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首页 身体社会学.pdf

身体社会学.pdf

身体社会学.pdf

上传者: 张靠谱Q 2011-02-14 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《身体社会学pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含TheSociologyoftheBodyCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageiiTheS符等。

TheSociologyoftheBodyCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageiiTheSociologyoftheBodyMappingtheAbstractionofEmbodimentKateCreganSAGEPublicationsLondonThousandOaksNewDelhiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageiiiKateCreganFirstpublishedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposesofresearchorprivatestudy,orcriticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,thispublicationmaybereproduced,storedortransmittedinanyform,orbyanymeans,onlywiththepriorpermissioninwritingofthepublishers,orinthecaseofreprographicreproduction,inaccordancewiththetermsoflicensesissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyInquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethosetermsshouldbesenttothepublishersSAGEPublicationsLtdOliver’sYardCityRoadLondonECYSPSAGEPublicationsIncTellerRoadThousandOaks,CaliforniaSAGEPublicationsIndiaPvtLtdB,PanchsheelEnclavePostBoxNewDelhiBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationdataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNISBNISBN(pbk)ISBNLibraryofCongresscontrolnumberTypesetbyCMDigitals(P)Ltd,Chennai,IndiaPrintedonpaperfromsustainableresourcesPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyAthenaeumPress,GatesheadCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageivForfriendshipCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPagevCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageviContentsAuthorDetailsixAcknowledgementsxIntroductionPartIObject–theRegulatedBodyOne‘MannersMakeththeMan’:SocialNormsandCustomaryControlTwoRegimesandInstitutions:AuthorityandDelimitedControlThreePlaceandSpace:HabitusandSocialControlPartIIAbject–theBoundedBodyFourBlood,BileandPhlegm:RitualBodiesandBoundariesthatBlurFiveMindoverMatter:Psychoanalysisand‘PuttingOn’theBodyPartIIISubject–theBodyofDifferenceSixTechnoscience:RemodellingandRedefiningBoundariesCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageviiSevenTheSocialSubject:LifeExperiences,LifestylesandLifeStagesConclusionReferencesIndexCONTENTSviiiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageviiiAuthorDetailsDrKateCreganisanAustralianResearchCouncilpostdoctoralresearchfellowintheGlobalismInstitute,RMITUniversityShehasalsobeenanHonoraryResearchAssociateoftheDepartmentofPolitics,MonashUniversityduringthewritingofthisbookSheiscurrentlycompletingathreeyearresearchprojectonthesocialimpact–fromthelocaltotheglobal–ofembryonicstemcelltechnologyattheGlobalismInstituteAllherresearchisconcernedwithsocialethicsandembodiment,mostparticularlyinrelationtothehistoryandphilosophyofmedicineHerwritingrangesfromstudiesofanatomyandcriminalityinseventeenthcenturyLondon,tothebiomedicaltradeinhumantissues,tothecommemorationofnoncombatantskilledinviolentconflictSheisparticularlyinterestedinthevariationinunderstandingsofembodimentacrosstime,spaceandcultureCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPageixAcknowledgementsFirstIwouldliketoacknowledgeandthankChrisRojek,bothforcommissioningthisbookandforhisongoingsupportofitspublicationIwouldalsoliketothankSageassistanteditors,KayBridgerandMilaSteele,andassistantrightsmanagerHuwAlexander,whoseefficiencyandhelpfulnesshavebeengreatlyappreciated,andtheanonymousreaderwhosekindwordsandexpertcriticismIacceptwithgratitudeNextIshouldliketoexpressmygratitudefortheinstitutionalsupportIreceivedImustthankMonashUniversity,whereIwasworkingonapostdoctoralfellowshipwhenIbeganwritingthisbookInparticularIwouldliketothankDennisWoodwardoftheDepartmentofPolitics,forhisthoroughgoingdecencyandgenerosityofspirit,andDeniseCuthbert,forherencouragementandfriendshipovermanyyearsSecond,mythanksmustgototheAustralianResearchCouncilforgrantingmetheresearchfellowshipduringwhichmostofthisbookwaswrittenMoreimportantly,IwouldliketothankmyfriendsandcolleaguesattheGlobalismInstitute–DamianGrenfell,PaulJames,MartinMulligan,YasoNadarajah,TomNairn,PeterPhipps,LeanneReinke,ChrisScanlonandChristopherZiguras–forcreatingthemostcollegiallysupportiveandintellectuallystimulatingworkingenvironmentIhaveknownIthankthemparticularlyfortheirsupportinthedifficultfinalstagesofwritingthisbookIalsoextendmysincerethankstoHelenHickeyandAnnaTrembathforprovidinginvaluableadministrativesupportandexpertresearchassistanceasthefinalmanuscripttookshapeAtamorepersonallevel,IwouldliketothankChristopherScanlonforhisirrepressiblesenseofhumourandforproofingthefinalmanuscriptatshortnoticeIalsothankAlanRobertsforhismoralsupportandakindlyearonmanyadogwalkIamalwaysthankfulformyson,CamilleRobinson,butinthiscaseIthankhimmostofallforhisappreciationofthefinelinebetweentragedyandfarce,andhiskeensenseoftheabsurdDuringtheCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPagexwritingofthisbookIturnedonmycomputeronemorning…anditdidn’tFortythousandwordsofthisbookandasmanyagainofotherwritingwerelostAndwelaughedFinally,mysincerestthanksgotoPaulJames,StephanieTriggandJoelTriggfortheirkindness,theirgenerosity,theirloveofmusic,andforlendingmeaquietspacewhenIneededitmostMydeepestthanksgotoPaul,withoutwhosesustainedfriendshipandsupportthisbookwouldnothavebeenwrittenACKNOWLEDGEMENTSxiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPagexiCreganPrelimsqxd:PMPagexiiIntroductionIthasbecomecommonplacethatthereisatensionwithinclassicalsocialtheory,inparticularbetweenMarx,WeberandDurkheimThishasplayedoutacrossmodernsociologyandthewayittendstotreatthebodyasanobjectofstudyMarxistinfluencedsociologyhasemphasisedthesocialrelationsofgroupsandclassesLiberalsociologyhastendedtoconcentrateoneithertheworkofthemindortheinteractionsof(embodied)individualsratherthanonthequestionofembodimentitselfIthasconcentratedonhoweithermateriallyresonantartefactsofthemindor‘socialfacts’–opinions,beliefs,responses,andgroup,socioeconomicorculturalidentifications–canbeexperiencedbetweenindividualsandcollectivelyacteduponInthissenseithasbeenmucheasiertoaccountforthedifferentiated(individuated)body,andtoargueforits‘ownership’andrightswithintheoriesreliantonliberalindividualismthanintheoriesbasedinideasofcollectivityorgroupinteractionNevertheless,inbothtrajectoriesthebodyhasuntilrecentlybeenlargelytakenforgrantedOverthepasttwodecadesthishaschangedThebodyandembodimenthavebecomeobjectsofdirectcriticalreflectionAnthropologyontheotherhand,especiallywhenithasbeen–orperhapsbecauseithasbeen–concernedwithsocietiesthatinteractmoreimmediatelythroughembodiedrelations,hasgivenamoreprominentplacetobodilymattersTribalpeoples’interactionsarelikelytobemorefacetoface,moreimmediateandembodied,thantherelationsbetweentechnologicallymediated,modernpostmodernindividualsButevenindealingwithembodiedrelations,anthropologistsonthewholehavehistoricallyalsopaidfarmoreattentiontotheverbalandsymbolicmeaningofthoseinteractionsthantotheintrinsiccorporealityofthatontologyThistoohaschangedInsociology,thechangehasbeenthanksinparttothepublicationofsuchbooksasBryanTurner’sTheBodyandSociety()andCreganIntroductionqxd:PMPageFeatherstone,HepworthandTurner’sTheBody:SocialProcessandCulturalTheory(),whichhelpedlaythegroundworkfortheemergenceofthesociologyofthebodyTheywerereactingtoashiftthatwasalreadyoccurringinotherdisciplines,muchofwhichwasinfluencedbytheworkofMichelFoucaultFurther,thejournalsTheory,CultureSociety(tothepresent)andBodySociety(tothepresent)havebeencentraltothepromulgationofthisareaofsociologicaltheorisation,providingavitalforumforthoseconductingresearchonthebodyTheyhavepublishedworkfromsomeofthemostinfluentialwritersin,andthoseonthecuttingedgeof,thefieldInthesecondeditionofTheBodyandSociety()BryanTurnerremarksthat,upuntilthefirsteditionofhisbookin,sociologyhadlargelybeenblindtothebodyTurnerisrightinthesensethatthebodywasoftentakentobemerelyaninterfaceatwhichsocialinteractiontookplace,andthatthatinterfacewasoftenunthinkinglytreatedorreadthroughanundifferentiatednorm(thebodyaswhite,heterosexual,ablebodied,adult,male)Inthissense,allacademicdisciplineshadbeenbodyblinduntilatleasttheearlysChrisShilling()isalsoright,however,thatthebodywasalways‘there’insociologicaloranthropologicaltheories:itwasjustnotexplicitlyaccountedforForexample,inMauss’sworkoneofthemostpotentgiftsexchangedbetweensocialgroupsisthehumanbody,intheformofwivesorchildren,andyetthisisexplainedintermsofitssymbolicorsocialratherthanitsmaterial,gendered,embodiedcontentIndeed,inhisalltoobriefbuthighlysuggestiveworkon‘bodytechniques’intheearlys,Maussprefiguredmuchoftheworkonthesociologyandanthropologyofthebody(Mauss)Insociology,Simmel’sdiscussionof‘thestranger’similarlygesturestowardsandyetelidesthedelineationofthatstrangeronthebasisofphysical,embodieddifferenceHefocusesinsteadonculturaldisplacementOverallwecansaythatembodimentasagroundingconditionofsocialexistencewas,likeotherontologicalcategoriessuchastimeandspace,implicitbutunrecognisedNotingtheabsenceofatheorisationofsocialembodimentwasanenormouslyimportantfirstmoveItisjustasimportant,however,tomoveonandtolookathowthisincorporationofembodimentintosociologicalandanthropologicaltheoryhasproceededfromwhat,withthebenefitof–hindsight,hasbecomeblindinglyobvious:bodiesaresociallyintegratedandsociallyimportantphenomenaShilling’sTheBodyandSocialTheory()offeredfuturedirectionsforthesociologyofthebodyandhehasrecentlyreturnedtohistheme,inTheBodyinCulture,TechnologyandSociety()TheSociologyoftheINTRODUCTIONCreganIntroductionqxd:PMPageBodyhasarelatedprojectthoughwithadifferent,butcomplementary,emphasisShilling’scommandofsociologicalapproachestothebodyiscomprehensiveandacute,asisBryanTurner’sthisallowseachofthemtoidentifythekernelofawriter’sthought,tosetitwithinthecontextofotherwriters,andtocoverafieldwithintheflowoftheirrespectiveargumentsTheSociologyoftheBodyinsteadtakeskeytheoristswhoarerepresentativeofatrendinthestudyofthebodyandtreatscoretextsfromeachofthosewritersindetailItdoessobyshowinghowtheirapproacheswereformedovertime,offeringananalysisoftheirarguments,andgivingexamplesofeitherthosewhohavefollowedinagivenwriter’sfootstepsorthosewhowriteinacognatefieldTheSociologyoftheBodydoesthiswhileframingitstrajectorieswithinabroadertheoryofbodilyabstractionArguingfromAbstractionEmbodiment–thephysicalandmentalexperienceofexistence–istheconditionofpossibilityforourrelatingtootherpeopleandtotheworldFullyableorseriouslydisabled,itisthroughourphysicalitythatwefunctionassocialbeings,whetherinfacetofacecommunications,throughhandwrittenletters,printedmissives,orbykeyingdisembodiedelectronicsymbolsintoacomputerto‘stayintouch’withsomeonehalfaworldawayEmbodiedsocialrelationsexistbothasthecontext(thepriorcircumstances)andasanoutcome(aconsequence)ofgivensocialformations,givensystemsthroughwhichwecreateandgainsocialmeaningThewaysinwhichdifferentsocietiesconstitutesocialpracticeaffecthowthatmeaningisshaped,presentedorrepresentedAndbothwithinandacrosssocietiesthosemeaningscanchangeRulesofbodilyprobity,forexample,varyenormouslyacrossculturesBlowingone’snosedirectlyintoone’shandandquicklydiscardingtheproductisproperinonecultureblowingintoapieceofclothandkeepingthatclothaboutone’sperson,properinanother–eachfindsthealternativeequallydistastefulPeoplelivingintribalortraditionalsocietieshaveafundamentallydifferentsenseoftheirbodiesandtheirembodiedrelationswiththeircommunityThesedifferencesalsooccuracrosstimewithinagivencultureThedeadbodyofsomeoneyouknew–possiblyyourneighbour–wasanunremarkablesightinmedievalEurope,particularlyduringtheplagues,evenifitwasnevernormalisedasamomentemptiedofemotionsThephysicalityofdeathwasrelativelyopen,publicandrituallymanagedInmorerecenttimes,thepublicationofsuchimagesastheassassinatedDutchpoliticianPymFortuynlyinginaINTRODUCTIONCreganIntroductionqxd:PMPageNetherlandsstreet,amanwhommanypeoplefeltthey‘knew’throughthepromulgationofhisphysicalimageinthemediaduringhislife,isconsideredshockingnotjustbecauseoftheviolencethatledtothefactIncontemporaryWesterncultureeventhephotographicrepresentationofdeath–unlessitisinsomesafely‘anonymous’warzoneornaturaldisaster–isnowseenasadeeplyprivatematter,unspeakableandtoberesistedThenaked,floatingdeaddammingthewaterwaysofBandahAceharefitfareforthenightlynews,butthereturnedbodiesofUSsoldierskilledinIraqarenotWithinasocietyorculture,theslowandunevenshiftsfromthedominanceoftribalandtraditionaltomodernandpostmodernsocialformations,arecharacterisedbyashiftinthedominantunderstandingofembodimentThoseshiftshaveinvolvedanincreasingabstraction,aliftingawayfromandrepresentationorreconstitutingreinterpretation,ofembodimentMoreconcretesocialinteraction–suchasfacetofacecommunication–isreconstitutedatoneremove:technologicalinterventionssuchaswritingorprintcultureareexamplesofvehiclesofthisabstractionWhichisnottosaythatthosepriorformsareobliterated,theyarenot:buttheyarefundamentallyalteredbythecumulativelayers–thesocialaccretions–thatlikeapalimpsestbuilduponandremakeearlierformsNor,itmustbestressed,aredominantformsofembodimententirelysuccessfulinsucceedingthosepriorformsLifeisneverthattidyNorisa‘prior’forminanysenselesssophisticatedorcomplexthanwhatsucceedsitPriorformsexistalongside–oftenintension–withlaterformsItshouldalsobestressedthat,whilethereareoftenhistoricalprecedentsbywhichtogaugethem,thesearenotsimplyshiftsofepoch(history),butshiftsinontology(meaningfulexistenceaspractised)EmbodimentislivedacrossallformsofcommunityasadeeplyembeddedsocialrelationalcategoryItisanontologicalcategoryconstitutedasboththecontextandtheoutcomeofpatternsofsocialpracticeandmeaning…Differentsocialformationsareframedintermsoffundamentallydifferentdominantsensesofembodiment…Acrosshistory,moreabstractmodesoflivingourbodieshavebecomelayeredacrossmoreconcretewaysofdoingso,reconstitutingratherthanreplacingthose‘prior’formsThatis,acrossworldtimeandworldspace,bodiesareconstitutedindifferentlyintersectinglevelsofabstraction…ThisreconstitutionofembodimenthaspoliticalconsequencesintimatelyconnectedtotheabstractionoftimeandspaceAsthedominantwaysinwhichwelivehavebecomemoreabstract,ourbodieshavebecomemoreopentoprocessesofrationalization,objectification,commodificationandpoliticalculturalmanagement(James)Theturntotheorisingthebody,fromthelatetwentiethcenturyintothepresent,isaparticularmomentinthisreconstitutionofthebodythroughabstraction–bothintermsofhowourbodiesarelived(ontology)andhowtheyareknown(epistemology)Inotherwords,boththepracticeandthetheoryhave,atonelevel,beenchanginginrelationtoeachotherINTRODUCTIONCreganIntroductionqxd:PMPageOverthepasttwoorthreedecadesthebodyhasbecomeanobjectoftheoreticalreflection:rationalised,abstractedandreconstitutedasasociologicalobjectSimultaneously,theexperienceofembodimenthasbeensubjecttoanintensificationoftheextension,abstractionandreconstitutionoftheindividual’sbodyviatechnologicalandbiotechnologicalmeansNotonlyhastheturningtothebodyasanobjectoftheoreticalreflectionmarkedthemomentsofintensification,butithasalsoparticipatedinandshapedthatintensificationFeministDonnaHaraway’stechnofantasyofthecyborgbody(discussedinChapter)isacaseinpointItisabodythatcanbereimaginedbeyondthelimitationsofphysicalembodiment:partcorporealmatter,parttechnomachineAsJamesargues,therearepoliticalconsequencesintheconstitutionofembodimentinthesefundamentallydifferent,imbricatedsocialformationsDifferentrelationstoandunderstandingsoftimeandspacearefundamentaltotheprocessesofabstraction,ascanbeseenintheexamplealreadycitedoftheshiftfromthedominanceoforalcommunicationtothatofwriting,printandelectroniccommunicationPeopleinsocietiespredominantlydependentonoralcommunicationrelateinthemoment,inthepresenceofthepersonwithwhomtheyarecommunicatingThesocialframingofthatmomentlinkspeopletoothersacrosstimeandspace,butitremainsheldtogetherbymodalitiesofpresenceAnemailisincreasinglyperceivedasanimmediateandonoccasiondeeplypersonalcommunication,andyetitsimmediacyisframedbytechniquesandtechnologiesofsystematicmediationover(sometimes)vastdistancesthatdonotdependonembodiedrelationsItisanintenselyabstractedimmediacyThemorethatnewlayersofabstractedrelationsandunderstandingscometomediateone’srelationtoone’sownbodyandtoothers,themoreonetendstorelyonrepresentingoneselfthroughtheuseoftechnologicalmeansThisranges,forexample,fromsimpletechnologiessuchasthebathroomscalestomassivereconsiderationsofthehumanbodysuchastherapeuticcloningandthehumangenomeprojectIntheprocessitbecomeseasier,andmorenaturally‘appropriate’,toobjectify,rationalise,quantify,package,processandmarkettheself,andtheotherToreiterate,theargumentfromabstractioncanbesummarisedintothesesteps:Werelatetoeachotherassocialbeingsthroughourembodiedbeing,andthefactofoursocialinterrelationshipsshapesthewayweconstituteourembodiedbeingDifferentsocieties,differ

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