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首页 芯片制造半导体工艺实用教程(5ed)英文版

芯片制造半导体工艺实用教程(5ed)英文版

芯片制造半导体工艺实用教程(5ed)英文版

曰笨
2011-01-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《芯片制造半导体工艺实用教程(5ed)英文版pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

ChapterTheSemiconductorIndustryOverviewInthischapter,youwillbeintroducedtothesemiconductorindustrywithadescriptionofthehistoricproductandprocessdevelopmentsandtheriseofsemiconductorsintoamajorworldindustryThemajormanufacturingstages,frommaterialpreparationtopackagedproduct,areintroducedalongwiththemainstreamproducttypes,transistorbuildingstructures,andthedifferentintegrationlevelsIndustryproductandprocessingtrendsareidentifiedObjectivesUponcompletionofthischapter,youshouldbeableto:DescribethedifferencebetweendiscretedevicesandintegratedcircuitsDefinetheterms“solidstate,“planarprocessing”and“Ntype”and“Ptype”semiconductingmaterialsListthefourmajorstagesofsemiconductorprocessingExplaintheintegrationscaleandatleastthreeoftheimplicationsofprocessingcircuitsofdifferentlevelsofintegrationListthemajorprocessanddevicetrendsinsemiconductorprocessingBirthofanIndustryTheelectronicsindustrygotitsjumpstartwiththediscoveryoftheaudionvacuumtubeinthebyLeeDeforestItwasmadepossiDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteSource:MicrochipFabricationChapterbletheradio,television,andotherconsumerelectronicsItalsowasthebrainsoftheworld’sfirstelectroniccomputer,namedtheElectronicNumericIntegratorandCalculator(ENIAC),firstdemonstratedattheMooreSchoolofEngineeringinPennsylvaniainThisENIAChardlyfitsthemodernpictureofacomputerItoccupiedsomesquarefeet,weighedtons,generatedlargequantitiesofheat,requiredtheservicesofasmallpowerstation,andcost$,indollarsTheENIACwasbasedon,vacuumtubesalongwiththousandsofresistorsandcapacitors(Fig)Avacuumtubeconsistsofthreeelements:twoelectrodesseparatedbyagridinaglassenclosure(Fig)Insidetheenclosureisavacuum,requiredtopreventtheelementsfromburningupandtoallowtheeasytransferofelectronsTubesperformtwoimportantelectricalfunctions:switchingandamplificationSwitchingreferstotheabilityofanelectricaldevicetoturnacurrentonoroffAmplificationisalittlemorecomplicatedItistheabilityofadevicetoreceiveasmallsignal(orcurrent)andamplifyitwhileretainingitselectricalcharacteristicsVacuumtubessufferfromanumberofdrawbacksTheyarebulkyandpronetolooseconnectionsandvacuumleaks,theyarefragile,theyFigureENIACstatistics(Source:FoundationsofComputectorTechnology,JGGiarratano,HowardWSamsCo,Indianapolis,IN,)FigureVacuumtubeDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryTheSemiconductorIndustryrequirerelativelylargeamountsofpowertooperate,andtheirelementsdeteriorateratherrapidlyOneofthemajordrawbackstotheENIACandothertubebasedcomputerswasalimitedoperatingtimeduetotubeburnoutHowever,theworlddidnotrecognizethepotentialofcomputersearlyonIBMChairman,ThomasWatson,in,venturedthat,“Ithinkthereisaworldwidemarketformaybefivecomputers”TheseproblemsweretheimpetusleadingmanylaboratoriesaroundthecountrytoseekareplacementforthevacuumtubeThateffortcametofruitiononDecember,,whenthreeBellLabscientistsdemonstratedanelectricalamplifierformedfromthesemiconductingmaterialgermanium(Fig)Thisdeviceofferedtheelectricalfunctioningofavacuumtubebutaddedtheadvantagesofbeingsolidstate(novacuum),beingsmallandlightweight,andhavinglowpowerrequirementsandlonglifetimeFirstnamedatransferresistor,thenewdevicesoonbecameknownasthetransistorThethreescientists,JohnBardeen,WalterBrattin,andWilliamShockleywereawardedtheNobelPrizeinphysicsfortheirinventionTheSolidStateEraThatfirsttransistorwasafardistancefromthehighdensityintegratedcircuitsoftodayButitwasthecomponentthatgavebirthtothesolidstateelectronicserawithallitsfamousprogenyBesidestransistors,solidstatetechnologyisalsousedtocreatediodes,resistors,andcapacitorsDiodesaretwoelementdevicesthatfunctioninacircuitasanonoffswitchResistorsaremonoelementsdevicesthatservetolimitcurrentflowCapacitorsaretwoelementdevicesthatstorechargeinacircuitInsomeintegratedcircuits,thetechnologyisusedtocreatefusesRefertoChapterforanexplanationoftheseconceptsandanexplanationofhowthesedevicesworkFigureThefirsttransistorDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryChapterThesedevices,containingonlyonedeviceperchip,arecalleddiscretedevices(Fig)MostdiscretedeviceshavelessdemandingoperationalandfabricationrequirementsthanintegratedcircuitsIngeneral,discretedevicesarenotconsideredleadingedgeproductsYet,theyarerequiredinmostsophisticatedelectronicsystemsIn,theyaccountedforpercentofthedollarvolumeofallsemiconductordevicessoldThesemiconductorindustrywasinfullswingbytheearlys,supplyingdevicesfortransistorradiosandtransistorbasedcomputersIntegratedCircuits(ICs)ThedominanceofdiscretedevicesinsolidstatecircuitscametoanendinInthatyear,JackKilby,anewengineeratTexasInstrumentsinDallas,Texas,formedacompletecircuitonasinglepieceofthesemiconductingmaterialgermaniumHisinventioncombinedseveraltransistors,diodes,andcapacitors(fivecomponentstotal)andusedthenaturalresistanceofthegermaniumchip(calledabarbyTexasInstruments)asacircuitresistorThisinventionwastheintegratedcircuit,thefirstsuccessfulintegrationofacompletecircuitinandonthesamepieceofasemiconductingsubstrateTheKilbycircuitdidnothavetheformthatisprevalenttodayIttookRobertNoyce,thenatFairchildCamera,tofurnishthefinalpieceofthepuzzleInFigisadrawingoftheKilbycircuitNotethatthedevicesareconnectedwithindividualwiresEarlier,JeanHorni,alsoatFairchildCamera,haddevelopedaprocessofformingelectricaljunctionsinthesurfaceofachiptocreateasolidstatetransistorwithaflatprofile(Fig)Theflattenedprofilewastheoutcomeoftakingadvantageoftheeasilyformednaturaloxideofsilicon,whichalsohappenedtobeadielectric(electricalinsulator)Horni’stransistorusedalayerofevaporatedaluminum,thatwaspatternedintothepropershape,toserveaswiringforthedeviceThistechniqueiscalledplanartechnologyNoyceappliedthistechniquetoFigureSolidstatediscretedevicesDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryTheSemiconductorIndustry“wire”togethertheindividualdevicespreviouslyformedinthesiliconwafersurface(Fig)TheNoyceintegratedcircuitbecamethemodelforallintegratedcircuitsThetechniquesusednotonlymettheneedsofthatera,butcontainedtheseedsforalltheminiaturizationandcosteffectivemanufacturingthatstilldrivestheindustryKilbyandNoycesharedthepatentfortheintegratedcircuitProcessandProductTrendsSince,thesemiconductorindustryhasseenthecontinuousdevelopmentofnewandimprovedprocessesTheseprocessimprovementshaveinturnledtothemorehighlyintegratedandreliablecircuitsthathave,intheirturn,fueledthecontinuingelectronicsrevolutionTheseprocessimprovementsfallintotwobroadcategories:processandstructureProcessimprovementsarethosethatallowthefabricationofthedevicesandcircuitsinsmallerdimensions,ineverhigherdensity,quantity,andreliabilityThestructureimprovementsaretheinventionofnewdevicedesignsallowinggreatercircuitperformance,powercontrol,andreliabilityDevicecomponentsizeandthenumberofcomponentsinanICarethetwocommontrackersofICdevelopmentComponentdimensionsarecharacterizedbythesmallestdimensioninthedesignThisisFigureKilbyintegratedcircuitfromhisnotebookFigureHorni“teardrop”transistorDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryChaptercalledthefeaturesizeandisusuallyexpressedinmicronsornanometersAmicronis,,ofameteroraboutthediameterofahumanhairAnanometeris,,,ofameterAmorespecifictrackerofsemiconductordevicesisgatewidthTransistorsarecomposedofthreeparts,oneofwhichactstoallowthepassageofcurFigureNoyceICpatent(CourtesyofSemiconductorReliabilityNews,June)DownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryTheSemiconductorIndustryrentIntoday’stechnology,themostpopulartransistoristhemetaloxidesemiconductor(MOS)structureThecontrollingpartiscalledthegateSmallergatewidthsdrivetheindustrybyproducingsmallerandfastertransistorsandmoredensecircuitsCurrently,theindustryisdrivingtothenmgatewidth,withprojectionsintheInternationalTechnologyRoadmapforsemiconductorsprojectingnmsizeinIn,GordonMoore,afounderofIntel,notedthatthenumberoftransistorsonachipweredoublingeverymonthsHepublishedtheobservation,whichwasimmediatelydubbedMoore’slawIndustryobservershaveusedthislawtopredictthefuturedensityofchipsOvertheyears,ithasprovenveryaccurateandnowdrivestechnicaladvances(Fig)ItisthebasisoftheInternationalTechnologyRoadmapforSemiconductors,developedbytheSemiconductorIndustryAssociationCircuitdensityistrackedbytheintegrationlevel,whichisthenumberofcomponentsinacircuitIntegrationlevels(Fig)rangefromsmallscaleintegration(SSI)toultralargescaleintegration(ULSI)ULSIchipsaresometimesreferredtoasveryverylargescaleintegration(VVLSI)ThepopularpresscallsthesenewestproductsmegachipsFigureSource:IntelCorporationYearTransistorcount,,,,,,,,,,,,FigureICintegrationtableDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryChapterInadditiontotheintegrationscale,memorycircuitsareidentifiedbythenumberofmemorybitscontainedinthecircuit(afourmegmemorychipcanstorefourmillionbitsofmemory)Logiccircuitsareoftenratedbytheirnumberof“gates”AgateisthebasicoperationalcomponentofalogiccircuitDecreasingfeaturesizeThejourneyfromsmallscaleintegrationtotoday’smegachipshasbeendrivenprimarilybyreductionsinthefeaturesizeoftheindividualcomponentsThisdecreasehasbeenbroughtaboutbydramaticincreasesintheimagingprocess,knownaslithography,andthetrendtomultiplelayersofconductorsActualandprojectedfeaturesizesareshowninFigTheSemiconductorIndustryAssociation(SIA)hasprojectedfeaturesizesdecreasingtonm(µm)bytheyearAlongwiththeabilitytomakecomponentsonthechipsmallercomesthebenefitofcrowdingthemclosertogether,furtherincreasingdensityAnanalogyusedtoexplainthesetrendsisthelayoutofaneighborhoodofsinglefamilyhomesThedensityoftheneighborhoodisafunctionofthehousesize,lotsize,andthewidthofthestreetsAccommodatingahigherpopulationcouldcomebyincreasingsizeoftheneighborhood(increasingthechiparea)AnotherpossibilityistoreducethesizeoftheindividualhousesandplacethemonsmallerlotsWecanalsoreducethestreetsizetoincreasedensityHowever,atsomepoint,thestreetscannotbereducedanymoreinsizeortheywon’tbewideenoughforautosFurthermore,atsomepoint,thehousescannotbefurtherreducedinsizeandstillfunctionasdwellingunitsAtthispoint,anoptionistobuildupbybuildingmultideckedfreewaysandorreplacingindividualhomeswithapartmentbuildingsAlloftheseconceptsareusedinsemiconductortechnologyFigureLithographyDRAMpitchsize(Source:SIA,InternationalTechnologyRoadmapforSemiconductors)YearDRAMpitch(nm)DownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryTheSemiconductorIndustryThereareseveralbenefitstothereductionofthefeaturesizeanditsattendantincreaseincircuitdensityAtthecircuitperformancelevel,thereisanincreaseincircuitspeedWithlessdistancestotravelandwiththeindividualdevicesoccupyinglessspace,informationcanbeputintoandgottenoutofthechipinlesstimeAnyonewhohaswaitedfortheirpersonalcomputertoperformasimpleoperationcanappreciatetheeffectoffasterperformanceThesesamedensityimprovementsresultinachiporcircuitthatrequireslesspowertooperateThesmallpowerstationrequiredtoruntheENIAChasgivenwaytopowerfullaptopcomputersthatrunonasetofbatteriesIncreasingchipandwafersizeTheadvancementofchipdensityfromtheSSIleveltoULSIchipshasdrivenlargerchipsizesDiscreteandSSIchipsaverageaboutmils(in)onasideULSIchipsareinthetomil(toin)perside,orlarger,rangeICsaremanufacturedonthindisksofsilicon(orothersemiconductormaterial,seeChapter)calledwafersPlacingsquareorrectangularchipsonaroundwaferleavesunavailableareasaroundtheedge(seeFig)Theseunavailableareascanbecomelargeasthechipsizeincreases(Fig)ThedesiretooffsetthelossofusablesiliconhasdriventheindustrytolargerwafersAsthechipsizeincreases,theindiameterwafersoftheshavegivenwaytoandmm(inandin)sizedwafersProductionefficiencyincreases,becausetheareaofacircleincreasesasthemathematicalsquareoftheradiusThus,doublingthewaferdiameterfromtoinincreasestheareaavailableforchipfabricationbyfourtimesWaferareaincrease(factor)relativetopreviousgeneration,,,Marketintroduction(>mioyear),,,,,,,(reltomm)FigureWafersizehistory(CourtesyofFutureFabInternational)DownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryChapterReductionindefectdensityAsfeaturesizeshavedecreased,theneedforreduceddefectdensityanddefectsizeonthechips(andinthemanufacturingprocess)hasbecomecriticalAmicronpieceofdirtonamicronsizedtransistormaynotbeaproblemOnaonemicronsizedtransistor,itbecomesakillerdefectthatcanrenderthecomponentinoperable(Fig)ContaminationcontrolneedshasdriventhecostofbuildinganICmanufacturingfacilityintothemultibilliondollarrangeIncreaseininterconnectionlevelsThecomponentdensityincreasehasledtoa“wiring”problemIntheneighborhoodanalogy,reducingstreetwidthswasonestrategytoincreasedensityBut,atsomepoint,thestreetsbecometoonarrowtoallowcarstotravelThesamethinghappensinICdesignTheincreasedcomponentdensityandclosepackingrobthesurfacespaceneededonthesurfacetoconnectthecomponentsThesolutionismultiplelevelsof“wiring”stacked(Fig)abovethesurfacecomponentsinlayersofinsulatorsandconductinglayers(Chapter)TheSIAroadmapThesemajorICparametersareinterrelatedMoore’slawpredictsthefutureofcomponentdensity,whichtriggersthecalculationoftheintegrationlevel(componentdensity),chipsize,defectdensity(andsize),andthenumberofinterconnectionlevelsrequiredTheSemiconductorIndustryAssociationhasmadetheseprojectionsintothefutureinaseriesof“roadmaps”coveringtheseandothercriticaldeviceandproductionparameters(Fig)FigureRelativesizeofairborneparticlesandwaferdimensionsDownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryTheSemiconductorIndustryChipcostPerhapsthemostsignificanteffectoftheseprocessandproductimprovementsisthecostofthechipsFigureshowstheyearbyFigureCrosssectionoftypicalplanarizedtwolevelmetalVLIstructureshowingrangeofviadepthsafterplanarization(CourtesyofSolidStateTechnology)FigureProjectionofwaferandchipparametersFigureDecliningtransistorcost(Source:IntelCorporation)YearTransistorcost($)DownloadedfromDigitalEngineeringLibraryMcGrawHill(wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom)Copyright©TheMcGrawHillCompaniesAllrightsreservedAnyuseissubjecttotheTermsofUseasgivenatthewebsiteTheSemiconductorIndustryChapteryeardropintransistorsthroughthesThereductionsaretypicalforanymaturingproductPricesstarthighand,asthetechnologyismasteredandmanufacturingefficienciesincrease,thepricesdropandeventuallybecomestableThesechippriceshaveconstantlydeclinedevenastheperformanceofthechipshasincreasedInitsfirstyears,thesemiconductorindustryhadtotimestheeconomicimpactintheUSthattherailroadshadinasimilarperiodThefactorsaffectingchipcostarediscussedinChapterThetwofactors,increasedperformanceandlesscost,havedriventheexplosionofproductsusingsolidstateelectronicsBythes,anautohadmorecompu

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  • chope 这货太牛X了,不知道有没有中文版的,Peter Van Zant 在教材蛮简单实用.

    2011-09-04 08:07:01

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芯片制造半导体工艺实用教程(5ed)英文版

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