关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 身体:当代传记中性、暴力、疾病和死亡.pdf

身体:当代传记中性、暴力、疾病和死亡.pdf

身体:当代传记中性、暴力、疾病和死亡.pdf

上传者: 云帆Ching 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《身体:当代传记中性、暴力、疾病和死亡pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含BODIESBODIESSEX,VIOLENCE,DISEASE,ANDDEATHINCONTEMPORARYLEGENDGILLIANBENNET符等。

BODIESBODIESSEX,VIOLENCE,DISEASE,ANDDEATHINCONTEMPORARYLEGENDGILLIANBENNETTUNIVERSITYPRESSOFMISSISSIPPIJACKSONwwwupressstatemsusTheUniversityPressofMississippiisamemberoftheAssociationofAmericanUniversityPressesCopyrightbyUniversityPressofMississippiAllrightsreservedManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFirsteditionLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBennett,GillianBodies:sex,violence,disease,anddeathincontemporarylegendGillianBennettlstedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cloth:alkpaper)LegendsBody,HumanFolkloreITitleGRBdcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataavailableCONTENTSVIIACKNOWLEDGMENTSIXPREFACEANIMALSINSIDEBOSOMSERPENTSANDALIMENTARYAMPHIBIANSPOISONANDHONEYAIDSAGGRESSORSMIRRORS,CASKETS,ANDNEEDLESKILLINGTHEPRODIGALSONDISPOSSESSEDTHEBODYSNATCHERSBLOODANDBABIESAFTERWORD:ATRIVIALPURSUITINDEXThispageintentionallyleftblankviiACKNOWLEDGMENTSInmanyrespectsthisbookisajointeffortIamindebtedtofriendsandfamilyforfindingmanyofthetextsIquoteSpecialthanksgotomydaughter,KatetoCarolineOates,thelibrarianoftheFolkloreSocietytoVéroniqueCampionVincentformanyoftheFrenchtextsandtoPaulSmith,asalwayswonderfullygenerousinfindingmaterialformeThelibraryoftheFolkloreSocietyhasbeenaninvaluableresource,ashastheManchesterPublicLibrary(thebestBritishpubliclibraryoutsideLondon),andthelibraryofManchesterMetropolitanUniversitySpecialthanks,too,toBillEllisforathoughtfulreadingofanearlierdraftThanksalsogotomyteacher,MichèlePhillips,andmynephew,MarkGray,forhelpwithsomeoftheFrenchtranslations,andtoAdrienneMayor,RuthRichardson,andVéroniqueCampionVincentforallowingextensivequotationfromtheirworkFinally,asalways,Ithankmyhusband,Andrew,forhisunfailingpatienceandsupportThispageintentionallyleftblankixPREFACEIamafolkloristbyprofessionandinclinationTherearemanywaysofbeingafolklorist,butmyowninterestshaveledmetothebranchoffolklorethatexaminesalternativewaysoflookingattheworldandallthat’sinitandtothenarrativesthroughwhichthesealternativesareexploredandcommunicatedSoforthepasttwentyyearsmychiefinteresthasbeeninlegendsinparticular,contemporarylegends(or,asothersmightcallthem,“urban”or“modern”legendsor,insomecircles,“belief”or“rumor”legends)Allthesetermsrefertothesametypeofstory,buttheyhaveacquiredtheirnamesthroughasortofnegativedefinition,asfolkloristshavesoughttodistinguishthemfromsocalledtraditionallegendsForatraditionalfolkloristthetermlegendimpliesalonglivedstoryaboutthepasttoldbyelderlypeoplelivinginremoteruralplaces,toldastruebutinherentlyfictionalFromthesonward,theseassumptionswerechallengedbyanewbreedofresearcherswhowerecollectingstoriesthatdefiedthissortofcategorizationbutalsocouldnotbefittedintoanyotherrecognizedfolknarrativecategoryManyconventionalresearcherssimplydiscardedthesestories,butotherresearchersrecognizedthatthestoriescouldn’tbeentirelyidiosyncraticbecausetheywerebeingcollectedagainandagainThestorytellerswereyoung,urban,andoftenprofessionalpeopleTheirstorieswerenotaboutsaintsorgiants,fairiesormonstersinstead,thetalesreliedonalltheparaphernaliaofmoderncitylivingandseemedtoreflectanentirelyuntraditionalwayoflookingattheworldTheywereoftentoldas“news”or“realevents”andseemedtobepassedoninthesamewayasrumors,beginninginasmallwayandthenspreadingrapidlyinsurgesofintenseinterestandcommittedbeliefbeforedyingaway,onlytosurgeupagaininadifferenttimeorplaceThenewbreedoffolkloristswantedthesestoriesrecognizedasgenuinefolknarratives,intrinsicallyinteresting,traditionalintheirownwaythoughdifferentfromthesortsofstoriesresearchershadpreviouslybeencollectingaslegendsDEFININGACONTEMPORARYLEGENDAtthispointinanintroduction,itiscustomarytosetabouttryingtodefinethetermlegenditselfInthepast,IwasveryinterestedinsuchdiscussionsandanxioustoengageindebateHowever,InolongerfindthesequestionsparticularlyintriguingandIsuspectmanyofmycolleaguesfeelthesameOvertheyearsIhavestudiedthissortofmaterialIhavearrivedataworkingdefinitionthatsatisfiesmeandallowsmetogoondoingthesortofworkIdoManypeoplemightdisagreewiththisdefinitionandIamawarethatmyorientationto“contemporarylegend”inparticulardiffersalittlefromthenormbutthesedefinitionsunderpinmyworkandthisbook,soIthinkitwillbebesttorevisitthesedebatesandtospelloutmyapproachWhatfollowsislessofareasonedargumentandmoreofapersonaldeclarationItisdesignedtodonomorethanallowreaderstoseewhereI’mcomingfromandwhyIhavechosenthesixsubjectsthatmakeupthecasestudiesforthisbookPREFACExFormenowwhatmakesalegenda“legend”isthedifficultyofassigningfixedcharacteristicstoitorplacingitforeverandalwaysinonecategoryThisisinpartbecauselegendscanbetoldinsomanydifferentmodesandmediaButitisalsopartlybecauselegendsaresituatedsomewhereonacontinuumbetweenmythandfolktaleatonepoleandnewsandhistoryattheother,movingalongthiscontinuumdependingontheindividualstoryandthewhimsorobjectivesoftheindividualstorytellerwhorelatesitMythsaresacrednarrativessupportingaparticularworldviewandteachingthetruthsofaparticularreligion,andfolktalesaretraditionalsecularfictionsrelatingthe(mis)adventuresoffantasticalprotagonists(superheroes,superfools,kingsandqueens,supernaturalbeings,talkinganimals,magicobjects,andsoon)ina“onceuponatime”worldandepochIncontrast,newspresentsasitselfasfactItinformsusaboutrealpeopleandrealeventsinthetimeandplaceinwhichweactuallylivehistorymakesthesameclaimsaboutthepastForbothnewsandhistory,factualityispartofthedefinition:untruenewsandmistakenhistoryarenotnewsorhistoryatallLegends,asitwere,mixthegenresandconfusethecategoriesLegendsmaybeeithersacredorsecular:theymaytelloffantasticalpeopleandevents,asmythsandfolktalesdo,orofpeopleandeventsthatseemrealenoughButandhereisthecrunchhoweverfantasticaltheprotagonistsandevents,thesceneisalwayssetintheworldasweknowit,andthestoriesseemtobegivinginformationaboutthatworldForthisreason,readersorhearersaresoonerorlaterfacedwithachallenge:whereonthecontinuumbetweenfolktaleandnews,mythandhistory,shouldthesestoriesbeplacedAretheytrue,likenewsandhistory,ortrueinsomesymbolicway,likemyths,orfictional,likefolktalesHereanotherproblemsurfacesLegendisnotactuallyascientificterm,thoughscholarsattempttouseitasifitwereortomakeitscientificbycomplexdefinitionsItisanevaluation,notadescriptionthisPREFACExiiswhywearesooftenasked“Isittrue,orisitalegend”Butthecontentisambiguousenoughandimportantenoughtowarrantacontinuous(re)assessmentand(re)evaluationSo,inanironicway,thequestionofwhetherornotastoryisalegendiscriticaltorecognizingitasalegendThisisparticularlysobecausetheinformation(ormisinformation)containedinthelegendischallenginginsomewayitcreateswhatpsychologistscall“cognitivedissonance,”amentalconflictorconfusionarisingfromsimultaneouslyholdingtwocontradictoryunderstandingsofasinglesituationorconceptItcreatesthisdissonancebyjuxtaposingtheworldasweknowitwithsomethingverydifferentorbymeldingtwoculturalcategorieswethinkofasquiteseparateThefirstsortofclashgivesustalesofghosts,devils,saints,andmonstersThesecondbyjuxtaposing,forexample,safetyanddanger,loveanddeath,childrenandcrueltygivesusstoriesofhatchetmen,castratedchildren,parentswhokilltheirchildren,womenwhokilltheirloversBroadlyspeaking,thefirstclashtendstoresultin“traditional”legends,andthesecondtypeofclashtendstogive“contemporarylegends”Thoughthereare,ofcourse,numerousexceptions,thecharactersandeventsincontemporarylegendsmoreoftentendtobebizarre,scary,andmacabrethanovertlysupernaturalandarepresentedastopicalandnewsworthyreportsfromtheeverydayworld,nottheotherworldNevertheless,contemporarylegendsarenotnewormoderninanymeaningfulsenseandcannotberegardedasadistinctgenreThisisbecause,likeotherlegends,contemporarylegendsaretraditionalnarrativesBythatImeanthattheyare“stories”ofsomesorttheyarenotsomethingvague,diffuse,andformlesslikearumor,orastatementoffolkbelief,orapopularfallacyTheyhavestructure(abeginning,middle,andend,thoughnotnecessarilyinthatorder)theyaretextsratherthanshapelessbitsofdiscourseTheyarealso“traditional,”whichformemeansthattheyarerecognizablebecausetheyhavebeenwidelydisseminatedinPREFACExiinumeroustimesandplacesThoughsubjecttocontinuousadaptationtosuitthevaryingcircumstancesoftheir(re)tellings,theircoreneverthelessremainsconstantItfollowsthatIwouldnotconsiderthemajorityofwhatcanbefoundontheWeborinpopularcompilationsnecessarilytobelegendsatallSomemaybeormaybecomeso:onlytimewilltellMyinterestisinthecontemporarylegendcanonthosestoriesthathavebeenaroundlongenoughtobeinstantlyrecognizable,tohaveacquiredahistory,toechofolkloricthemesandmotifs,andtobeindubitablylegendsMypreferredtermforthegenrehasalwaysbeencontemporarylegendThetermsmodernandurbanlegendaremisleadingbecausethereislittleintrinsically“urban”or“modern”aboutthesestoriesTheotherterms,beliefandrumorlegend,haven’tmadeitintocommonusageandsimplyreflectthescholarlyorientationofthosewhopioneeredtheterms’usageinthepastIthinkcontemporarylegendisthemostinformativeavailabletermIthastheadvantageofhighlightingthetopicalityofthegenrewithoutlimitingitsapplicabilitytoaspecificplaceortimeforexample,astorysuchastheBloodLibellegend(seechapter)wascontemporaryintwelfthcenturyEnglandaswellasintwentiethcenturyGermanyHavingsaidthat,IdonotconcurwiththecommonviewthatthesestoriesarealsocontemporaryinthesensethattheyreflectthefearsandanxietiesofaparticularageorarecautionarytaleswarningofmoderndangersIdonotthinkthatthiscontentionhasyetbeensatisfactorilyprovedTheargumentsthatseektomaintainthispositionareusuallycompletelycircular:itisallegedthatthestoriesreflectthefearsandsoforthyetsimultaneouslythefearsoftheagearededucedfromthecontentofthenarrativesThisisnottosaythatthestoriesarenotbestunderstoodinthecontextoftheculturesinwhichtheyflourish(asshowninlegendsaboutorgantheftsdiscussedinchapter)Inotherwords,oneneedstoknowsomethingabouttheculturebut()onecannotdeducethenatureofthatculturefromthelegends,orviceversaPREFACExiiiand()thereareotherpowerfulforcesatworkapartfromfearandanxiety(inthecaseofthestoriesIlookatinthisbook,sexual,medical,andintergrouppolitics,forexample,playalargerole)“TAKINGALINEFORAWALK”ThestoriesinthisbookhavebeenchosenwiththesesortsofthingsinmindAllofthemhaveinterestinghistories,andatleasttwoofthemhaveverylonglivesMostofthemhaveexistedinmanydifferentmediainliterature,journalism,andtheateraswellasintheoraltraditionandtheirthemesandmotifsarereflectedintraditionallegendsThestoriesaresometimesinterestingbecauseoftheirhistoryorthemultiplicityofthemediathroughwhichtheyhavebeenpresentedatothertimestheyareinterestingforcultural,social,orpsychologicalreasonsItakewhateverapproachismostproductiveAllsixcasestudiesareofstoriesinthecontemporarylegendcanonThesourcesIhaveusedbothtextsandcommentariesareineitherEnglishorFrenchThisdoesnotmean,ofcourse,thatotherpeopleshavenottransmittedthesestoriesorthatotherscholarshavenotstudiedthemonecanfindtextsandfirstclassscholarlyworkallovertheworld,especiallyinScandinaviaandGermanyButIamanativeEnglishspeakerandcanreadFrenchreasonablycompetently(allthetranslationsfromFrencharemyownunlessotherwisestated),solimitingmyselftotheselanguagesisaconvenienceandhelpscontrolthepotentialmassofinformationFurthermore,becauseeachchapterisfairlyselfcontained,ratherthanprovidingasinglebibliographyforallofthelegendsattheendofthebook,asistheusualpractice,IdecideditwouldbemoreusefultogivethereferencescitedforeachoneattheendoftherelevantchapterandtosingleoutashortlistofkeytextsTheapproachIhavetakenineachofthesecasestudiesissimilartoPaulKlee’sapproachtopaintingKleefamouslywassupposedPREFACExivtohavesaidthathe“tookalineforawalk”:justso,Ihavestartedwithafamiliarcontemporarylegendandhaveletitleadmeonawindingtrailthroughfolklore,legends,literature,history,andcurrentevents,hopingtoendwhereIoriginallybeganandtohavethrownlightonthefamiliarstorybysettingitinavarietyofcontextsThestoriesIhavechosentostudyareallexamplesoftheculturalclashofdiscordantcategoriesandconceptsIspokeofascharacteristicofcontemporarylegendThatclashisrepresentedinthechaptertitles“AnimalsInside”(animalsshouldbeoutside)PoisonandHoneyAIDSAggressors(thesickshouldbepatientandpassive)“KillingtheProdigalSon”(theProdigalSonshouldbewelcomedwithlove)“Dispossessed”(oneshouldownone’sownbody)and“BloodandBabies”Finally,awordaboutthecontentIhadoriginallyintendedtodividethebookintofourseparatesectionsoneforsex,oneforviolence,andsoonButthisprovednottobepracticalsincethethemesofmanyormostofthestoriesIcameacrossandespeciallytheonesIeventuallychosetopresentfellintotwoifnotthreeofthesecategoriesThelegendoftheBosomSerpentwithwhichIbegin,forexample,involvesdiseaseanddeathstoriesofpoisonandhoneyfeaturesex,violence,anddeathstoriesofAIDSAggressorsfeatureallfourthemesTheseareallgrislystories,thestuffofnightmares,notbedtimereadingTheviewofhumanlifeandnaturetheyportrayisnotkindlyoroptimisticTherearenojokesandnoromancehereTheyarewinter’stales,notsuitableforchildrenorthoseofanervousdispositionButtheyarepotentand,Ithink,importantAboveall,theygivethelietothosewhothinkthatcontemporarylegendsarejusttrivialstoriestobetoldafterdinner,laughedat,anddismissedPREFACExvThispageintentionallyleftblankBODIESThispageintentionallyleftblankANIMALSINSIDEBOSOMSERPENTSANDALIMENTARYAMPHIBIANSAmonstrousmouth,alwaysavid,alwaysdevouringAmouththirstyforbloodwhichdestroysthespringsoflife,drinksthem,anddriesthemupRAOULGIRARDET,“L’EMPIREDESTÉNÈBRES”InthischapterIshallbelookingatthecomplexofoldmedicalbeliefs,religiousandsecularprodigystories,andsensationalstoriesoftodaythatisgenerallyreferredtoasthelegendofthe“BosomSerpent”Thenamegiventothisclassicofthecontemporarylegendgenreistakenfromashortstoryentitled“Egotismor,TheBosomSerpent,”byAmericanwriterNathanielHawthorne,whousesthelegendasanallegoryforthedestructiveeffectsofselfishprideThisnamedoesnotactuallyprovideaveryaccuratedescriptionofthelegend’scontentsnevertheless,ithascaughtonsincetheearliestscholarlydiscussionscameaboutastheresultofaconsiderationofHawthorne’ssourcesThelegendoftheBosomSerpentisasvariableandsubjecttocontemporaryfashionsandstorytellers’whimsasanyother,butthecorestoryremainsprettyconstantAman,woman,orchildissaidtohaveacreaturegrowinginsidethebodynotonlyreptiles,asinHawthorne’sstory,butalsoamphibiansThecreaturehastakenupresidenceinavitalorgan,occasionallyintheheartbutmorefrequentlysomewhereinthegastrointestinaltractOnceithastakenupresidencethere,itmovesaboutthebodyandstealsthehost’sfood,causinggreatsufferingandsometimesevendeathInJune,FOAFtaleNews,thenewsletteroftheInternationalSocietyforContemporaryLegendResearch,printedareportsaidtohavebeencontributedby“DrBrunoGosse”thathadrecentlyappearedinthesensationalUSSunnewspaperThestorywasthatatwentynineyearoldFrenchwoman,MarianneKoss,“begansufferingfromanoddillness”Nomatterhowmuchsheate,shegotweakerandweaker,asifshewasbeingdeprivedoffood“Meanwhile,”shereportedlysaid,“IwasgettingaveryunhealthylookingpaunchandhearingstrangegrowlingsoundsfrommystomachAlldaylong,I’dhaveaterriblequeasyfeelingasifsomethingwaswrigglingroundinsideofme”Herdoctordecidedshemustbeoperatedonandthesurgeon,“DrLebideux,”gottoworkAccordingtothereport,“Stunned,thesurgeonwatchedinhorrorasthelargestfrogheeversawleaptoutofMarianne’sstomachontotheoperatingroomfloor”(Gosse,“Docs”)ThefrogisnowsaidtobeattheArleszooFrenchcolleaguestellmethereisnozooatArlesandthatneitherDrLebideuxnorDrBrunoGosseappearonanymedicalregisterTheSunhadearlierreportedthecasesofamanwithaneelinhisintestinesandofafouryearoldgirlwhohadcoughedupasnakeTheForteanTimeshadalsocarriedsimilarreports:afifteenyearoldTurkishgirlwassaidtohave“sufferedmysteriousstomachpainsforfiveyears”Herintestineswerefoundtocontainthreewatersnakes“slightlythickerthanstringandnearlyafootlong”Similarly,aSyrianwomanwasdiscoveredtohaveasixfootsnakeinsideherwhich“‘cheeped’likeachickenwhenitwashungry”ItisnotonlythefringepressthatcarriessuchANIMALSINSIDEreports:in,sobernewspapersincludingPravda,theGuardian,andtheScotsmanreportedthecaseofanelevenyearoldgirlwhovomitedupatwentyfiveinchCaucasiancatsnakeafteramysteriousillnessSimilarstorieshadturnedupinnewspapersinearliertimesanddifferentplacesOnJuly,forexample,theNewYorkHeraldprintedthisstory:BullfrogintheStomachEdwardBlazier,afarmerinDockWatchHollow,ahamletnestledamongtheWatchungMountains,aboutmilesfromBoundBrook,NewJersey,hadbeenailingforsometimeHissymptomsbaffleddoctors,whoonebyonegaveupthecaseasincurableUnabletowork,andslowlywastingaway,Blazierwasneverthelessthepossessorofaravenousappetite,beingparticularlyfondofmeatThenDrFredWi

职业精品

精彩专题

上传我的资料

热门资料

资料评价:

/ 330
所需积分:0 立即下载

意见
反馈

返回
顶部

Q