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首页 自然与文化的身体.pdf

自然与文化的身体.pdf

自然与文化的身体.pdf

上传者: 云帆Ching 2011-02-14 评分1 评论0 下载647 收藏1 阅读量1355 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《自然与文化的身体pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含TheBodyofNatureandCultureRodGiblettTheBodyofNatureandCultureprexvipdf:AMPa符等。

TheBodyofNatureandCultureRodGiblettTheBodyofNatureandCultureprexvipdf:AMPageiAlsobyRodGiblettFORRESTDALE:PEOPLEANDPLACEHEALTHRECOVERY:THETAOISTTAICHITMWAYLIVINGWITHTHEEARTH:MASTERYTOMUTUALITYPOSTMODERNWETLANDS:CULTURE,HISTORY,ECOLOGYSUBLIMECOMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGIESprexvipdf:AMPageiiTheBodyofNatureandCultureRodGiblettEdithCowanUniversity,Australiaprexvipdf:AMPageiiiRodneyJamesGiblettTaoistTaiChiandTaoistTaiChiSocietyaretrademarksusedunderlicensebytheInternationalSocietyanditsmemberorganisations,inassociationwiththeinstructionofvariousinternalartsofhealthtransmittedbyMoyLinshinAllrightsreservedNoreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermissionNoportionofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,SaffronHouse,KirbyStreet,LondonECNTSAnypersonwhodoesanyunauthorizedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamagesTheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActFirstpublishedbyPALGRAVEMACMILLANPalgraveMacmillanintheUKisanimprintofMacmillanPublishersLimited,registeredinEngland,companynumber,ofHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRGXSPalgraveMacmillanintheUSisadivisionofStMartin’sPressLLC,FifthAvenue,NewYork,NYPalgraveMacmillanistheglobalacademicimprintoftheabovecompaniesandhascompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworldPalgraveandMacmillanareregisteredtrademarksintheUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,EuropeandothercountriesISBN:––––hardbackISBN:–––hardbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsourcesLogging,pulpingandmanufacturingprocessesareexpectedtoconformtotheenvironmentalregulationsofthecountryoforiginAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGiblett,RodneyJamesThebodyofnatureandcultureRodGiblettpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesISBN––––(alkpaper)Body,Human–SocialaspectsCultureHumanecologyCultureITitleGNG–dcPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyCPIAntonyRowe,ChippenhamandEastbourneprexvipdf:AMPageivToZoeandBlakeprexvipdf:AMPagevTheBodyJudithWrightIamthedepthbelowYouwoulddowelltolookdown,sometimesIcanbeyourtree,solidinthegale–ifyouconsenttobeflower,seedandfruitButyoudon’tbelieveinmeexceptascrassandsufferingandtobesuffered,orinstrumentofyouruncertainloveIamyournotionofhellandyourtoolfordiscoveringheavenButperchedonmeyouleanoutwithyourarrogantpolishedeye–tryingtobeGodLookdownrememberwhereyouareIamthestratathatreachfromearthtostarandthegreatcliffdownwhichyourfatherAdamfellYouwoulddowelltolookdownMorewasbuiltintomethanquicksetnightGodwalkedthroughallmyagesHesetinmethekeythatfitsthekeyholeuseitrightandeternity’slightningsplitstherockoftimeAndthereIwasbegunandsobegotteninthatunspeakableheartofflameFromthatlightwherefleshonfleshwasweldedtheworlditselfunfoldedLookdownthroughmeonthelightyouhaveforgottenIamyourblunderingkindcompanionIamyourhomethatkeepsoutbitterweatherIamtheperilousslowdepositoftime’swisdomYouaremythreat,mymurderAndyetremember,IamyourselfComeletuslivetogetherprexvipdf:AMPageviContentsListofTableandIllustrationsixPrefacexAcknowledgementsxvWhereLandandBodyMeet:BodyCultureandNatureThebody:ThestartingpointStigmataBodytechniquesMachineBodyofModernWesternMedicineThebodyasmachineBodymachineryMedicalmechanicsMappingthemachineofthebodyBattlefieldBodyofIllnessNarrativesIllnessnarrativesThebodyasbattlefieldThemilitarymetaphorinhypermodernmedicineTheearthasbodybodyasearthGrotesqueBodyoftheLowerStrataThepopularbodyofthemarketplaceThebourgeoisbodyThes(ub)limeandbeautifulbodyandlandscapeThebodywithoutorgansMonstrousBodyoftheSlimyDepthsGrotesque,gargantuan,generous,gratefulThemonstrousmaternalOrallysadisticalienSkygods,earthgoddessesFascistBodyoftheWarMachineMaculinist,monumental,machinic,metallic,muscularBachelormachinesforabachelorbirthThemilitarisationofcivilianlifeThewaragainstnatureviiprexvipdf:AMPageviiWritingontheSurfaceoftheTextualBodyIsthesoultheprisonofthebodyThebodywritesbackBodywritingmachinesSportingBodyImprisonedintheTimeMachineAbodybuiltonpainSpeed,sufferingandsublimationinsportThesportingbodyofAustraliaCyborg:TheBodyMachineoftheCivilianSoldierCyberneticsandcyborgsSymbiosisandsymbiontsTaoistBodyoftheEarthTaoismPictureofinternalsTaijiquanHealthrecoverystoriesHealthyLand,HealthyBody:StateoftheEnvironment,StateofHealthSoilconservationTaoistecologyThebodyoftheearthwithorgansandthebodyofAustraliaReferencesIndexviiiContentsprexvipdf:AMPageviiiListofTableandIllustrationsTableChinese‘elements,’organs,emotions,etcIllustrationsFrançoisAntoineBonifaceHeirissonRivièredesCygnes(SwanRiver)StateLibraryofWATheDigestiveTractSwanRiverasDigestiveTractDavidMowaljarlai,Bandaiyan:TheBodyofAustralia,CorpusAustralisinhisYorroYorro:EverythingStandingUpAlive:SpiritoftheKimberleyixprexvipdf:AMPageixPrefaceThebodyisalwayswithus,andwearealwayswith,orin,ourbodiesWeareembodiedbeings,butwhetherweare(our)body,isanotherquestionThewayinwhichwelivewithourownbodyoperatesalongacontinuumfrommasterytomutualityAsimilarcontinuumfrommasterytomutualityappliestolivingwiththeearth(asIhavearguedinapreviousbookseeGiblett,)ThepresentbookisconcernedwiththerelationshipofhumanbodieswithournaturalandculturalenvironmentsItsuggeststhatthesecategoriesarelinkedandintertwinedItarguesforanenvironmentallysustainableandhealthyrelationshipbetweenthebodyandtheearthHumansaffecttheirnaturalandculturalenvironmentsandthoseenvironmentsaffecthumansThemutualconstructionofcultureandnature,andoftheorganicinterdependencebetweenhumansandnature,isexpressedintheconceptsofbodycultureandecohealthcommunicationBodyculturecanbedefinedasthewaysinwhichweunderstand,performandmakemeaningsthrough,withandonourbodiesItisconcernedwiththewaysinwhichweshape,respondtoandmodifyourbiological,physicalandpsychologicalcapacitiesandaptitudesModifyingandperformingthebodythroughfashion,clothing,tattooing,piercing,shaping,dancing,playingsportorgames,taijiquan,yoga,martialarts,fighting,exercising,dieting,sitting,eating,sleeping,walking,beinghealthy,becomingill,beingsick,havingsex,beingborn,givingbirthanddyingaresomeoftheareasinthebroadfieldof‘bodyculture’Thecultureofthebodyisalwaysrelatedtothenatureofthebodyandtothenatureoftheenvironmentinwhichbodiesarepositioned,onwhichtheydepend,whichtheyaffectandwhichaffectsthemEcohealthcommunicationaddressestheseinterrelationshipandaimstomakeecologicallysustainabletherelationshipandinteractionbetweenhumanbeingsbodiesandecosystemsecologyItisanewtransdisciplinaryfieldofstudyandpracticethatlooksattheimpactsofeachontheotheranddevelopsustainablerelationshipsbetweenthebodyandtheearthThewaysinwhichthebodyhasbeenmodelled,andthewaysinwhichthebody,diseaseandillnesshavebeenfiguredprimarilyinmetaphors,areacentralconcernofthisbookTheseinclude:thebodyasmachinethebodyaslandscapethebodyasland,andlandxprexvipdf:AMPagexasbodythebodyas‘cyborg’(orcyberneticorganism)anddiseaseandillnessasaninvadingarmytobefoughtanddefeatedonthebattlefieldofthebodyAllofthesebodiesareconsideredinthisbook,oftenonachapterbychapterbasisThereisthusnosinglebody,butanumberofdifferentbodiesThesebodieshaveanenvironmentalpoliticsthatarehealthyorunhealthyforthebodyandtheearthSomeofthesebodiesarerepresentedinadiscourse,aninstitutionalpracticeofmeaningmakingJustasthereisnosinglediscourseofnature(asIhavearguedelsewhereseeGiblett,,chapter),soanumberofdiscoursescompeteoverthebodyTheseincludethebodyasmachineinmodernwesternmedicineandthebodyasbattlefieldinhypermodernwesternmedicineandinsomeillnessnarrativesThisbookcritiquesthesediscursivebodiesforboththeirbodilyandearthlypoliticsItalsopromoteswaysoflivingandbeinginthebodythatdefyorresistdiscourse,suchasplay,movement,performanceandstorytellingThesewaysareexemplifiedinthebodyasearthorland,thegrotesquebody,themonstrousbodyandtheTaoistbodyoftaijiquanThesebodiesareexpressedincarnivalesquetales,ecofriendlyillnessnarrativesandhealthrecoverystoriesBothdiscursiveandcounterdiscursivebodiesareconsideredchapterbychapterChapterconsidersthebodyasthestartingpointforanyphilosophicalorculturalenquiryintohumanlifeItalsolooksatthewaysinwhichthebodyismadetomakemeanings,includingthroughvariousmodelsorfiguresforthebodyThebodyisbothaninscribedsurfaceofeventsandaninscriberitselfonitsownandothersurfacesItisalsoaperformerofactionsandthereceiverofactionsdonetoitThischapterconsidersthebodyasbothactiveandpassive,asperformingactions,engaginginevents,beingengagedineventsandhavingactionsperformeduponitThesecondchapterconsidersthebodyinwesterncultureatthecrucialturningpointfrompremoderntomodernmedicineInpremodernwestern(andnonwestern)medicinethebodyisfiguredasearthandtheearthasbodyInmodernwesternmedicinethebodyisfiguredasmachineTheworkofLeonardodaVinci(–)isonthecuspofthistransitionasinhiswritingsonthebodyhefiguredthelandasbody,landasbodyandthebodyasmachineIntheworkofReneDescartes(–)thebodyasmachinehaswonoutcompletelyovertheearthasbodybodyasearthThistransitionhashadprofoundeffectsonhowwesee,livewith,andrelateto,thebodyThemodernwesternbodyasmachineisabodyofsurface,bothexteriorPrefacexiprexvipdf:AMPagexiandinterior,whereasthepremodernandnonwesternbodyaslandlandasbodyisabodyofdepthThemachineisdeadwhereasthelandisliving,dying,dead,orbeingrebornThethirdchapterconsidersamorecontemporaryviewofthebodyasbattlefieldinanumberofillnessnarrativesInthisscenario,thediseaseisfiguredastheenemy,thepatientasfootsoldier,thedoctorasthegeneral,thenurseasofficerandmodernwesternmedicineasaweaponThisbattlefieldisaplaceofalifeanddeathstruggleBycontrast,TerryTempestWilliams’illnessnarrative,Refuge,figuresthebodyaswetlandwiththerisingandfallingofitswatersandthecomingsandgoingsofitswaterbirdslinkedtothehealthofhermother’sbodyOtherillnessnarrativesfigurethebodyasfield,thediseaseasaweedandthepatientasagardenerwhotendsthegardenandpullsouttheweedswhereverpossibleThesearemuchmoreenvironmentallyandbodilyfriendlyfiguresthanthebodyasbattlefieldThefollowingtwochaptersconsidertwomorewaysofthinkingandfiguringthebodycountertothedominantdiscoursesofthebodyasmachineandthebodyasbattlefieldChapterconsidersthegrotesquebodyofthelowerstrataThebody(andtheearth)havebeensubjecttoaspatialpoeticsthatvaluesthehighoverthelowandinwhichtheupperrepressesthelowerThegrotesquebodyisassociatedwiththelowandisdevaluedandrepressedaccordinglyThegrotesquebodyisarepressedbody(oraspectofthebody)thatreturnsfromthedepthsintheformofthecarnivalesquebodytothreaten,andevenundermine,theupperbodyItinvertsthelowerstrataoverthehigherstrataandsubvertsthehierarchyandrevaluesthewholebody,upperandlower,innerandouterThelowerstrataofthegrotesquebodyarealsotheslimydepthsofthebody,associatedwiththeslimydepthsoftheearthanditshorrificanduncannymonstersThemonstrousbodyoftheslimydepthsislinkedwiththebodyofthemotherthatdefiesthelawofthefatherChapterconsidershowtherepressedgrotesqueandmonstrousbodyproducesthehorroroftheabjectandtheuncannyThemonstrousmaternalrefuses,underminesandthreatenstoswampthemonumentalmasculine,especiallyasembodiedandencapsulatedinthebodyasmachineInthecontentionbetweenlandasbodylandasbodyandbodyasmachinemachineasbody,anunderlyinggenderpoliticsisplayedoutwiththeformerassignedtothefemalefeminineistandthelattertothemalemasculineistChaptercontinuesthediscussionofthemonumentalmasculineandreturnstothebodyasmachinetoconsiderspecificallythebodyasxiiPrefaceprexvipdf:AMPagexiiwarmachinewithinfascismThefascistbodyisabodyofsolidmassandruggedsurfaceItisascreenfortheprojectionofreactionarypoliticalandideologicalmessagesAlthoughfascismisofficiallydeadasapoliticalideology,itlivesoninandwiththebodyinsofarasitisproducedassolidmassandruggedsurfaceItcannotbemerelyassignedtothedustbinofhistoryIndeed,thebodyisthevectorbywhichfascismcommunicatesfromthepasttothepresentintothefutureFascismisaliveinthefascistbodyAlthoughwemaynothave,orbe,oraspiretobe,afascistbodyofsolidmassandruggedsurface,thebodyisasurfaceofinscriptionChapterconsidersthetextualbody,orthebodyastext,andthewaysinwhichthebodyiswrittenuponbythecommunicationandtransportationtechnologiesthatitusesCommunicationandtransporttechnologiesincreasetherangeofhumanvisualandauralperceptionwhilelimitinghumanbodilymovement,andbothenhancinganddiminishinghumanmentalandsensualcapabilitiesCommunicationtechnologies,suchasphotography,cinemaandradio,andtransportationtechnologies,suchastherailwayandthecar,areconsideredinSublimecommunicationtechnologies(Giblett,b)Thepresentbookcomplementsanddevelopsthatbook,particularlybyconsideringtheimpactofcommunicationandtransportationtechnologiesonhumanbodilyandmentalcapacitiesandaptitudesAhighlyvisibleprojectionofthebodytodayisinsportinwhichthebodyasmachineisputondisplayandinwhichwarandthebodyaswarmachinearesublimatedintoandincompetitionThesportingbodyisthetopicofChapterwhereitisconsideredasabodybuiltonpainandasabodyimprisonedinmeasuredtimeInsettlersocieties,suchasAustraliaandtheUS,foundedonthedispossessionofindigenouspeoples,sportfunctionsasakindofmoralmasochisminflictedinthesportingarenaincrudepunishmentandrecompenseforthepaininflictedonindigenesCathyFreemanisanAustralianindigenoussportspersonwhoembodiedthesecontradictionsShebecamethesportingbodyofAustraliainwhichtheseforceswereplayedoutShewasassimilatedintohighprofileinstitutionalsportintheOlympicandCommonwealthgames,elevatedintosportsuperstardombywinningmedalsandbecomingaNikeathlete,andsheyetresistedsettlernationalisticembodimentbyproudlycarryingtheAboriginalflaganddisplayingherindigenousembodimentThemachinicsportingbodyisanobjectofvisualconsumptionandpleasureTheconsumingviewerisamachinicbodyhookeduptocommunicationdevicesThiscyberneticorganism,or‘cyborg’,isPrefacexiiiprexvipdf:AMPagexiiiconsideredinChapterTheculturalhistoryandformoftelevision,thecomputerandinformationtechnologyareconsideredinSublimecommunicationtechnologiesThepresentbookcomplementsanddevelopsthatbook,particularlybyconsideringthewaysinwhichthebodyandtechnologyhavebecomeintertwinedinahybridisedcompositeandthewaysinwhichthebodyisabiologicalbeinginsymbiosisphysicallyandpsychologicallywiththeearthSofaranumberofwesterndiscoursesandrepresentationsofthebodyhavebeenconsideredChapterconsidersanonwesternbody,theTaoistbody,inparticulartheTaoistbodyofastheearthAfamoussteleintheWhiteCloudmonasteryinBeijingdepictstheembryonichumanbodyaslandwithpartsofthebodyasaspectsoftheearth,boththosemadewithhumanhandsandthosenot:theheadasmountainstheneckasapagodathekidneysasawaterwheelcerebrospinalfluidasariverandsoonTheTaoistbodyisakintothepremodernwesternfiguringofthebodyasearthTheTaoistbodyisenactedandperformedintaijiquan,asetofgraceful,meditativeandhealthgivingmovementsTaoistTaiChiisaparticular‘style’ortraditionthatemphasiseshealthrecoveryPractitionersofTaoistTaiChitellwhatcouldbecalled‘healthrecoverystories’whichdifferconsiderablyfrommainstreamillnessnarrativesThefinalchapterconsiderstherelationshipbetweentheearthandthebodyItarguesforahealthyrelationshipbetweenthetwodrawingonthreestrandsoftraditionalthought:soilconservationclassicsofthesandsTaoistecologyandfengshuiandAustralianindigenouscosmologyandcorporealityForallthreestrandspeopleandlandareonethebodyandtheearthareasinglebeingThehealthofoneaffectsthehealthoftheotherEcohealthcommunicationandearthbodycultureareconcernedtopromoteecofriendly,healthyandhealthgivingmodelsandmetaphorsofthehumanbodyandthebodyoftheearthHumanhealthisinterconnectedwiththehealthoftheearthforweareonebody,thebodyoftheearthxivPrefaceprexvipdf:AMPagexivAcknowledgementsGratefulacknowledgementismadetothecopyrightholderforpermissiontoreproduceJudithWright,‘TheBody’fromAHuman

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