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首页 思考中身体性的维度.pdf

思考中身体性的维度.pdf

思考中身体性的维度.pdf

上传者: 云帆Ching 2011-02-14 评分 5 0 245 33 1115 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《思考中身体性的维度pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含AVOLUMEINTHESUNYSERIESINCONTEMPORARYCONTINENTALPHILOSOPHYDanielaVallegaNeu符等。

AVOLUMEINTHESUNYSERIESINCONTEMPORARYCONTINENTALPHILOSOPHYDanielaVallegaNeuDanielaVallegaNeuTheBodilyDimensioninThinkingTheBodilyDimensioninThinkingTheBodilyDimensioninThinkingSUNYseriesinContemporaryContinentalPhilosophyDenisJSchmidt,editorTheBodilyDimensioninThinkingDanielaVallegaNeuStateUniversityofNewYorkPressPublishedbyStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,AlbanyStateUniversityofNewYorkAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutwrittenpermissionNopartofthisbookmaybestoredinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeansincludingelectronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwisewithoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublisherForinformation,addressStateUniversityofNewYorkPress,WashingtonAvenue,Suite,Albany,NYProductionbyJudithBlockMarketingbyMichaelCampochiaroLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataVallegaNeu,Daniela,–ThebodilydimensioninthinkingDanielaVallegaNeupcm(SUNYseriesincontemporarycontinentalphilosophy)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover:alkpaper)Body,Human(philosophy)MindandbodyITitleIISeriesBBV'dcForAlejandroyanuladaThispageintentionallyleftblankFürdenSchaffendengiltimmernoch,wasfürDantegalt:DerKörperistfürihndieSeele(RilkeüberRodin’sZeichnungen)FortheonewhocreatesstillholdswhatwastrueforDante:Thebodyisforhimthesoul(RilkeonRodin’sdrawings)yanuladaThispageintentionallyleftblankContentsPrefacexiIntroductionxiiiPartOneAttheLimitsofMetaphysicsChapterOneOntheOriginoftheDifferenceofPsycheandSomainPlato’sTimaeusaTheBrokenFrameofTimaeus’SpeechbTheDemiurgeandthe“NurseofallBecoming”cTheCreationofthePsycheoftheCosmosdHumanLegeineTheGenesisofSamenessinanEternalReturnfConclusionChapterTwoTheReturnoftheBodyinExile:NietzscheaOverturningPlatonismbTheTraceoftheBodycTheHistoricalityofNietzsche’sThoughtdTransformationsofBodieseConclusionPartTwoAttheLimitsofPhenomenology:TwoPhenomenologicalAccountsoftheBodyChapterThreeDrivenSpirit:TheBodyinMaxScheler’sPhenomenologyaThePhenomenologicalAttitudebTheLivedBodyasAnalyzerofInnerandOuterPerceptioncSpiritandLifedTheMutualPenetrationofLifeandSpiriteConclusionChapterFourThinkingintheFlesh:MerleauPonty’sTheVisibleandtheInvisibleaReflectingPrimitiveBeingbTheArchetypeofPerception:BodyandThingscRecoilingFleshandtheGenesisofPerceptiondTheNegativeOpeningofIntercorporealBeingeTheInvisible:IdeasoftheFleshfConclusionPartThreeExposedBodiesChapterFiveBodilyBeingThere:TheQuestionoftheBodyintheHorizonofHeidegger’sContributionstoPhilosophyIBEINGANDBEINGSaFromtheThinkingofBeingandTimetothatofContributionsbThinkingBeinginReservednesscShelteringtheTruthofBeinginBeingsIIBEINGANDBODYaTheRoleoftheBodyintheShelteringoftheTruthofBeingbTheCorporealDimensionofBeingTherecBodilyThinkingwithandbeyondHeideggerChapterSixExorbitantGazes:OnFoucault’sGenealogiesofBodiesaFoucaultasThinkerfromtheOutsidebGenealogycBodiesasSitesofPowerKnowledgeRelationsdTheOutsideofPowerKnowledgeRelationseBodiesasSitesofCareoftheSelffConclusionConcludingPreludeNotesIndexxContentsPrefaceDuringmystudiesinFreiburgIfoundmyselfsayingtoafriendthatifthereisonethingIcouldsayabouttruththiswasthatithitsitstarget(“Wahrheittrifft”)WhatIhadinmindwhenIwassayingthiswasnotaconceptoranideaoftruthbutacertaincorporealexperiencethatgoesalongwiththinkingwhenaneventorthoughtexhibitsacertaincreativeandtransformativepowerOfcourse,thiscorporealexperienceisnotalwaysthesame,butitmarksasiteforthoughtthatIhavebeenseekingandenjoyingsincemyfirstearlyandtentativeattemptsinthefieldofphilosophyWhatdoesnotpassthroughthatsiteremainsformeonaphilosophicallevelunintelligibleanduninterestingThisexperienceofacorporealsiteofthinkingiswhatguidestheexplorationsofthisbookTheprojectforthisbookaroseduringmylastyearinFreiburg()andsincethenIhaveworkedonitinmanyplaces(FreiburgandJenainGermany,TravedonaandCittàdiCastelloinItaly,StateCollegeandTurlockintheUnitedStates)IfirstpresentedthisprojectfortheapplicationtoapostdoctoralfellowshipfromtheDeutscherAkademischerAustauschDienst(DAAD)inordertoworkwithCharlesScottandJohnSallisatPennStateUniversityandwasgrantedthisfellowshipfortheacademicyear–IthankCharlesScottandJohnSallis,whoseworksincethenhasbeenaprecioussourceofinspirationforme,fortheircontinuoussupportandcommentsonmyworkIpresentedsomeofthechaptersofthisbookatconferencesinvariousplaces(UniversityofJena,CollegiumPhaenomenologicuminCittàdiCastello,HeideggerConferenceofAmerica,WesternPhenomenologyConference)andIamgratefulforthefeedbackIreceivedfromvariouscolleaguesandfriendsontheseoccasionsSusanSchoenbohmhelpedmeespeciallywithxitheinitialchaptersofthebook,andIalsothankOmarRiveraforreadingthewholemanuscriptandformakingeditorialcorrectionsandthoughtfulcommentsthathelpedmestrengthenmanyideasFurtherIamgratefultoJamesRisserandtoLindaNeufortheircontinuoussupportInparticular,IthankAlejandroAVallegawhowasalwaysthereformeasanengaginginterlocutor,thoughtfulreader,andsupportingcompanionTravedona,August,xiiPrefaceIntroductionSinceitsGreekbeginnings,Westernphilosophyhasbeencharacterizedinitsmostproperactivityasthinkingreflectingonitself,andthisselfreflectionhasbeencharacterizedasamoveawayfromthebodyItappearsthatbodyandthinkingacquiretheirproperdeterminationsintheirdistinctionandoppositionCertainly,thephilosophersofourtraditionarewellawarethatthismoveawayfromthebodyisnotarealseparation,sinceallreflectionweperformaslivingbeingsinevitablyremainstiedtothebody,butneverthelessmanyfromthemstillconceivethinkingasanactivitythatisradicallydifferentfromthebodyanditslifeMorerecently,followingNietzsche,manyattemptshavebeenmadetoarticulatetheactivityofthinkingnotindistinctionoroppositiontothebodybutasitself“bodily”ButevenNietzschecontendedthatthemomentwethinkthebody,thisbodybecomesanobjectofthoughtthatisneverabletoadequatelyrepresentthelivedbodypriortoitscategorizationinthoughtSincetraditionaldeterminationsofthebodyarisepreciselyintheirdistinctiontothinkingandconceptsofthought,thequestionariseswhetherthismoveawayfromthebodyisaninevitableconsequenceofreflexivethought,andwhetheritisatallpossibletothinkthebodyreflexivelywithoutobjectifyingitMyclaimisthatthisispossible,butinordertodothiswemayhavetoabandoncertainpreconceptionsofwhatthebodyisandofhowthinkingoccursOnewaytoquestionandunderminethetraditionalmindbodydualismistodiscoverandarticulatehowthinkingitselfisabodilyeventWhenattemptingtoexplorethebodilyaspectofthought,asitisrevealedtousinreflexivethought,wefirstneedtoquestionwhatwemeanhereby“body”Thus,onemainquestionofthisbookis:Howarewetothinkthe“body”thatwefindatplayinourownthoughtThisquestionalreadyimpliesacertainaccesstowhateverisdesignatedhereas“body”Thebodyinquestionisnottakenasapositedthing,asanobjectofscientificinquiryatwhichIcanlookfromadistanceRatheritisfoundordiscoveredxiiiinareflectiveexperienceSuchreflectiveexperiencemustnotnecessarilybeofphilosophicalnatureDifferentformsofreflectiveexperiencesofthebodyareforinstancerequiredintheperformingarts(dancing,acting)andinvariousformsofmeditationSimilarlytohowadancerasshedancesremainsconsciousofthemovementsofherbodyinsuchawaythatthisbodyisnotobjectified,inphilosophicalinquiriesthinkingmayremainalerttothebodilymovementsthatareatplayasthisthinkingoccursThedifficultyhereistofindaformofreflectionaswellasalanguagethatdonotsimplyobjectifytheoccurrencesthattheyaddressToquestionreflexivelythebodythroughwhichorinwhichourthoughtstakeshapeimpliesthatthebodyinquestionisnotalreadythereforthoughtbutfirstcomestobeforthoughtinthoughtthatis,performativelyInattunedandattentiveawarenessofwhatwemaycometocall“bodily”movementsinthinking,bodyemergesasanoccurrenceanddimensionthatcharacterizesandshapestheverythoughtinwhichitemergesThisimpliesthattheemergingofthebodydoesnotresolveinafullpresenceofabodythingthatbecomesanobjectofthoughtRather,bodyemergesopaquelyinitscomingtopassasatemporaldimensionthatcarriesinnumerableconcreteandsingulararticulationsofthoughtThus,whatallowsustothematizethebodilydimensioninthoughtistheattentiontotheemergenceofthoughtasabodilyeventThisaddressesasecondmainquestionofthisbookthatconcernsthearisingofthoughtandthatcomplementsthepreviousquestion:Howdowecometothinkthe“body”thatwefindatplayinourownthoughtWhenweattempttostayalerttothebodilyaspectsorqualitiesthatweexperienceintheemergenceofourthoughtswedonotfinda“bodyobject”thatisalreadythereAtfirst,whatwemayexperiencearemovements,desires,resistances,directionalities,shapes,andimagesoccurrencesthatDescartesattributestowhathecallsthethinkingsubstancepreciselyinoppositiontothebodyconceivedasanextendedsubstanceThismayraisethequestionwhetherwecanproperlyspeakofa“body”whenweattempttodescribethesensations,desires,resistances,andmovementsatplayintheenactmentofthoughtIsabodynotbydefinitionathing,anobjectofthought,andlikeeveryobjectofthoughttheresultofacomplicatedprocesswecallthinkingHavewenotbeentrainedtoowellbyourtraditiontounderstandbodiesinoppositiontoconsciousthoughtasthismuteimpenetrablemassoforgans,tissues,bones,andskinWouldwenotbemisledbycontinuingtospeakofbodywhenreferringtothissensibledimensionofthought“Whynotspeakof‘physicality,’or‘sensibility,’or‘flesh’”afriendonceaskedmeIhavethoughtaboutthisquestionsinceandaboutwhyIamnotreadytoabandonthisword,“body,”alltogetherIamawarethatwhenIlookreflexivelyforthebodythatIfindatplayintheenactmentofthought,strictlyspeaking,IdonotfindathingWhatIfindxivIntroductionareoccurrences,motions,densities,whichinfactleadsmetospeaknotof“thebody”inthoughtbutratherofthe“bodilydimension”inthoughtorthewayinwhichthought“occursbodily”InsomeinstancesImayalsospeakofthephysicalityofthought,orofitssensibility,or,withMerleauPonty,ofitsfleshIbelievethattheadvantageofstayingwithwordformsrelatedto“body”isthat,indoingso,wemayhaveasenseofatemporalandspatialconcretenessandsingularitythatIdonotfindinthesamewayintheword“physicality”Further,thewordphysicality,tomyear,carriesmorescientificconnotationsandwiththeseasenseofobjectivitythatwouldhindermyexplorationsofbodilybeingandthinkingHadIwrittenthisbookinGerman,Iwouldhaveusedtheterm“Leib,”whichinphenomenologyhascometodesignatethelivedbody,andnottheterm“Körper,”whichdesignatesanybodyobjectinalargersensethatis,livingandinanimate“bodies”thatweperceiveinouterperceptionandthatassuchbecomeobjectsofscientificinquiryInspeakingofthebody,Iamconcernedwiththelivedbody(Leib)thatweareandthatrevealsitselfinastrangeintimacy,asweremainalerttoitsmotionsinthinkingThisdoesnotmeanthatIsimplyquestionthebodysubjectivelyandnotobjectivelySuchareadingwouldnotonlybeanoversimplificationbutitwouldalsobemisleadingAsIwillshow,theexplorationofthebodilyqualityofthinkingleadstoa“desubjectivation”ofthoughtwithrespecttotheWesterntradition,inthatitpointstothephysicalinterweavingofthinkingandotherbodiesandphysicaleventsOncewefocusonhowbodiesplayinthoughtwecannolongerunderstandthinkingsimplyastheactivityofasubject,norcanweunderstandthinkingasanactivitythatissomehowopposedtoaworldandobjectsitthinksThebodilydimensioninthoughtpointstohowthinkingisoftheworld,saidwithMerleauPonty’swords,itpointstohowthinkingsharesthefleshoftheworld,andtohowitstextureiswovenintohistoriesthatreachfartherthanour“subjectivity”andourconsciousmemoriesThisiswhyIprefernottospeakofthebodilydimensionofthought,whichwouldsuggestthatthebodilydimensioninquestionbelongsprimarilytothinkingInoppositiontothis,Ibelievethatthinkingbelongstothisbodilydimensionthatreachesbeyondwhatwemaycometonameas“ourselves”andthatshapestheverywaysinwhichwecometounderstandourselvesThefollowingofthetraceofthebodyinourthoughtrevealsthestrangerswearetoourselves,butmayalsoleadtoanewunderstandingofhowwecometobewhoweareinrelationtotheworldweliveinThisbookiscomposedofaseriesofstudiesofphilosophicaltexts,inwhichIexplorehowPlato,Nietzsche,Scheler,MerleauPonty,Heidegger,andFoucaultthinkofbodies,andhowinthewaytheythinkofbodiespossibilitiesareopenedtoconceivebodiesbeyondwhatthesephilosophersexplicitlythinkWhenreadingthesephilosophersIlookforboth,howtheythinkbodiesandhowabodilyIntroductionxvdimensionisatplayintheirthinkingthatis,Ilookforhowdeterminationsofa“body”or“bodies”ariseintheirthought,andhowtheenactmentoftheirthoughtisitself“bodily”Thisrequiresthat,inreadingtheirtexts,thereaderstayattunedandalerttothemovementsandarticulationsoftheirthoughtsbysharingastrangeintimacywiththetextsastheseunfoldinthereadingItisinthisattentivenesstohowthethoughtsofthephilosopherstakeshapeintheirtextsthatIfinddeterminationsofbodilyeventsthatmaynotfindexplicitarticulationinthesetextsThisreadingdoesnotleadtooneuniformwayofunderstandingbodiesandthebodilydimensioninthoughtRather,thepresentedreadingsproliferatethewaysweunderstandbodiesatthesametimethatwecometoseehowbodiestakeplaceinarticulationsofdifferencesthatshapethewayweareandthewaywethinkThustheexplorationofthebodilydimensioninthinkingopensthewaytoanunderstandingofbodiesnotsimplyasthingsinspaceandintimebutratherasdimensionsthroughwhichandinwhichspaceandtimefindarticulationsalwaysanewinquitesingularwaysUltimatelythisleadstothepossibilityofanontologyofbodilybeingforwhichthisbookmaypresentaseriesofpreliminarystudiesThefirstpartofthisbookexploresbodyandthinkingatthelimitofmetaphysicsThesecondpartexplorestwophenomenologicalaccountsofthebodyThethirdpartexploresdifferentwaystothinkbodiesbeyondsubjectivityThethreepartsmarkatrajectoryfromthelimitsofclassicalmetaphysicstothoseofphenomenology,andfromthesetothoseofanontologyofbodilybeingMorespecifically,thefirstpartdiscussesthelimitsofthehistoryofPlatonism,withthearisingandcollapsingofamindbodydualisminPlatoandNietzscheThesecondpartexploresthebodilydimensioninthinkingintwophenomenologicalapproachesthat,indifferentways,lieatthelimitofaHusserlianphenomenology:Scheler’sphenomenologybroachesclassicalontology,whereasMerleauPonty’sphenomenologybroachesapostclassicalontologyofthefleshThethirdpartexploresthebodilydimensioninthinkingatthelimitsofarticulationsofthesingularitiesofbodiesbeyondsubjectivity:HeideggeropenspossibilitiestothinkthesingularitiesofbodiesbybreakingthroughsubjectivityfromwithintraditionalWesternphilosophy,whereasFoucaultbreaksthroughsubjectivityatthelimitofphilosophythroughhistoricalanalysesofpracticesandinstitutionsIneachofthephilosophersdiscussedinthethreepartswewillfinddifferentwaysofarticulatingbodies,aswellasquitesingularformsofbodilythinkingInareadingofPlato’sTimaeus(part,chapter)IwilltracethedifferencingbetweenthinkingandbodythatsetsanessentialstageforthehistoryofmetaphysicsandthedeterminationsofbodyandthinkingthatfollowsitThediscussionquestionshowthedistinctionbetweenarealmoftheintelligixviIntroductionbleandofthesensiblecomestobeinandforthinkingandtracesthisdistinctionbacktolegein,atermIunderstandtoindicateabodilyactivityofdifferencingandgatheringthatatitssourcewithdrawsfromconceptualizationThesecondchaptercomprisesareadingofNietzscheandshowshowinhisworkthedifferencebetweenbodyandthinkingwithinmetaphysicsreachesitslimitandhowNietzsche“twistsfree”fromPlatonismInthischapterIarguethatNietzscheremainslargelyimprisonedinapostKantianepistemologythatsealstherealmofconsciousnessofffromthepossibilityofconceivinganythingoutsideofconsciousnessTospeakofbodyandtherebyrevealthetruthofthebodyisimpossibleforNietzsche,since,whenIthinkofbody,thebodyisalreadyanobjectofconsciousnessandthusneverrevealswhatitcouldtrulybe“initself”priortobecominganobjectofthoughtHowever,IwillalsoarguethatNietzschedoesbreakthroughthis“prison”ofconsciousnessandopensabodilydimensionofthoughtintheperformativityofhisthoughtthatis,inexposingperformativelyhowthoughthappens“bodily”Thesecondpartofthisbookconsidershow,afterthepostKantianclosureofconsciousnessonitself,phenomenologyreopenspossibilitiestorethinkandarticulatethebodyandthebodilydimensioninthoughtInchapter,afterconsideringinabriefintroductionphenomenology’spossibilitiesforthinkingbodies,IlookatthemoretraditionalpositionofMaxScheler,whomaintainsexplicitlyadistinctionbetweenspirit(Geist)andwhathecallsthe“vitalsphere”(Vitalsphäre),apositionthatinmanywayspointsbacktoPlatoThechaptershowshowScheleravoidsasimpleobjectificationofthebodywhenheconceivesitasan“analyzer”thatdetermineswhetherandhowoneperceivessomethingIwillalsoarguethathislatethoughtofthe“powerlessnessofthespirit”noto

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