheFuturechapterfiveHighHopes,LurkingFearschaptersixWomen’sSearchforSelfReliancechaptersevenMen’sResistancetoEqualSharingchaptereightReachingacrosstheGenderDividechapternineFinishingtheGenderRevolutionAppendix:ListofRespondentsandSampleDemographicsAppendix:StudyingSocialandIndividualChangeNotesReferencesIndexCONTENTSThispageintentionallyleftblankLikegrowingup,writingabookisalongandunpredictableprocessthatdependsonthegenerosityoffamily,friends,andcolleaguesaswellasstrangersHavingreachedtheendofthepathforthisone,IcanonlymarvelatmygoodfortuneforthesupportsomanypeoplehavegivenmealongthewayTostartatthebeginning,theresearchprojectontheImmigrantSecondGenerationinMetropolitanNewYork,conductedbyPhilipKasinitz,JohnMollenkopf,andMaryWaters,helpedmetoidentifymysample(TheleadingfundingsourceforthisprojectwasTheRussellSageFoundation,ledbyEricWanner)JenniferHoldawayintroducedmetotheintricacies(andquirks)ofAtlastiTwogiftedresearchassistants,StephanieByrdandJordanaPestrong,conductedaportionoftheinterviews,andtheircontributionsgreatlyenrichedinsightsgleanedfrommyownforaysintothefieldEleanorBernaltranscribedtheinterviewswithherusualintelligenceandgoodcheer,andCourtneyAbramshelpedorganizeandcodethetranscriptsforcomputeranalysisSarahDamaskeprovidedbothheroichelpincompilingthereferencesandinsightfulfeedbackonearlydraftsMostimportant,theyoungwomenandmenwhoagreedtospendtheirtimewithmeandmyassistantshavemydeepgratitudeandrespectWeenteredtheirlivesasstrangers,andtheyopenedtheirdoorsandsharedtheirmostprivateexperiencesandthoughtswithusMyhopeisthattheinterviewprocessgavethematleastaportionoftheinsightandenjoymentthattheirparticipationgaveusAwideanddeepnetworkofcolleaguesandfriendslistenedtomydevelopingthoughts,providedessentialfeedback,andofferedmoralsupportAwritinggroupwithLynnChancer,RuthHorowitz,andArleneSkolnickACKNOWLEDGMENTSx|acknowledgmentsservedasaforumforthoughtfuldiscussionsandconstructivecriticismManyothercolleaguesinspiredmewiththeirownworkandtheirreactionstomineAmongthese,IamespeciallygratefultoRosalindBarnett,CynthiaEpstein,JenniferGlass,SydneyHalpern,LynneHaney,SharonHays,RosannaHertz,JerryAJacobs,PamelaStone,VivianaZelizer,andEviatarZerubavelMystudents,especiallyMichaelArmato,StephanieByrd,SarahDamaske,AdamGreen,PamelaKaufman,AllenLi,andLouiseRoth,alsoofferedvaluedfeedbackOvertheyearstheyhavetaughtmeasmuchasItaughtthemTheCouncilonContemporaryFamiliesprovidedanopportunitytoworkcloselywitharemarkablegroupofacademicsandpractitionerswhocollaborateattheintersectionofresearch,policy,andclinicalpracticeMythanksgotoallmyfellowboardmembersandespeciallytoStephanieCoontz,JoshuaColeman,CarolynandPhilCowan,PaulaEngland,FrankFurstenberg,StevenMintz,MignonMoore,BarbaraRisman,VirginiaRutter,PepperSchwartz,ArleneSkolnick,andPamelaSmockItwasapleasuretoorganizeaCCFconferenceon“dilemmasofworkandfamilyinthetwentyfirstcentury”withJanetGornickandJoanWilliamsandthentopublishaselectionofthesepresentationsinTheAmericanProspect,workingwithRobertKuttnerDuringthecourseofthisproject,IbenefittedfromstimulatingreactionstoanumberofpresentationsofmyworkinprogressMythanksgotocolleaguesattheCharlesPhelpsTaftCenterforResearchattheUniversityofCincinnati,theInstitutefortheStudyofStatusPassagesandRisksintheLifeCourseattheUniversityofBremeninGermany,theMacArthurFoundationResearchNetworkontheTransitiontoAdulthood,theNationalOpinionResearchCenterattheUniversityofChicago,theNewYorkChapteroftheStanfordInstituteforResearchonWomenandGender,theSloanCenterfortheStudyofMythandRitualinEverydayLifeatEmoryUniversity,theSloanWorkandFamilyResearchNetwork,theWorkingGrouponWealthandPowerinthePostIndustrialAge,andtheDepartmentsofSociologyatHarvardUniversity,UniversityofPennsylvania,UniversityofCaliforniaatSanDiego,UniversityofSouthernCalifornia,andVanderbiltUniversityIamalsogratefulforincisiveblindreviewsfromStephanieCoontz,SharonHays,PamelaStone,EviatarZerubavel,andtwoanonymousreviewersaswellasforthoughtfulcommentsfromNaomiSchneiderattheUniversityofCaliforniaPressandElizabethKnollandJoyceSeltzeratHarvardUniversityPressIthasbeenanunqualifiedpleasuretoworkwiththeteamatOxfordUniversityPressDavidMcBrideandNikoPfundinspiredmewiththeirenthusiasmandprofessionalismKeithFaivrehandledtheeditingandproductionstageswithanunerringlydefttouchToputitsimply,JamesCookhasbeenacknowledgments|xithebesteditorimaginableThrougheverystageinthepublicationprocess,hehasgoneaboveandbeyondthecallofduty,offeringwiseadvice,masterfuleditingofthemanuscript,muchappreciatedhelpwiththetitle,andunstintingattentiontolargeandsmalldetailsateveryturningpointInanageofdecliningbudgetsandoverburdenededitors,IhavebeenexceedinglyfortunatetohaveJamesasaneditorandafriendSincethisbookisaboutfamilies,writingithasprovidedmewithanopportunitytosavormyownRoseBlumsuccessfullyraisedmysistersandmewithunwaveringgraceanddignityatatimewhensinglemotherhoodwasrareandwomen’soptionswerefartoolimitedNowinherninetythirdyear,sheremainsaswarm,courageous,andlifeaffirmingaseverShetaughtmethataloveoflife,anindomitablespirit,andasenseofhumorwillnotonlyhelpyouprevailoverlife’sdifficultiesbutalsogiveyouthecouragetomakeadifferenceintheworldMytwosisters,LindaandBettyGerson,aretestamenttothewisdomofheroutlookThroughtheirfriendshipandexample,theyhavegivenmealifelongappreciationforthemeaningofsisterhoodJohnMollenkopf,mypartnerinlifeforthreedecades,hasmadethisbookpossibleoneverylevelfromhiscarefulreadingandbrillianteditingofthemanuscripttoourconstantdiscussionsaboutgender,work,andfamilybothasurgentpublicmattersandpersonalconundrumstohisdevotedparenting,inspiredcooking,andoptimisticoutlookWhenitcomestobeinganequalpartner,hehaswalkedthewalkaswellastalkedthetalkForsharingthisjourneywithme,IthankhimfromthebottomofmyheartFinally,mydaughter,Emily,achildofthegenderrevolution,hasinspiredmeintoomanywaystonameShetaughtmetoappreciatethejoysandchallengesshehasfacedgrowingupandtotreasurethegiftofunconditionalloveItisanhonorbeyondmeasuretobehermother,andIcouldnotbemoreproudofherIamconfidentthatEmilyandherpeerswillworktocreateamorehumane,equal,andjustworldforthegenerationstofollowNowitisuptotherestofustohelpthemsucceedThispageintentionallyleftblankTheUnfinishedRevolutionThispageintentionallyleftblankchapterone|TheShapingofaNewGenerationItisacool,clearmorninginOceansideTerrace,aworkingclasssuburbwhereAmericanflagsarealmostasplentifulasfamilypetsAsJoshanswersthedoorbell,IanticipatethestoryhewilltellHisbriefanswerstoatelephonesurveytellastraightforwardtaleofgrowingupinastable,twoparenthomeofthekindAmericansliketocall“traditional”Hereported,forinstance,thathisdadworkedasacarpenterthroughouthischildhood,hismomstayedhomeduringmostofhispreschoolyears,andhisparentsraisedthreesonsandwerestillmarriedafterthirtyyearsAfterwesettleintooverstuffedchairsinhisparents’cozylivingroom,whereheishomeforabriefvisit,themorecompletelifestoryJoshtellsbeliesthissimpleimageoffamilylifeDespitetheapparentstabilityandcontinuityconveyedinthetelephonesurvey,Joshactuallyfelthelivedinthreedifferentfamilies,oneaftertheotherAnchoredbyabreadwinningfatherandahomecenteredmother,thefirstdidindeedtakeatraditionalformYetthisoutwardappearancematteredlesstohimthanhisparents’constantfightingovermoney,housework,andthedrugandalcoholhabithisfatherdevelopedinthearmyAsJoshputit,“AllIrememberisjustbeingrealupset,notbeingabletolookatthebenefitsifitwouldremainlikethat,havingallthefightingandthatelementinthehouse”AsJoshreachedschoolage,hishomelifechangeddramaticallyHismothertookajobasanadministratorinalocalbusinessand,feelingmoresecureaboutherabilitytosupportthefamily,askedherhusbandtomoveoutand“eithergetstraightordon’tcomeback”Eventhoughhisfather’sdeparturewaspainfulandfairlyunusualinthisfamilyorientedneighborhood,relieftemperedJosh’ssenseoflossHecertainlydidnotmisshisparents’|theunfinishedrevolutionconstantfighting,hisfather’ssurlydemeanor,ortheembarrassmenthefeltwheneverhedaredtobringafriendhomeHisparents’separationalsoprovidedspaceforhismothertorenewherselfesteemthroughherworkoutsidethehomeJoshmissedhisfather,buthealsoknewadistancehadalwaysexistedbetweenthem,evenifitnowtookaphysicalaswellasanemotionalformHecametoacceptthisnewsituationasthebetteroftwolessthanidealalternativesYetJosh’sfamilylifetookathirdturnayearlaterJustashehadadjustedtoanewroutine,Josh’sfather“gotclean”andreturnedAlthoughhisparentsreunited,theyhardlyseemedthesamecoupleTheseparationhadtriggeredaremarkablechangeinbothBeingawayhadgivenhisfatheranewappreciationforhisfamilyandadeepeningdesiretobea“realfamilyman”Nowdrugfree,heresolvedtobecomethoroughlyinvolvedinhischildren’slivesJosh’smotherdisplayedequallydramaticchanges,fortakingajobhadgivenheranewfoundprideinknowingshecouldstandonherownAshisfatherbecamemoreinvolvedandhismothermoreselfconfident,itliftedthefamily’sspiritsandfortunesInJosh’swords,“thatchangedthewholefamilydynamicWegotextremelyclose”Intheyearsthatfollowed,Joshwatchedhisparentsforgeanewpartnershipquitedifferentfromtheconflictriddenoneheremembered“Awholenewrelationship”developedwithhisfather,whomhecametoseeas“oneofmybestfriends”Healsovaluedhismother’sstrengtheningtiestowork,whichnotonlynourishedhersenseofselfbutalsoprovidedenoughadditionalincomeforhimtoattendcollegeNowtwentyfour,JoshhaslefthometobeginhisownadultjourneyAshelooksbackoverthefullsweepofhischildhood,heseesthat,whiletheactorsdidnotchange,theplaydidInfact,atsomepointinthisseriesofevents,helivedinallthreetypesofhouseholdstraditional,singleparent,anddualearnernowdominatingthedebateaboutfamilychangeToJosh,however,thesepicturesofdiscretefamilytypesdonotdojusticetotheflowofhisfamilyexperiencesNotonlydidJoshliveineachofthesefamilyforms,butthestaticnatureofthesecategoriesmissestheimportanceoftheturningpointswhenhisparentsfaceddifficultiesandfashionednewwaysofconnectingtoeachother,theirchildren,andthewiderworldForJosh,thesetransitionsproduced“threedifferentchildhoods,really”AsJoshconsidershisoptionsforthefuture,hedrawsinspirationfromtheflexibilityhisparentswereabletomusterinthefaceofenormouspersonalandsocialchallengesHehopestoavoidtheproblemsofhisparents’earlymarriage,butheadmirestheireffortstofashionmorepersonallysatisfyingandmutuallysupportivebondsHe,too,wantstobuildamarriagethatistheshapingofanewgeneration|flexibleenoughtoweatherthedifficultiesthatwillsurelycome,evenifhecannotforeseewhatexactlytheywillbeYethishighesthopesarecollidingwithhisgreatestfearsThefewcloserelationshipshehashadwithyoungwomenhaveunderscoredhisdesiretobuildtheflexible,egalitarian,andsharingpartnershiphisparentsfinallycreatedAfteraseriesofdissatisfyingconstructionjobs,henowplanstobecomeateacherandhopesthisoccupationalchoicewillallowhimtointegratesatisfyingworkwithampletimeforchildrenandfamilyYetJosh’searlyforaysintotheworldsofworkanddatinghavealsolefthimworriedabouttheobstaclesloomingonthehorizonOntheonehand,thepressuretoputinlongworkweeksjusttoearnadecentlivingseemstoleavelittletimeforlifebeyondtheworldofworkOntheother,thechanceoffindingafulfillingrelationshipthatisintimate,enduring,andequalseems“iffy”atbestAlthoughhewantsto“haveitall”andplansto“reachforthesegoldenrings,”hefearsthatbuildingahappymarriageandstrikingagoodbalancebetweenworkandhomewillremainjustbeyondhisgraspJosh’sstoryexemplifieshowthetumultuouschangesofthelastseveraldecadesrequireustothinkinnewwaysaboutfamilies,work,andgenderJoshrecountshowafamilypathwayunfoldedashisparentsdevelopednewresponsestoasetofunanticipatedcrisesInarapidlychangingworld,theireffortstoletgoofrigid,fixedrolesandreplacethemwithmoreflexibleformsofprovidingemotionalandfinancialsupportmadethecrucialdifferenceYetJoshalsorecognizesthathisparents’“happyending”wasnotinevitableandtheirlivescouldhavefollowedalessupliftingpathTheseexperienceshavegivenhimhighhopesforhisfuture,butalsolefthimwithnaggingdoubtsabouthisownabilitytoovercomethebarrierslikelytoblockthewayJoshandhispeersarechildrenofthegenderrevolutionTheywatchedtheirmothersgotoworkandtheirparentsinventamosaicofnewfamilyformsAstheyembarkontheirownjourneysthroughadulthood,theytakeforgrantedoptionstheirparentsbarelyimaginedandtheirgrandparentscouldnotenvision,buttheyalsofacedilemmasthatdecadesofpriorchangehavenotresolvedShiftsinwomen’splaceandnewformsofadultpartnershipshavecreatedmoreoptions,buttheyalsoposeunprecedentedconflictsandchallengesIsitpossibletomeldalasting,egalitarianintimatebondwithasatisfyingworklife,orwillgenderconflicts,fragilerelationships,anduncertainjobprospectsoverwhelmsuchpossibilitiesLikeJosh,alloftheyoungwomenandmenwhocameofageduringthisperiodoftumultuouschangemustmakesenseoftheirexperiencesgrowingupandbuildtheirown|theunfinishedrevolutionadultpathsamidnewoptionsandoldconstraintstheirstrategieswillshapethecourseofwork,family,andgenderchangefordecadestocomeGrowingUpinChangingFamiliesWhethertheyarejudgedasliberatingordisastrous,theclosingdecadesofthetwentiethcenturywitnessedrevolutionaryshiftsinthewaysnewgenerationsgrowtoadulthoodThemarchofmothersintotheworkplace,combinedwiththeriseofalternativestolifelongmarriage,createdapatchworkofdomesticarrangementsthatbearslittleresemblancetothesOzzieandHarrietworldofAmericannostalgiaBy,percentofallmarriedcoupleshadtwoearners,whileonlypercentdependedsolelyonahusband’sincome,downfrompercentinInfact,in,twopaycheckcouplesweremorenumerousthanmalebreadwinnerhouseholdshadbeeninDuringthissameperiod,singleparenthomes,overwhelminglyheadedbywomen,claimedagrowingproportionofAmericanhouseholdsToputthisinperspective,notallfemaleheadedhouseholdsconsistofamotheronly,sincemanyparentscohabitbutdonotmarryNevertheless,in,percentofnonHispanicwhitechildrenandpercentofblackchildrenlivedwithoneparent(upfrompercentandpercentin)Astoday’syoungwomenandmenhavereachedadulthood,twoincomeandsingleparenthomesoutnumbermarriedcoupleswithsole(male)breadwinnersbyasubstantialmarginEquallysignificant,membersofthisnewgenerationlivedinfamiliesfarmorelikelytochangeshapeovertimeWhilefamilieshavealwaysfacedpredictableturningpointsaschildrenareborn,growup,andleavehome,today’syoungadultswererearedinhouseholdswherevolatilechangesoccurredwhenparentsalteredtheirtiestoeachotherortothewiderworldofworkTheseyoungwomenandmengrewupinaperiodwhendivorcerateswereincreasingandarisingproportionofchildrenwerebornintohomesanchoredeitherbyasinglemotherorcohabitingbutunmarriedparentsLifelongmarriage,oncetheonlysociallyacceptableoptionforbearingandrearingchildren,becameoneofseveralalternativesthatnowincludestayingsingle,breakingup,orremarryingThisgenerationalsocameofagejustaswomen’sentryintothepaidlaborforcebegantochallengetheonceascendantpatternofhomecenteredmotherhoodIn,onlypercentofmotherswithchil

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