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身体意识

张靠谱Q
2011-02-14 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《身体意识pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

P:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:iiThispageintentionallyleftblankP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:BodyConsciousnessContemporarycultureincreasinglysuffersfromproblemsofattention,overstimulation,andstressWeareplaguedbyagrowingvarietyofpersonalandsocialdiscontentsgeneratedbydeceptivebodyimagesThisbookarguesthatimprovedbodyconsciousnesscanrelievetheseproblemsandenhanceone’sknowledge,performance,andpleasureThebodyisourbasicmediumofperceptionandaction,butfocusedattentiontoitsfeelingsandmovementshaslongbeencriticizedasadamagingdistractionthatalsoethicallycorruptsthroughselfabsorptionInBodyConsciousness,RichardShustermaneloquentlyrefutessuchchargesbyengagingthemostinfluentialtwentiethcenturysomaticphilosophersandincorporatinginsightsfrombothWesternandAsiandisciplinesofbodymindawarenessRatherthanrehashingintractableontologicaldebatesonthemindbodyrelation,Shustermanreorientsstudyofthiscrucialnexustowardamorefruitful,pragmaticdirectionthatreinforcesimportantbutneglectedconnectionsbetweenphilosophyofmind,ethics,politics,andthepervasiveaestheticdimensionsofeverydaylifeRichardShustermanistheDorothyFSchmidtEminentScholarintheHumanitiesandProfessorofPhilosophyatFloridaAtlanticUniversity,BocaRatonEducatedatJerusalemandOxford,heisinternationallyknownforhiscontributionstophilosophyandhispioneeringworkinsomaesthetics,afieldoftheoryandpracticedevotedtothinkingthroughthebodyArecipientofseniorFulbrightandNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesfellowships,DrShustermanhasheldacademicpositionsinParis,Berlin,andHiroshimaandistheauthorofseveralbooks,mostrecentlySurfaceandDepthandPerformingLiveHisPragmatistAestheticshasbeenpublishedinthirteenlanguagesiP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:iiP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:BodyConsciousnessAPhilosophyofMindfulnessandSomaestheticsrichardshustermaniiiCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBN©RichardShustermanInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgeBook(EBL)hardbackP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:InmemoryofJWS,whosebodygavemelife,love,andconsciousnessherpureandeloquentblood,Spokeinhercheeksandsodistinctlywrought,Thatonemightalmostsay,herbodythoughtShe,she,thusrichly,andlargelyhoused,isgoneJohnDonne,“OftheProgressoftheSoul:TheSecondAnniversary”vP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:“Thehumanbodyisthebestpictureofthehumansoul”LudwigWittgenstein,PhilosophicalInvestigations“Thebodyistobecompared,nottoaphysicalobject,butrathertoaworkofart”MauriceMerleauPonty,ThePhenomenologyofPerception“Monks,onething,ifpracticedandmademuchof,conducestogreatthrill,greatprofit,greatsecurityafterthetoil,tomindfulnessandselfpossession,tothewinningofknowledgeandinsight,topleasantlivinginthisverylife,totherealizationofthefruitofreleasebyknowledgeWhatisthatonethingItismindfulnesscenteredonbody”TheBuddha,AnguttaraNika¯ya“Besides,itisashametoletyourselfgrowoldthroughneglectbeforeseeinghowyoucandevelopthemaximumbeautyandstrengthofbodyandyoucan’thavethisexperienceifyouarenegligent,becausethesethingsdon’tnormallyhappenbythemselves”Socrates,fromXenophon’sMemoirsofSocratesviP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:ContentsPrefacepageixIntroductionSomaestheticsandCareoftheSelf:TheCaseofFoucaultTheSilent,LimpingBodyofPhilosophy:SomaticAttentionDeficitinMerleauPontySomaticSubjectivitiesandSomaticSubjugation:SimonedeBeauvoironGenderandAgingWittgenstein’sSomaesthetics:ExplanationandMeliorationinPhilosophyofMind,Art,andPoliticsDeeperintotheStormCenter:TheSomaticPhilosophyofWilliamJamesRedeemingSomaticReflection:JohnDewey’sPhilosophyofBodyMindSelectBibliographyIndexviiP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:viiiP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:PrefaceContemporarycultureincreasinglysuffersfromproblemsofattention,overstimulation,andstressWearefurtherplaguedbyagrowingvarietyofpersonalandsocialdiscontentsgeneratedbydeceptivebodyimagesThisbookarguesthatimprovedbodyconsciousnesscanhelprelievetheseproblemsandenhanceone’sknowledge,performance,andpleasureIfbodyconsciousnessisatopicunlikelytocomfortconventionalphilosophicaltastes,thisisnotbecausephilosophyhasalwaysignoredthebody,astoomanysomaticadvocatesarefondofcomplainingThebodyinfactexertsaverypowerful(thoughgenerallynegative)presenceinphilosophy’spersistentprivilegingofmindandspiritItsdominantlynegativeimage–asaprison,distraction,sourceoferrorandcorruption–isbothreflectedandreinforcedbytheidealisticbiasanddisregardforsomaticcultivationthatWesternphilosophersgenerallydisplayWemustnotforget,however,thatphilosophyinancienttimeswaspracticedasadistinctlyembodiedwayoflifeinwhichsomaticdisciplinesfrequentlyformedanimportantpart,evenifsuchdisciplinessometimesassumedamorebodypunishingcharacterinphilosophieswheremindandsoulwerethoughttoachievemorefreedomandpowerthroughseveresomaticasceticismPlotinus,forexample(accordingtohisadmiringbiographerPorphyry),wasso“ashamedofbeinginthebody”andsokeentotranscenditthathenotonlydrasticallylimitedhisdietbuteven“abstainedfromtheuseofthebath”Today,whenphilosophyhasshrunkfromaglobalartoflivingintoanarrowfieldofacademicdiscourse,thebodyretainsastrongpresenceasatheoretical(andsometimespotentlypolitical)abstractionHowever,theideaofusingitscultivationforheightenedconsciousnessandphilosophicalinsightwouldprobablystrikemostprofessionalphilosophersasanembarrassingaberrationIhopetochangethisprejudiceixP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:xPrefaceUnlikephilosophers,artistshavegenerallydevotedaveryadoring,reveringattentiontothebodyRealizinghowpowerfullyandpreciselyourmentallifeisdisplayedthroughbodilyexpression,theyhaveshownhowthemostsubtlenuancesofbelief,desire,andfeelingarereflectedintheposturalandgesturalattitudesofourfiguresandfacialcountenanceHowever,intheiridolizingloveofthehumanbody,artistshaveusuallypreferredtoportrayitastheattractiveobjectofanotherperson’sconsciousnessratherthantheradiatingexpressionofthesomaticsubject’sownprobingconsciousnessofembodiedselfWomen,particularlyyoungvulnerablewomen,arethefrequentsubjectsofsuchobjectification,portrayedaslusciouslysensuousandobliginglypassivefleshfortheviewer’sdevouringdelectationTheartisticyearningtoglorifythebody’sbeautyasdesiredobjectoftenresults,moreover,instylisticexaggerationsthatpropagatedeceptiveimagesofbodilyeaseandgraceSuchproblemscanbedetectedintheillustrationthatadornsthecoverofthisbook,thefamousValpinc¸onBather()ofIngres,oneofhisseriesofacclaimedTurkishbathandharempaintingsportrayingnakedodalisques(femaleslavesorconcubinesoftheharem)Theyoungwomanhere,passivelyposedonaluxuriouslybeddedandcurtainedinterior,isfreshandnakedfromherbathandthusreadyforherrequiredsexualserviceShepresentsadeliciouslylovelyandluminousbacksideoffleshButinherstaticpose,withherheadturnedawayindarkershadowandhergazeandfacialexpressioninvisible,wegetnosenseofherhavinganyactive,thoughtfulconsciousnessatallSheevenseemsunconsciousoftheclosepresenceoftheimpliedviewer,whoseesherinalmosttotalnakedness,apartfromtheturbanonherboundhairandthesheetwrappedaroundherarm–bothmoresuggestiveofherbondagethanofprotectivecoveringIngres,moreover,intensifiesthewoman’svisualbeautyanderoticchargebyputtingherinaposturalconstellationoflegs,spine,andheadthathighlightsherfigure’sgracefullonglimbsandcurvinglinesbutthatinfactisanatomicallyfarfromapostureconducivetocomfort,letaloneeffectiveactionWhatashocktolearnthatthemarketingdepartmenthadselectedthisbeautifulbutpainfullymisleadingimageforthecoverofmybookonbodyconsciousness!Asacriticofmediaculture’sdeceptiveobjectificationsofthebody,butalsoasaFeldenkraispractitionersensitivetothestrainandsufferingofthespine,IvoicedmyobjectionsbutwasdecisivelytoldthatthevastmajorityofmypotentialreaderswouldonlybeattractedtothebeautyoftheIngresandnevernoticeitsunsightlysocialandsomaticimportIfthatindeedistrue,thenthisbook’sargumentsareallthemoreneededtoopentheireyestootherP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:PrefacexiformsandbeautiesofbodyconsciousnessDonotjudgethisbookbyitscoverWecaneasilyappreciate,however,whyartistswouldfocusonbeautifyingthebody’sexternalformandwhyphilosopherswouldfindbodyconsciousnessadisconcertingmatterandprefertothinkofmindAsbodiesaretheclearestexpressionofhumanmortality,imperfection,andweakness(includingmoralfrailties),sobodyconsciousness,formostofus,primarilymeansfeelingsofinadequacy,ourfallingfarshortofthereigningidealsofbeauty,health,andperformance–apointthatalsoindicatesthatbodyconsciousnessisalwaysmorethanconsciousnessofone’sownbodyaloneMoreover,despiteitsshareofintensepleasures,bodyconsciousnessisperhapsmostacutelyandfirmlyfocusedinexperiencesofpainEmbodimentthussuggestsadiscomfortingvulnerabilityorevil,epitomizedinSaintPaul’sdeclarationthat“nothinggooddwellsinme,thatis,inmyflesh”Cultivationofbodyconsciousnesshasthusbeenrepeatedlyattackedasapsychological,cognitive,andmoraldanger,eventhoughphilosophy’scommitmenttoselfknowledgewouldsurelyseemtoentailtheexerciseofheightenedsomaticawarenessKant,forexample,thoughaffirmingselfexaminationasacrucialduty(anddespitehismeticulouspersonalattentiontodetailsofdietandexercise),sharplycondemnssomaticintrospectionforgeneratingmelancholiaandothercorruptionsWilliamJameslikewisewarnsthatheightenedconsciousnessofthebodilymeansofactionleadstofailureinachievingourdesiredendsDoourbodiesreallyfunctionbestwhenwemostignorethemratherthanmindfullytryingtoguidetheirfunctioningHowshouldwereconcilethisincentivefornonthinkingwithphilosophy’sidealofcriticalreflectionWithoutcriticalsomaticconsciousness,howcanwecorrectfaultyhabitsandimproveoursomaticselfuseIfphilosophyremainscommittedtothemaxim“knowthyself,”how,then,canwebetterknowoursomaticselves,feelings,andconductIfphilosophyislikewisecommittedtothegoalofselfimprovementandselfcare,couldenhancedskillsofsomaticawarenessenablebetterwaysofmonitoringanddirectingourbehavior,managingordiminishingourpain,andmorefruitfullymultiplyingourpleasuresHowtodistinguishbetweenhelpfulandunhelpfulformsofbodyconsciousnessHowtocombinecriticalbodymindfulnesswiththedemandsforsmoothspontaneityofactionAretherespecialprinciplesormethodsofsomaticintrospectionforimprovingbodyconsciousnessandthenusingsuchenhancedawarenessforbettercognitionandsensorimotorperformanceHowdothesemethodsP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:xiiPrefacerelatetothestrugglesofindividualswhosebodiesservetounderlinetheirsubordinatesocialstatusHowdoessomaticproprioceptionexpandourtraditionalpictureofthesensesandtheirroleincognitionandcoordinatedactionIsbodyconsciousnessnothingmorethananawkwardtermfordenotingthemind’sreflectiveconsciousnessofthebodyasanexternalobject,oraretheretrulybodilyformsofsubjectivity,intentionality,andawarenessSuchquestions,andmanyothersrelatedtobodyconsciousness,willbeaddressedinthisbook,whichisaproductofatleastadecadeofstrugglingboththeoreticallyandpracticallywiththistopicThoughthestrugglecontinues,thisbookmarksasignificantmeasureofprogressinmyongoingprojectofsomaestheticsthatgrowsoutofearlierworkinphilosophicalpragmatismasaphilosophyoflifeThepragmatismIadvocateputsexperienceattheheartofphilosophyandcelebratestheliving,sentientbodyastheorganizingcoreofexperienceUnderliningthebody’sformativeroleinthecreationandappreciationofart,myPragmatistAesthetics()includedtheartsofselfstylingThebodyisnotonlythecrucialsitewhereone’sethosandvaluescanbephysicallydisplayedandattractivelydeveloped,butitisalsowhereone’sskillsofperceptionandperformancecanbehonedtoimproveone’scognitionandcapacitiesforvirtueandhappinessInthatcontext,PracticingPhilosophy:PragmatismandthePhilosophicalLife()introducedthenotionofsomaestheticsasafieldoftheoryandpractice,whichwaslaterelaboratedinPerformingLive()Thisbookisafurtherextensionofthesomaestheticproject,withmuchmoredetailedattentiontoissuesofbodyconsciousnessandtotheirproblematictreatmentbypastmastersoftwentiethcenturyphilosophyIoftenprefertospeakofsomaratherthanbodytoemphasizethatmyconcerniswiththeliving,feeling,sentient,purposivebodyratherthanamerephysicalcorpusoffleshandbonesInfact,wereInotworriedaboutburdeningthisbookwithanawkwardlytechnicaltitle,Imighthavecalledit“somaticconsciousness”oreven“somaestheticconsciousness”toavoidthenegativeassociationsoftheterm“body”***IgratefullyacknowledgethemunificentsupportofmyresearchprovidedthroughFloridaAtlanticUniversity’sDorothyFSchmidtEminentScholarChairintheHumanitiesthatIamtrulyfortunatetoholdThreeotherinstitutionswerealsoparticularlysupportiveofmyworkonthisbookTheUniversityofOslokindlyinvitedmetospendthemonthofMaysharingmysomaestheticresearchwiththeirinterdisciplinaryP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:Prefacexiiistudygrouponliteratureanddisease(specialthanksheretoKnutSteneJohansenandDrudevonderFehr)Inthefallsemesterof,theUniversite´deParisPanthe´onSorbonnegraciouslyhosted(throughthegoodofficesofDominiqueChateau,MarcJimenez,andJacintoLageira)aseriesoflecturesinwhichIcouldtestthebook’sfinalargumentsinaforeignlanguageEarlier,HiroshimaUniversity(onthesuggestionofSatoshiHiguchi)generouslyinvitedmetospendtheentireacademicyearof–asavisitingprofessor(withnoteachingduties)topursuemyresearchinsomaesthetics,affordingmeamuchcloserviewofJapan’sextraordinarybodyminddisciplines,frommeditationtothemartialartsThehighlightofthatyearwasthetimeIlivedandtrainedinaZencloister,theShorinkutsudojo,setonahillbythecoastalvillageofTadanoumionthebeautifulInlandSeaIamextremelygratefultomyZenMaster,RoshiInoueKido,forhissuperbinstruction,whichamazinglycombineduncompromisingdisciplinewithaffectionatekindnessItwasnotaneasytimethereweremomentsofstruggle,frustration,failure,shame,andpainButIcannotrememberamoreperfecthappinessorgreaterperceptualacuitythanwhatIexperiencedthroughRoshi’sguidanceThisexperienceofZenpracticereinforcedmyfaiththatdespitetheproblemsandrisksofsomaticconsciousness,itsdisciplinedcultivation(intheproperforms,foci,andcontexts)canproveaninvaluabletoolforpursuingaphilosophicallifeofselfdiscoveryandselfimprovementthatalsotakesonebeyondtheselfIfirstacquiredthisconvictionthroughmyfouryeartrainingandsubsequentprofessionalworkintheFeldenkraisMethodofsomaticeducationandtherapyandthroughsomeearlierinstructionintheAlexanderTechniqueThesebodyminddisciplinestaughtmeotherimportantlessons:thatphilosophicalunderstandingofbodyconsciousnesscanbeenhancedthroughpracticaltrainingindisciplinesofreflectivesomaestheticawarenessthatoursomaticconsciousnessistypicallyflawedinwaysthatsystematicallyhamperourperformanceofhabitualactionsthatshouldbeeasytoperformeffectivelybutyetprovedifficult,awkward,orpainfulandthatsomaestheticinsightcanprovideuswithcreativestrategiestoovercomesuchfaultyhabitsandotherdisordersinvolvingsomatic,psychological,andbehavioralproblemsBodyconsciousnessisthereforenot,asmanyhavecomplained,somethingwhosecultivationspeaksonlytotheyoung,strong,andbeautifulThoughagingandinfirmitybringadisconcertingsomaticconsciousnesswearetemptedtoshun,theolderandweakerweget,themoreweneedtothinkthroughourbodiestoimproveourselfuseandP:KNPpreCUFXShustermanOctober,:xivPrefaceperformancefortheeffectivepursuitofourdailyactivitiesandthegoalswestrivetorealizeIknowthisnotonlyfrommyFeldenkraisexperienceincaringforothersbutalsofrommypersonalexperienceofaging***Iamgratefulnotonlytomyteachersinsomaticdisciplinesofmindfulnessbutalsotothemanyscholarswhohavehelpedrefine,develop,andextendthefieldofsomaestheticsthroughcriticalanalysisandexploratoryinterpretations,infieldsrangingfromdanceandperformancearttofeminism,drugeducation,sports,andspiritualityConfiningmyselftoasampleofpublishedEnglishtexts,IwishinparticulartoacknowledgethediscussionsofJeroldJAbrams,PeterArnold,DeanneBogdan,JonBorowicz,LioraBressler,DavidGranger,GustavoGuerra,CaseyHaskins,Kath

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