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首页 视觉方法论.pdf

视觉方法论.pdf

视觉方法论.pdf

上传者: 云帆Ching 2011-02-14 评分 5 0 226 31 1028 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《视觉方法论pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含VisualMethodologiesForMauro,GiorgioandLydiaVisualMethodologiesAnIntroducti符等。

VisualMethodologiesForMauro,GiorgioandLydiaVisualMethodologiesAnIntroductiontotheInterpretationofVisualMaterialsGillianRoseSAGEPublicationsLondonThousandOaksNewDelhiØGillianRoseFirstpublishedReprinted,Apartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposesofresearchorprivatestudy,orcriticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,thispublicationmaybereproduced,storedortransmittedinanyform,orbyanymeans,onlywiththepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublishersor,inthecaseofreprographicreproduction,inaccordancewiththetermsoflicencesissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyInquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethosetermsshouldbesenttothepublishersSAGEPublicationsLtdBonhillStreetLondonECAPUSAGEPublicationsIncTellerRoadThousandOaks,CaliforniaSAGEPublicationsIndiaPvtLtd,MBlockMarketGreaterKailashINewDelhiBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationdataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBNX(pbk)LibraryofCongresscatalogrecordavailableTypesetbyMayhewTypesetting,Rhayader,PowysPrintedinGreatBritainbyTheCromwellPressLtd,Trowbridge,Wiltshirecontentslistofguresviiacknowledgementsixintroducingthisbookresearchingvisualmaterials:towardsacriticalvisualmethodology`thegoodeye':lookingatpicturesusingcompositionalinterpretationcontentanalysis:countingwhatyou(thinkyou)seesemiology:layingbaretheprejudicesbeneaththesmoothsurfaceofthebeautifulpsychoanalysis:visualculture,visualpleasure,visualdisruptiondiscourseanalysisI:text,intertextuality,contextdiscourseanalysisII:institutionsandwaysofseeingothermethods,mixingmethodsusefulreadingonvariousvisualmediareferenceslistofkeytermsindexlistofguresFigureConservativePartyelectionposterFigureDoublepagespreadfromJohnBerger'sWaysofSeeingFigureRobertDoisneau,AnObliqueLookFigureSites,modalitiesandmethodsforinterpretingvisualmaterialsFigureRembrandtvanRijn,Selfportrait,FigureRembrandtvanRijn,Selfportrait,FigureGeometricalperspectiveFigureGeometricalperspectiveFigureGeometricalperspectiveFigureMaryCassatt,LittleGirlinaBlueArmchair,FigureAdioukrouWoman,animagefromNationalGeographicmagazineFigureAveragenumberperarticleofNationalGeographicphotographswithWesternersinnonWesternsettings,FigureRegionalpopulationcomparedtoNationalGeographicarticlespublishedinLatinAmerica,AfricaandtheMiddleEast,aspercentageoftotal,FigureAdvertisementFigureAdvertisementfortheItaliannewspaperIlManifestoFigureSilverCrossadvertisement,FigureDentinoxteethinggeladvertisement,FigureBasicspatialorganizationofanadvertisementFigureChanelandBabeadvertisements,FigureAnalysisofChanelandBabeadvertisementsFigure(a)Nineteenthcenturysoftpornpostcard(b)Nochlin'sconstructionofequivalentmaleimageFigureStillfromHitchcock'sRearWindowFigureStillfromHitchcock'sRebeccaFigureStillfromHitchcock'sVertigoFigureHansHolbein,TheAmbassadors,FigureJanvanEyck,ArnolniWeddingPortrait,FigureGustaveDoreÂ,illustrationtoTheBridgeofSighs,FigureWGray,LostFigureWGray,FoundFigureHablotKBrowne(Phiz),TheRiverFigureGeorgeFrederickWatts,FoundDrowned,FigureMapfromCharlesBooth'sdescriptivemapofLondonpoverty,FigurePoliceIllustratedNews,NovemberviiiVISUALMETHODOLOGIESacknowledgementsThisbookisbasedonacourseItaughtattheGraduateSchoolfortheSocialSciences,EdinburghUniversity,in,andMostthanksmustgotothestudentswhotookthatcourse,fortheirenthusiasticengagementwiththeimagesIshowedthemandfortheirhealthyscepticismtowardsmethodstextbooksTheHumanGeographyReadingGroupatEdinburghgavetherstchapterathoroughandveryhelpfulgoingoveratanearlystageMikeCrangandDonSlaterwereconstructivereadersforSageRobertRojekhasbeenaverysupportiveeditorAndtherewereusefuland,moreimportantly,pleasurableconversationsaboutmattersvisualandinterpretivewithSueSmith,CharlieWithersand,especially,MarkDorrianMythankstothemtooFinally,manythankstoAnnelieseEmmansforcompilingtheindexTheauthorandpublisherswishtothankthefollowingforpermissiontousecopyrightmaterial:FigureWaysofSeeingbyJohnBerger,,PenguinBooksReproducedbypermissionofPenguinBooksRobertDoisneau,`AnObliqueLook',RaphoParisSelfPortrait,byRembrandtHarmenszvanRijn(),IsabellaStewartGardnerMuseum,Boston,Massachusetts,USABridgemanArtLibraryOilonpanelSelfPortrait,byRembrandtvanRijn(),TheCollectionoftheDukeofSutherland,onloantotheNationalGalleryofScotlandLittleGirlinaBlueArmchair,,MaryCassat,CollectionofMrandMrsPaulMellonØBoardofTrustees,NationalGalleryofArt,WashingtonOiloncanvasAdioukrouWomanØCarolBeckwithAgelaFisherReadingNationalGeographicbyCALutzandJLCollins,BypermissionofChicagoUniversityPressReadingNationalGeographicbyCALutzandJLCollins,BypermissionofChicagoUniversityPress,DecodingAdvertisements:IdeologyandMeaninginAdvertisingbyJudithWilliamson,ReproducedwithpermissionofMarionBoyarsReadingAdsSociallybyRGoldman,ReproducedbypermissionofRoutledgeCopyrightØbyUniversalStudios,IncCourtesyofUniversalStudiosPublishingRightsAllRightsReservedTheStewartFamilyLLCandthePrincessGraceFoundation,USACourtesyofABCDistributionsandJoanFontaineCopyrightØbyUniversalStudios,IncCourtesyofUniversalStudiosPublishingRightsAllRightsReservedTheStewartFamilyLLCTheAmbassadors,,HansHolbeintheyounger,JeandeDintevilleandGeorgesdeSelveØNationalGalleryLondonJanvanEyck,TheArnolniWeddingPortraitØNationalGallery,LondonGustaveDoreÂ,illustrationtoTheBridgeofSighsBypermissionoftheBritishLibrary,WGray,LostandFoundBypermissionoftheBritishLibraryHablotKBrowne,TheRiverBypermissionoftheBritishLibraryFoundDrowned(oiloncanvas)byGeorgeFrederickWatts()TrusteesoftheWattsGallery,Compton,Surrey,UKBridgemanArtLibraryCharlesBooth'sdescriptivemapofLondonPoverty,BypermissionoftheLondonTopographicalSocietyPoliceIllustratedNewsBypermissionoftheBritishLibraryEveryefforthasbeenmadetotraceallthecopyrightholders,butifanyhavebeenoverlooked,orifanyadditionalinformationcanbegiven,thepublisherswillmakethenecessaryamendmentsattherstopportunityxVISUALMETHODOLOGIESintroducingthisbookThere'sanawfullotofhypearound`thevisual'thesedaysWe'reoftentoldthatwenowliveinaworldwhereknowledgeaswellasmanyformsofentertainmentarevisuallyconstructed,andwherewhatweseeisasimportant,ifnotmoreso,thanwhatwehearorreadSocalled`visualilliteracy'isberated,andtherearecallstorestructureschoolandcollegecurriculasothatvisualgrammarcanbelearntalongsideunderstandingsoftexts,numbersandmoleculesYetthere'salsoalotofconfusionaboutwhatexactlyallthismightentailIndeed,there'salotofconfusionaboutthevisualitselfIsitlikealanguageornotHowdovisualimagesworkAsWJTMitchell(:)saysatthebeginningofhisbookonPictureTheory,`westilldonotknowexactlywhatpicturesare,whattheirrelationtolanguageis,howtheyoperateonobserversandontheworld,howtheirhistoryistobeunderstood,andwhatistobedonewithoraboutthem'Soevenifitwascertainthattheworld,oratleastsomepartsofit,isincreasinglyencounteredvisually(andthisisitselfadebatableclaim),itisn'tclearexactlywhatthatmightmeanforwhatisseenandforwhat,howandwhoseesanddoesn'tNorisitclearwhat,practically,mightbeusefulwaysofexaminingtheseissuesthroughempiricalstudiesDespitethehugeamountofacademicworkcurrentlybeingpublishedonthingsvisual,thereareremarkablyfewguidestopossiblemethodsofinterpretationandevenfewerexplanationsofhowtodothosemethodsThisbookaimstollthatgapItisaddressedtotheundergraduatestudentwhohasfoundsomeintriguingvisualmaterialstoworkwith,knowsthattheyraisesomeinterestingissues,butisn'tquitesurehowtoproceedfromthereThisbookoffersamethodologicalguidetotheproductionofempiricallygroundedresponsestoparticularvisualmaterialsAsStuartHallsays:Itisworthemphasisingthatthereisnosingleor`correct'answertothequestion,`Whatdoesthisimagemean'or`Whatisthisadsaying'Sincethereisnolawwhichcanguaranteethatthingswillhave`one,truemeaning',orthatmeaningswon'tchangeovertime,workinthisareaisboundtobeinterpretativeadebatebetween,notwhois`right'andwhois`wrong',butbetweenequallyplausible,thoughsometimescompetingandcontesting,meaningsandinterpretationsThebestwayto`settle'suchcontestedreadingsistolookagainattheconcreteexampleandtrytojustifyone's`reading'indetailinrelationtotheactualpracticesandformsofsignicationused,andwhatmeaningstheyseemtoyoutobeproducing(Hall,a:)Interpretingimagesisjustthat,interpretation,notthediscoveryoftheir`truth'(althoughwewillencounterthelatterclaiminsomeoftheearlychaptersofthisbook)AsHallsuggests,itisthereforeimportanttojustifyyourinterpretationTodothatyouwillneedtohaveanexplicitmethodology,andthisbookwillhelpyoudeveloponeItprovidesabasicintroductiontoarangeofmethodsthatcanbeusedtointerpretvisualimages,anditprovidesenoughreferencesforyoutodevelopmoredetailedmethodsifyouneedtoItdoesnotofferaneutralaccountofthesedifferentmethods,thoughThosedebatesonthevisual,whileoftenexaggerated,overgeneralized,polarizedandunderresearched,alsoraisesomekeyinterpretativeissueswithwhichanyresearchintovisualmaterialsmustengageSotherstchapterofthisbookaddressessomeaspectsofcurrent,moretheoretical,debatesaboutthevisualInthatrstchapter,IagreewiththeparticipantsinthosedebateswhoarguethattheinterpretationofVISUALMETHODOLOGIESvisualimagesmustaddressquestionsofculturalmeaningandpower,andthatpositionhascertainimplicationsforthewayinwhichIsubsequentlyassessthevariousmethodsIdiscussForexample,whilequantitativemethodscanbedeployedinrelationtothesesortsofissues(asChapterwillsuggest),nonethelessthisemphasisonmeaningandsignicancesuggeststhatqualitativemethodsaremoreappropriateIndeed,everychapterhereexceptthethirdexploresqualitativemethodologiesMorebroadly,therstchapteralsomakessomespecicsuggestionsaboutwhyitisimportanttoconsidervisualimages,whyitisimportanttobecriticalaboutvisualimages,andwhyitisimportanttoreectonthatcritiqueAnswerstothesethreequestionsaredevelopedinChapterintothreecriteriaforwhatIterma`criticalvisualmethodology'By`critical'Imeananapproachthatthinksaboutthevisualintermsoftheculturalsignicance,socialpracticesandpowerrelationsinwhichitisembeddedandthatmeansthinkingaboutthepowerrelationsthatproduce,arearticulatedthrough,andcanbechallengedby,waysofseeingandimagingThosecriteriathenprovidethemeansbywhichthevariousmethodsinthisbookareevaluatedForeachmethodIask:HowusefulisitinachievingacriticalmethodologyforvisualimagesEachchapterofthisbookfocusesononemethod,andmostchaptersalsofocusonjustonekindofvisualimageryIndividualchapterslookatpaintings,photographs,lms,televisedsoapsandadvertsClearly,thisisanarrowselectionofvisualthingsthere'snothingonvideo,ortheweb,ormedicalimaging,ormaps,forexampleAndwhataboutbuildings,builtlandscapes,sculptureThereisnothingtopreventthemethodsdiscussedherebeingappliedtoothersortsofvisualimagesandobjects,howeverEachchapterfocusesononekindofvisualthingandonemethodinordertoofferasustainedandfairlydetaileddiscussionoftheissueseachraisesInordertodevelopthatdetail,eachchapteralsohasboxeswhichaskyoutofocusonspecicpartsofthemethodHowever,therearebibliographiesattheendofthebookwhichwillhelpyoutondyourwayaroundothervisualmediaandgenres,ifyouplantouseoneofthemethodsdiscussedhereonadifferentsortofimageryThebookalsohighlightsanumberofkeytermsVisualMethodologiesexploresboththeoreticalandmethodologicalissues,eachofwhichhastheirown,sometimesratherobscure,vocabulariesTohelpyourecognizethekeytermsofthesevocabularies,thersttimetheyarediscussedinthetexttheyarehighlightedinboldandnotedinthemarginTocheckyourunderstandingofthem,thelistofkeytermsonpagestellsyouwherethesetermsareexploredinthebookFinally,I'dliketocommentonthelimitsofabooklikethisThebookofferssomeguidelinesforinvestigatingthemeaningsandINTRODUCTIONeffectsofvisualimagesButthemostexciting,startlingandperceptivecriticsofvisualimagesdon'tintheenddependentirelyonasoundmethodology,IthinkTheyalsodependonthepleasure,thrills,fascination,wonder,fearorrevulsionofthepersonlookingattheimagesandthenwritingaboutthemSuccessfulinterpretationdependsonapassionateengagementwithwhatyouseeUseyourmethodologytodisciplineyourpassion,nottodeadenitVISUALMETHODOLOGIESresearchingvisualmaterialstowardsacriticalvisualmethodologyChoosingaparticularresearchmethoddependsonallsortsoffactorsThischapterexaminesthefactorsrelatedtothebasicanalyticalapproachyouadoptinrelationtovisualimages:ItdiscussessomedebatesabouttheimportanceofthevisualtocontemporaryWesternsocietiesItoffersabroadanalyticalframeworkforunderstandinghowimagesbecomemeaningfulItsuggestssomecriteriaforacriticalapproachtovisualmaterialsItplacesdifferentmethodologiesinthatframework,tobegintosuggestwhichmethodsmightbebestsuitedforwhichkindsofanalysisItofferssomepracticalsuggestionsforreferencingandreproducingimagesinyournalworkanintroductorysurveyof`thevisual'CultureOverthelasttwoorthreedecades,thewayinwhichmanysocialscientistsunderstandsociallifehasshiftedThisshiftisoftendescribedasthe`culturalturn'Thatis,`culture'hasbecomeacrucialmeansbywhichmanysocialscientistsunderstandsocialprocesses,socialidentities,andsocialchangeandconictCultureisacomplexconcept,but,inverybroadterms,theresultofitsdeploymenthasbeenthatsocialscientistsarenowveryofteninterestedinthewaysinwhichsociallifeisconstructedthroughtheideasthatpeoplehaveaboutit,andthepracticesthatowfromthoseideasToquoteoneofthemajorcontributorstothisshift,StuartHall:Culture,itisargued,isnotsomuchasetofthingsnovelsandpaintingsorTVprogrammesorcomicsasaprocess,asetofpracticesPrimarily,cultureisconcernedwiththeproductionandexchangeofmeaningsthe`givingandtakingofmeaning'betweenthemembersofasocietyorgroupThusculturedependsonitsparticipantsinterpretingmeaningfullywhatisaroundthem,and`makingsense'oftheworld,inbroadlysimilarways(Hall,a:)Thosemeaningsmaybeexplicitorimplicit,consciousorunconsciousTheymaybefeltastruthorasfantasy,scienceorcommonsenseandtheymaybeconveyedthrougheverydayspeech,elaboraterhetoric,highart,tvsoapoperas,dreams,moviesormuzakanddifferentgroupsinasocietywillmakesenseoftheworldindifferentwaysWhateverformtheytake,thesemademeaningsstructuretheywaypeoplebehavethewayyouandIbehaveinoureverydaylivesVisionVisualityScopicregimeThissortofargumentcantakeverydiverseformsButrecently,manywritersaddressingtheseissueshavearguedthatthevisualiscentraltotheculturalconstructionofsociallifeincontemporaryWesternsocietiesItisnowoftensuggestedthatmuchmeaningisconveyedbyvisualimagesWeare,ofcourse,surroundedbydifferentsortsofvisualtechnologiesphotography,lm,video,digitalgraphics,television,acrylics,forexampleandtheimagestheyshowustvprogrammes,advertisements,snapshots,publicsculpture,movies,surveillancevideofootage,newspaperpictures,paintingsAllthesedifferentsortsoftechnologiesandimagesofferviewsoftheworldtheyrendertheworldinvisualtermsButthisrendering,evenbyphotographs,isneverinnocentTheseimagesarenevertransparentwindowsontotheworldTheyinterprettheworldtheydisplayitinveryparticularwaysThusadistinctionissometimesmadebetweenvisionandvisualityVisioniswhatthehumaneyeisphysiologicallycapableofseeing(althoughitmustbenotedthatideasaboutthatcapabilityhavechangedhistoricallyandwillmostlikelycontinuetochange:seeCrary,)Visuality,ontheotherhand,referstowayinwhichvisionisconstructedinvariousways:`howwesee,howweareable,allowed,ormadetosee,andhowweseethisseeingandtheunseeingtherein'(Foster,a:ix)AnotherphrasewithverysimilarconnotationstovisualityisscopicregimeBothtermsrefertothewaysinwhichbothwhatisseenandhowitisseenareculturallyconstructedForsomewriters,thevisualisthemostfundamentalofallsensesGordonFyfeandJohnLaw(:),forexample,claimthat`depiction,picturingandseeingareubiquitousfeaturesoftheprocessbywhichmosthumanbeingscometoknowtheworldasitreallyisforthem',andJohnBerger(:)suggeststhatthisisbecause`seeingcomesbeforewordsThechildlooksandrecognizesbeforeitcanspeak'(Clearlythesewriterspaylittleattentiontothosewhoarebornblind)Otherwriters,however,prefertohistoricisetheimportanceofthevisual,tracingwhattheyseeastheincreasingsaturationofWesternsocietiesbyvisualimagesManyclaimthatthisprocesshasreachedunprecedentedlevels,sothatWesternersnowVISUALMETHODOLOGIESinteractwiththeworldmainlythroughhowweseeitMartinJay()hasusedthetermocularcentrismtodescribetheapparentcentralityofthevisualtocontemporaryWesternlifeOcularcentrismThisna

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