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首页 身体艺术:古希腊的修辞与竞技.pdf

身体艺术:古希腊的修辞与竞技.pdf

身体艺术:古希腊的修辞与竞技.pdf

上传者: 张靠谱Q 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《身体艺术:古希腊的修辞与竞技pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含RTCqxd:PMPageiiBodilyArtsTHISPAGEINTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANKBodilyArtsRHETORICA符等。

RTCqxd:PMPageiiBodilyArtsTHISPAGEINTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANKBodilyArtsRHETORICANDATHLETICSINANCIENTGREECEZZZDebraHawheeUniversityofTexasPress,AustinCopyrightbytheUniversityofTexasPressAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaFirstedition,RequestsforpermissiontoreproducematerialfromthisworkshouldbesenttoPermissions,UniversityofTexasPress,POBox,Austin,TXThepaperusedinthisbookmeetstheminimumrequirementsofANSINISOZ(R)(PermanenceofPaper)LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHawhee,DebraBodilyarts:rhetoricandathleticsinancientGreecebyDebraHawheepcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cl:alkpaper)PhysicaleducationandtrainingGreeceHistoryToRhetoric,AncientITitleGVH'dcThisbookhasbeensupportedbyanendowmentdedicatedtoclassicsandtheancientworldandfundedbytheAretéFoundationtheGladysKriebleDelmasFoundationtheDoughertyFoundationtheJamesRDougherty,JrFoundationtheRachaelandBenVaughanFoundationandtheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesTheendowmenthasalsobenefitedfromgiftsbyMarkandJoAnnFinley,LucyShoeMeritt,thelateAnneByrdNalle,andotherindividualdonorsForJEMTHISPAGEINTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANKContentsANoteonTextsandTranslationsxiAcknowledgmentsxiiiIntroduction:ShipwreckContestingVirtuosity:AgonismandtheProductionofAretēSophisticMētis:AnIntelligenceoftheBodyKairoticBodiesPhusiopoiesis:TheArtsofTrainingGymnasiumI:TheSpaceofTrainingGymnasiumII:TheBodilyRhythmsofHabitTheVisibleSpoken:Rhetoric,Athletics,andtheCirculationofHonorConclusionNotesWorksCitedIndexTHISPAGEINTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANKListofIllustrationsFigureI:AntikytheraYouth,bronzeFigure:Detail:octopusonafishplateFigure:MarblereliefdepictingKairosFigure:Palaestrascene,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingapankrationlesson,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingpankratiasts,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingjumpingtraining,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:PlanofgymnasiumbasedonVitruvius’descriptionFigure:PlanofthegymnasiumatDelosFigure:PlanofthegymnasiumatOlympiaFigure:PlanofthegymnasiumatDelphiFigure:PlanoftheAcademyinAthensFigure:Scenefromtheapodyterion,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Scenefromtheapodyterion,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingpreparationsfortraining,fromanAthenianredfigurekraterFigure:Scenesshowingpreparationsfortraining,fromanAthenianredfigurekraterFigure:PlanoftheGymnasiumofPtolemyFigure:SchoolscenedepictedonanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:SchoolscenedepictedonanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingpentathletesandaulosplayersinthepalaestra,fromanAthenianredfigurekylixFigure:Sceneshowingboxersandaulosplayer,fromanAthenianredfigurehydriaFigure:Sceneshowingjumperandaulosplayer,fromanAthenianredfigurelekythosFigure:Sceneofwrestlerspracticing,fromamarblestatuebasefoundbuiltintothewallofThemistocles,AthensFigureC:‘‘TheSchoolofAthens,’’Raphael,BODILYARTSxANoteonTextsandTranslationsWhilethisbookengagesclassicalmaterialsandthereforemaybeofinteresttoclassicists,Ihavewrittenitforabroaderaudience,primarilyscholarsandstudentswhoareinterestedinthehistoryofrhetoric,rhetoricalpedagogy,andstudiesofthebody,andIhavethereforetriedtomakethebookaccessibletothosewhodonotreadclassicalGreekTothisend,myquotationsofprimaryancientmaterials,unlessotherwisenoted,followthelatest(widelyavailableandreadable)LoebClassicaleditions,althoughIhave,forthemostpart,translatedthemmyself,givingprioritytoliteralnessandreadabilityovereleganceAttimes,however,Ihavechosentouseothers’wellestablishedtranslations,suchasGeorgeKennedy’sversionofAristotle’sRhetoric,becauseofitsattentiontothefinepointsofrhetoricandfortheirenergyandbeauty,IquoteRobertFagles’editionsoftheOdysseyandtheIliad,butwithaneyetotheGreekandwithmyownmodificationsnotedMytransliterationsmayseeminconsistent,butthereisakindofmethodtothem:forthemorewidelyknownpropernames,IhaveusedthelatinizedspellingwithwhichreaderswillbemostfamiliarForlessfamiliarnamesandterms,IuseatransliterationoftheGreekIhaveleftsomeGreekterms(eg,agōn,aretē,mētis,kairos)untranslated,butonlyafterdiscussingthematsomelengthxiTHISPAGEINTENTIONALLYLEFTBLANKAcknowledgmentsOneofthepointsofthisbookthatknowledgecannotbeseparatedfromitsconditionsofemergencecanbemadefirst,andmostexplicitly,hereintheacknowledgmentsFourpeopleinparticularservedformeasmodelsoflearningandfiguresofdisciplineandthereforeinspirethisstudymostforcefullyTheyaremydidaskaloi,JeffreyWalkerandJanetAtwill,andmybasketballcoaches,PatSummittandLarryRickerThesectiononpain’sroleinbodilylearningislovinglydedicatedtoRickerandSummitt,whotaughtmeearlyonaboutthediligenceinvolvedinlearninganykindofartItwas,afterall,mynotsootherlifeasanathletethatputmeonthispath,anditwasAtwillandWalkerwhokeptmethereTheirimprintsareeverywhere,hapantēMyotherteachers,too,supportedtheprojectfromitsinceptionSharonCrowley,RichardDoyle,andCherylGlennalldifferentlyembodytheconnectionbetweenphiliaandsophiaJeffreyTNealon,EvanWatkins,JohnMuckelbauer,SusanSearls,DanSmith,JeremiahDyehouse,BradVivian,andtherhetoriciansfromtheHouseofCorax,KakieUrchandJBlakeScott,allembracedthestudyenthusiasticallyandinfluentiallyinitsearlyphasesIamespeciallygratefulforthecontinuingeducationIhaveenjoyedattheUniversityofIllinoisThanksmustgotomyWritingStudiescolleaguesPeterMortensen,PaulPrior,CathyPrendergast,andGailHawisherOthercolleaguesinEnglishandoncampushaverespondedto,talkedthrough,orotherwiseinspiredpartsoftheproject:TrishLoughran,JuliaWalker,andJoeValenteofferedintelligentandinsightfulreadingsofchapterJuliaSaville,KathieGossett,GillenWood,andxiiiJimPurdy,perhapswithoutknowingit,helpedsparkmyinterestinthevisualSpecialthankstomy‘‘bodystudies’’colleagues,PaulaTreichler,AliceDeck,LeslieReagan,CLCole,BillKelleher,AndyOrta,MelissaGirard,JenellJohnson,ScottHerring,DanTracy,and(again)JuliaWalkerandGailHawisher,theIllinoisProgramforResearchintheHumanities,andourspecialguestsJenniferTerryandLeslieHeywoodforhelpingtoprovideabroadinterdisciplinarycommunityAndforgeneralprofessionalencouragementandpersonalsupport,LesleaHlusko,NancyCastro,SiobhanSomerville,KalAlston,ZackLesser,JedEsty,StephanieFoote,CrisMayo,BillMaxwell,NaomiReed,andBobParkerdeservespecialmentionSpecialthankstoAmyWanandNicoleWallsfortheirhelpwith‘‘endgame’’issuesMycheerfulandattentiveeditors,AndrewBerzanskisandJimBurr,believedinthisbookandsawitthroughRichardEnosandTakisPoulakosgenerouslyprovidedencouragingandincisivereadingsoftheentiremanuscriptinitsalmostfinalphasesIhopethisnewerversioncandojusticetotheirsuggestionsTheSpencerFoundationprovidedallimportantresearchnetworksandfellowshipmoneySpecialthankstomyfellowSpencerFellowsJenniferKuhnHanksandPatrickMcEwan,andtotheaweinspiringCatharineLaceyForreleasetimethatenabledthemanuscript’stimelycompletion,IamgratefultotheNationalEndowmentfortheHumanitiesMyfamily(Ed,Mary,Dawn,Bill),myfriends(Tifani,Rob,Amy,andRegina),andtheweeones(Sarah,Seth,Jada,Sofia,Lucas,Evan,Maggie,andLola)allemphaticallyremindmethatacademia,thankfully,isn’tallthereisAndfortheinnumerablewaystheyconnecttothisprojectandenlivenme,Ithank,aboveall,ElizabethMazzoliniandJohnMarsh,withoutwhomIwouldnotknowthepoeticsoffriendshipandloveDHChampaign,IllinoisMay,BODILYARTSxivBodilyArtsFIGUREIAntikytheraYouth,bronze:AthensNMNationalArchaeologicalMuseum,AthensZZZIntroductionShipwreckSometimeinthefirstcenturyBCE,ashipdestinedforRome,carryingacargoofGreeksculpturesbyvariousartistsoftheClassicalperiod,wentdownofftheislandofAntikytheraFormillennia,theshipwreckanditscontentsremainedsubmergedinthewatersoftheIonianSea,untilaccidentallydiscoveredbyspongediversinFoundinthecargowasawellpreservedbronzestatueofanudeyouth(Figure),standingfeetinchesandsportingabroadmuscularframeThestatueexhibitsarelaxedgrace,withtheweightrestingontheleftleg,rightarmextendingoutward,handholdingsomesortofroundobject(nowlost)AsidefromspeculationsaboutthedateandcreatorofthefigurerangingfromthefifthcenturyBCEuntilHellenistictimesandattributedtovariousteachersandschools(Hyde:)themajorquestionconfoundingarchaeologistsandscholarsofancientsculpturehastodowithitsidentity:whatkindofbodyisthishowmightitbeclassifiedisthestatuearenderingofgodorofmortalSomebelievethestatuedepictsPerseusholdingMedusa’sheadinhishand,Parisdisplayingtheiconicapple,orHermesinhisroleasguardianofthegymnasiumOthersreaditasanathleteofsomesort,perhapsapentathlete,holdingaballorevenacrownorsomeotherprizeofvictory(Gardner:)Stillothersassociatethestatuewithrhetoricalperformance,readingthearmasthesweeping,emphaticgestureofanorator(Hyde:)Perhaps,suchscholarsspeculate,thestatueisHermesLogios,thegodofwords,oramortalrhetorstandingonabemaspeakingtoanassemblyIbeginwiththisshipwreckedstatuenottotrytosolvetheproblemofitsidentity,butrathertointroduceaconsiderationofancientbodiesandbodilyartsthatwouldexaminethewayidentityandvaluecirculatethroughparticularbodiesastheypracticeandperformvariousartsSuchcirculationoperates,asthisbook’slastchaptersuggests,onpartnerregistersofvisibilityandintelligibilityseeingandrecognizingTheseregistersaremostevidentinobservationslikethatmadebytheoratorAeschines,whopointedoutthatanyone‘‘canrecognizeanathletebyhisbodilyvigor(euexia)withoutvisitingthegymnasium’’(AgainstTimarchus)Euexia,literally‘‘goodbodilydisposition,’’maybelocatedinmusclesandsinewsaswellasintheoverallmannerofwalking,speaking,andcarryingoneself,isboundupwiththemoreabstractancientnotionofaretē,orvirtuosity,totheextentthatfortheGreeks,suchvirtuosityinheredincorporeality,inseparablefrombodilyactionsAsAeschinessuggests,then,euexiacanberecognizedevenoutofcontextifoneknowswhatqualitiestolookforLikeAeschines’wanderingathlete,theshipwreckedstatueexhibitsareadabledispositionandmanner,abodilycomportmentwhattheancientscalledhexisYetwhilethehexisinactionofAeschines’athletecanbesuccessfully‘‘read’’inanassociativemanner,evenoutsideitsexpectedlocation(thegymnasium),thedislocationofashipwreckforabronzedbodyisenoughtoconfoundmodernarchaeologistsandclassicalhistoriansTheonlycertaintyisthatthestatueexhibitsahexisthatexudescarefullycultivatedaretēanditsassociatedconfidentmannerWhat’smore,theshipwreckedstatueandtheaxesofthedebatesaboutitgodormortalathleteororatorsuggestaconvergenceofathleticsandrhetoricasartsofhexis,inotherwords,asbodilyartsThecultural,conceptual,andcorporealconnectionsbetweentheartsofrhetoricandathletics,notunliketheshipwreckedstatue,havebeenmoreorlesssubmergedsinceancienttimesToaccountforthissubmersion,though,wouldrequirealongmeditationondisciplinarydivision,overspecialization,andmindbodyseparation,allofwhichthisbooklabors,forthemostpart,toforgetSuchanomissionismadepossiblebytheexampleoftheancientAthenians,towhomstrictdisciplinarydivisionwouldhavemadelittlesenseInGreece,theArchaicandClassicalperiodsinsteadmarkedatimewhentrainingwasbroad,whenartswereintricatelyinterwoven,andwhenmindandbodymovedandthoughttogetherAssuch,thisbookrestsonasetBODILYARTSofsyncreticpremisesthatdrawtogetherbodyandmindlearningandperformingclassicalstudiesandrhetoricalstudiesBodyMindThemostexplicitlinkbetweenrhetoricandathleticsasartswasmadebyIsocratesinthemidfourthcenturyBCEinhistreatiseAntidosisAfterclaimingthathewantsto‘‘beginatthebeginning’’todescribetheemergenceoftheartofdiscourse(whathetermsphilosophy),Isocratesfirstmakestheassertionthathumansarenaturallymadeoftwoparts,bodyandmind,compoundedtogether,sugkeisthai()Hethengoesontodescribehow,generationsbefore,certainpeople,seeingmanyarts(technas)establishedforotherthings,whilenonehadbeenarrangedforthebodyandforthemind,inventedandleftforusdoubledisciplines(dittasepimeleias),physicaltrainingforthebody,ofwhichgymnasticsisapart,and,forthemind,philosophy,whichIintendtoarguearecorrespondingandunited(antistrophouskaisuzugas)andwhich,coordinatedtogether(homologoumenas),putforwardamoreintelligentmindandpreparethebodytobecomemoreuseful,notseparatingbymuchthetwokindsofeducation,butusingsimilarmethodsofinstruction,exercises,andotherformsofdiscipline(Antidosis–)Inthispassage,IsocratesdescribesaprogramforshapingacompoundedselfbodyandmindwithtrainingingymnasticsanddiscourseSuchaprogramtacitlyinvokesPlato’sprogramrecommendingtrainingthatbalancesthebodyandmind,butIsocrates’programgoesfurther:whilePlatocallsforacombinationofactivitiesthatdevelopthebodyandthatdevelopthemind,IsocratesnotesfromtheoutsetadistinctiveconvergencebetweentheseartsItiscrucialtobearinmind,however,thatIsocrates’compoundedversionofmindbodydidnotdrawtogethertwopartspreviouslyseparatedIsocratesdidnot,thatis,‘‘blur’’thedistinctionbetweenmindandbodyorseethemassomehownewlyinterwovenSuchafirmdistinctionbetweenbodyandmindisalaterdevelopment,andwewouldberemisstoprojectthisperceptionbackwardRuthPadelframestheproblemconciselywhenshearguesthat‘‘thesecriticalmetaphorsofblurandoverlapwouldimplythattheGreeksperceivedtwodifferentINTRODUCTION:SHIPWRECKthingstoblur,twomeaningstoslipbetweenIfthedistinctionsandmeaningsareours,nottheirs,thentherewerenotwothingsforthemtoblurorbeambiguousabout’’(:)Atheart,Padel’spointisacommentaryonmethodWhenthinkingsyncretically,itiscriticaltonotetheplaceswheretheartsunderconsiderationarefusedtogetherWhereasthesedaysathleticsmightfunctionasametaphorforpolitics,education,or,inthemostclichédway,forlife,Iamsuggestingthatfortheancients,athleticswere,attimes,allthesethingstogetherAthleticsandrhetoricwerethusboundtogether,asIsocratespointsout,inatleasttwoways:)unifiedtraininginathleticsandoratoryprovidesaprogramforshapinganentireself,and)thetwoartsdrawfromsimilarpedagogicalstrategieswhereintherespectiveinstructorsimpartbodilyanddiscursiveformsofexpressionIsocratesevenjoinstheartsgrammaticallyinhisdiscussionofpedagogy:‘‘Whentheinstructorshavemadethestudentsexperiencedwiththese,andtheyhavediscussedthemwithprecision,theyagainexercisethestudentsandhabituatethemtohardwork,andthencompelthemtocombine(suneirein)everythingtheyhavelearned’’(Antidosis–)Isocrates’modelofrhetoricalpedagogythereforeworkssymbioticallywithbodilytrainingpracticesNotonlydothetwoartsworktogethertofashionabodymindcomplex,theyworkinasimilarwaywithparallelrhythms,attentiontodetail,andbroadapplicationAsthisstudywilldemonstrate,then,thelinkageinIsocrates’treatiseismorethanjustaclevercomparison,andsuggestsdeeprelationsbetweenrhetoricandathletics,relationsthataretraceabletoIsocrates’forebears,andthatwerethencultivatedandperpetuatedbytheearlysophistsandoratorsinthefifthandfourthcenturiesBCEInancientAthens,athleticandrhetoricalpracticesoverlappedandnurturedeachotherinmanyways:culturally,theywerefoundeduponjointvaluesofagonismandaretē,andtheycametogetherintheancientfestivaltocombinethevisiblewiththearticulablePedagogically,theysharedmodesofknowledgeproduction,anattentiontotiming,andanemphasisonhabituation,imitation,andresponseThisstudywillthereforeworkattheintersticesbetweenathleticsandrhetoricinordertohelpelaboraterhetoric’semergenceinanetworkofeducationalandculturalpracticesarticulatedthroughandbythebodyBODILYARTSLearningPerformingFurtherinquiryintoIsocrates’ownsyncretismshowsthattheconnectionsbetweenrhetoricandathleticsneitherbegannorendedwithtraining,butratheremergedfromlongtimeculturalassociationthroughagonisticperformancesinfestivalandfunerarycelebrations,associationsthatcarriedforwardintotrainingpracticesasrhetoricdevelopedasanart,atechnēAttheheartoftheconnectionbetweenathleticsandrhetoric,then,isanappreciationfortheimmediaterelationbetweentrainingpracticesandperformanceBecauseofthissharedrecognition,thesejointartsprivilegesituatedlearningandcumulativepracticeinachiasmaticwaythatincorporatesperformanceintolearning,learningintoperformanceInthisregard,thebookimplicitlyenterscurrentconversationsinthefieldofrhetoricandcomposition,wherescholarshavelongsoughttoconnectpedagogywithperformance,particularlyintheteachingofwriting,theinstitutionalsitewherecontemporaryhighereducationbestapproximatestheancienttreatmentofrhetoricasacitizenartAlongtheselines,SusanJarratt’sReReadingtheSophists(b)offersanindispensableaccountofthesophistsasteachersandmodelsofparticularrhetoricalstylesJanetAtwill’smonumentalstudy()ofAristotleandtheliberalartsraisescriticalhistoricalquestionsaboutliberalvalues,curriculum,andpedagogyTakisPoulakos()readsIsocratesasaculturalpedagogue,whileKathleenWelch(

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