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首页 《科学探索者-模块B-从细菌到植物》

《科学探索者-模块B-从细菌到植物》.pdf

《科学探索者-模块B-从细菌到植物》

lupeng1917
2011-01-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《科学探索者-模块B-从细菌到植物》pdf》,可适用于初中教育领域

PhotoDisciLBB:PMPageiFromBacteriatoPlantsLichensandclubfungiaregrowingonthebarkofthistreeInsomecases,thetwoorganismsthatmakeupalichencanliveseparately,butlookverydifferentthanthelichenClubfungiaresaprobes,whichplayavitalroleinthedecompositionoflitter,wood,anddungSendallinquiriesto:GlencoeMcGrawHillOrionPlaceColumbus,OHISBN:PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCopyright©byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncAllrightsreservedExceptaspermittedundertheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformorbyanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherTheNationalGeographicfeaturesweredesignedanddevelopedbytheNationalGeographicSociety’sEducationDivisionCopyright©NationalGeographicSocietyThename“NationalGeographicSociety”andtheYellowBorderRectanglearetrademarksoftheSociety,andtheiruse,withoutpriorwrittenpermission,isstrictlyprohibitedThe“ScienceandSociety”andthe“ScienceandHistory”featuresthatappearinthisbookweredesignedanddevelopedbyTIMESchoolPublishing,adivisionofTIMEMagazineTIMEandtheredborderaretrademarksofTimeIncAllrightsreservedPhotoDisciLBB:PMPageiiCONTENTMichaelAHoggarth,PhDDepartmentofLifeandEarthSciencesOtterbeinCollegeWesterville,OHJeromeAJackson,PhDWhitakerEminentScholarinScienceProgramDirectorCenterforScience,Mathematics,andTechnologyEducationFloridaGulfCoastUniversityFortMeyers,FLConnieRizzo,MD,PhDDepatmentofScienceMathMarymountManhattanCollegeNewYork,NYDominicSalinas,PhDMiddleSchoolScienceSupervisorCaddoParishSchoolsShreveport,LAMATHTeriWillard,EdDMathematicsCurriculumWriterBelgrade,MTREADINGElizabethBabichSpecialEducationTeacherMashpeePublicSchoolsMashpee,MASAFETYSandraWest,PhDDepartmentofBiologyTexasStateUniversitySanMarcosSanMarcos,TXACTIVITYTESTERSNermaCoatsHendersonPickeringtonLakeviewJrHighSchoolPickerington,OHMaryHelenMariscalCholkaWilliamDSliderMiddleSchoolElPaso,TXScienceKitandBorealLaboratoriesTonawanda,NYB◆iiiAuthorsSeriesConsultantsMaureenBarrettThomasEHarringtonMiddleSchoolMtLaurel,NJCoryFishBurkholderMiddleSchoolHenderson,NVLindaVForsythRetiredTeacherMerrillMiddleSchoolDenver,COAmyMorganBerryMiddleSchoolHoover,ALDeeStoutPennStateUniversityUniversityPark,PASeriesReviewersEducationDivisionWashington,DCAltonBiggsBiologyTeacherAllenHighSchoolAllen,TXDinahZikeEducationalConsultantDinahMightActivities,IncSanAntonio,TXiLBB:PMPageiiiWhydoIneedmysciencebookHaveyoueverbeeninclassandnotunderstoodallofwhatwaspresentedOr,youunderstoodeverythinginclass,butathome,gotstuckonhowtoansweraquestionMaybeyoujustwonderedwhenyouwereevergoingtousethisstuffThesenextfewpagesaredesignedtohelpyouunderstandeverythingyoursciencebookcanbeusedforbesidesapaperweight!BeforeYouRead●ChapterOpenerScienceisoccurringallaroundyou,andtheopeningphotoofeachchapterwillpreviewthescienceyouwillbelearningaboutTheChapterPreviewwillgiveyouanideaofwhatyouwillbelearningabout,andyoucantrytheLaunchLabtohelpgetyourbrainheadedintherightdirectionTheFoldablesexerciseisafunwaytokeepyouorganized●SectionOpenerChaptersaredividedintotwotofoursectionsTheAsYouReadinthemarginofthefirstpageofeachsectionwillletyouknowwhatismostimportantinthesectionItisdividedintofourpartsWhatYou’llLearnwilltellyouthemajortopicsyouwillbecoveringWhyIt’sImportantwillremindyouwhyyouarestudyingthisinthefirstplace!TheReviewVocabularywordisawordyoualreadyknow,eitherfromyoursciencestudiesoryourpriorknowledgeTheNewVocabularywordsarewordsthatyouneedtolearntounderstandthissectionThesewordswillbeinboldfacedprintandhighlightedinthesectionMakeanotetoyourselftorecognizethesewordsasyouarereadingthesection(bkgd)JohnEvans,(inset)PhotoDisciLBB:PMPageivAsYouRead●HeadingsEachsectionhasatitleinlargeredletters,andisfurtherdividedintobluetitlesandsmallredtitlesatthebeginningsofsomeparagraphsTohelpyoustudy,makeanoutlineoftheheadingsandsubheadings●MarginsInthemarginsofyourtext,youwillfindmanyhelpfulresourcesTheScienceOnlineexercisesandIntegrateactivitieshelpyouexplorethetopicsyouarestudyingMiniLabsreinforcethescienceconceptsyouhavelearned●BuildingSkillsYoualsowillfindanApplyingMathorApplyingScienceactivityineachchapterThisgivesyouextrapracticeusingyournewknowledge,andhelpsprepareyouforstandardizedtests●StudentResourcesAttheendofthebookyouwillfindStudentResourcestohelpyouthroughoutyourstudiesTheseincludeScience,Technology,andMathSkillHandbooks,anEnglishSpanishGlossary,andanIndexAlso,useyourFoldablesasaresourceItwillhelpyouorganizeinformation,andreviewbeforeatest●InClassRemember,youcanalwaysaskyourteachertoexplainanythingyoudon’tunderstandScienceVocabularyMakethefollowingFoldabletohelpyouunderstandthevocabularytermsinthischapterFoldaverticalsheetofnotebookpaperfromsidetosideCutalongeverythirdlineofonlythetoplayertoformtabsLabeleachtabwithavocabularywordfromthechapterBuildVocabularyAsyoureadthechapter,listthevocabularywordsonthetabsAsyoulearnthedefinitions,writethemunderthetabforeachvocabularywordSTEPSTEPSTEPB◆vLookForAtthebeginningofeverysection(t)PhotoDisc,(b)JohnEvansiLBB:PMPagevInLabWorkinginthelaboratoryisoneofthebestwaystounderstandtheconceptsyouarestudyingYourbookwillbeyourguidethroughyourlaboratoryexperiences,andhelpyoubegintothinklikeascientistInit,younotonlywillfindthestepsnecessarytofollowtheinvestigations,butyoualsowillfindhelpfultipstomakethemostofyourtime●EachlabprovidesyouwithaRealWorldQuestiontoremindyouthatscienceissomethingyouuseeveryday,notjustinclassThismayleadtomanymorequestionsabouthowthingshappeninyourworld●Remember,experimentsdonotalwaysproducetheresultyouexpectScientistshavemademanydiscoveriesbasedoninvestigationswithunexpectedresultsYoucantrytheexperimentagaintomakesureyourresultswereaccurate,orperhapsformanewhypothesistotest●KeepingaScienceJournalishowscientistskeepaccuraterecordsofobservationsanddataInyourjournal,youalsocanwriteanyquestionsthatmayariseduringyourinvestigationThisisagreatmethodofremindingyourselftofindtheanswerslatervi◆BLookFor●LaunchLabsstarteverychapter●MiniLabsinthemarginofeachchapter●TwoFullPeriodLabsineverychapter●EXTRATryatHomeLabsattheendofyourbook●theWebsitewithlaboratorydemonstrations(l)JohnEvans,(r)GeoffButleriLBB:PMPageviBeforeaTestAdmitit!Youdon’tliketotaketests!However,therearewaystoreviewthatmakethemlesspainfulYourbookwillhelpyoubemoresuccessfultakingtestsifyouusetheresourcesprovidedtoyou●ReviewalloftheNewVocabularywordsandbesureyouunderstandtheirdefinitions●Reviewthenotesyou’vetakenonyourFoldables,inclass,andinlabWritedownanyquestionthatyoustillneedanswered●ReviewtheSummariesandSelfCheckquestionsattheendofeachsection●StudytheconceptspresentedinthechapterbyreadingtheStudyGuideandansweringthequestionsintheChapterReviewB◆viiLookFor●ReadingChecksandcaptionquestionsthroughoutthetext●theSummariesandSelfCheckquestionsattheendofeachsection●theStudyGuideandReviewattheendofeachchapter●theStandardizedTestPracticeaftereachchapter(l)JohnEvans,(r)PhotoDisciLBB:PMPageviiLet’sGetStartedTohelpyoufindtheinformationyouneedquickly,usetheScavengerHuntbelowtolearnwherethingsarelocatedinChapterWhatisthetitleofthischapterWhatwillyoulearninSectionSometimesyoumayask,“WhyamIlearningthis”StateareasonwhytheconceptsfromSectionareimportantWhatisthemaintopicpresentedinSectionHowmanyreadingchecksareinSectionWhatistheWebaddresswhereyoucanfindextrainformationWhatisthemainheadingabovethesixthparagraphinSectionThereisanintegrationwithanothersubjectmentionedinoneofthemarginsofthechapterWhatsubjectisitListthenewvocabularywordspresentedinSectionListthesafetysymbolspresentedinthefirstLabWherewouldyoufindaSelfChecktobesureyouunderstandthesectionSupposeyou’redoingtheSelfCheckandyouhaveaquestionaboutconceptmappingWherecouldyoufindhelpOnwhatpagesaretheChapterStudyGuideandChapterReviewLookintheTableofContentstofindoutonwhichpageSectionofthechapterbeginsYoucompletetheChapterReviewtostudyforyourchaptertestWherecouldyoufindanotherquizformorepracticeviii◆BPhotoDisciLBB:PMPageviiiB◆ixTheTeacherAdvisoryBoardgavetheeditorialstaffanddesignteamfeedbackonthecontentanddesignoftheStudentEditionTheyprovidedvaluableinputinthedevelopmentoftheeditionofGlencoeScienceJohnGonzalesChallengerMiddleSchoolTucson,AZRachelShivelyAptakisicJrHighSchoolBuffaloGrove,ILRogerPrattManistiqueHighSchoolManistique,MIKirtinaHileNorthmorJrHighHighSchoolGalion,OHMarieRennerDileyMiddleSchoolPickerington,OHNelsonFarrierHamlinMiddleSchoolSpringfield,ORJeffRemingtonPalmyraMiddleSchoolPalmyra,PAErinPetersWilliamsburgMiddleSchoolArlington,VARubidelPeoplesMeachamMiddleSchoolFortWorth,TXKristiRamseyNavasotaJrHighSchoolNavasota,TXTeacherAdvisoryBoardTheGlencoemiddleschoolscienceStudentAdvisoryBoardtakingatimeoutatCOSI,asciencemuseuminColumbus,OhioTheStudentAdvisoryBoardgavetheeditorialstaffanddesignteamfeedbackonthedesignoftheStudentEditionWethankthesestudentsfortheirhardworkandcreativesuggestionsinmakingtheeditionofGlencoeSciencestudentfriendlyJackAndrewsReynoldsburgJrHighSchoolReynoldsburg,OHPeterArnoldHastingsMiddleSchoolUpperArlington,OHEmilyBarbePerryMiddleSchoolWorthington,OHKirstyBatemanHilliardHeritageMiddleSchoolHilliard,OHAndreBrownSpanishEmersionAcademyColumbus,OHChrisDundonHeritageMiddleSchoolWesterville,OHRyanManafeeMonroeMiddleSchoolColumbus,OHAddisonOwenDavisMiddleSchoolDublin,OHTerianaPatrickEastmoorMiddleSchoolColumbus,OHAshleyRuzKarrerMiddleSchoolDublin,OHStudentAdvisoryBoardAaronHauptPhotographyiLBB:PMPageixx◆BContentsContentsIneachchapter,lookfortheseopportunitiesforreviewandassessment:•ReadingChecks•CaptionQuestions•SectionReview•ChapterStudyGuide•ChapterReview•StandardizedTestPractice•OnlinepracticeatbookbmssciencecomNatureofScience:PlantCommunicationBacteriaSectionWhatarebacteriaLabObservingCyanobacteriaSectionBacteriainYourLifeLab:DesignYourOwnCompostingProtistsandFungiSectionProtistsLabComparingAlgaeandProtozoansSectionFungiLab:ModelandInventCreatingaFungusFieldGuidePlantsSectionAnOverviewofPlantsSectionSeedlessPlantsSectionSeedPlantsLabIdentifyingConifersLab:UsetheInternetPlantsasMedicineRayElliottiLBB:PMPagexB◆xiContentsContentsPlantReproductionSectionIntroductiontoPlantReproductionSectionSeedlessReproductionLabComparingSeedlessPlantsSectionSeedReproductionLab:DesignYourOwnGerminationRateofSeedsPlantProcessesSectionPhotosynthesisandRespirationLabStomatainLeavesSectionPlantResponsesLabTropisminPlantsScienceSkillHandbookScientificMethodsSafetySymbolsSafetyintheScienceLaboratoryExtraTryatHomeLabsTechnologySkillHandbookComputerSkillsPresentationSkillsMathSkillHandbookMathReviewScienceApplicationsReferenceHandbooksPeriodicTableoftheElementsUseandCareofaMicroscopeDiversityofLife:ClassificationofLivingOrganismsEnglishSpanishGlossaryIndexCreditsStudentResourcesCNuridsanyMPerennouSciencePhotoLibraryPhotoResearchersiLBB:PMPagexixii◆BCrossCurricularReadingsLabsContentDetailsVISUALIZINGNitrogenFixingBacteriaLichensasAirQualityIndicatorsPlantClassificationSeedDispersalPlantHormonesChocolateSOSGeneticEngineeringALoopyIdeaSunkissed:AnIndianLegendUnusualBacteriaModelaBacterium’sSlimeLayerDissectaMushroomHowdoyouuseplantsDoallfruitscontainseedsDoplantslosewaterObservingBacterialGrowthObservingSlimeMoldsMeasureWaterAbsorptionbyaMossObservingAsexualReproductionInferringWhatPlantsNeedtoProduceChlorophyllModelingBacteriaSizeInterpretingSporePrintsObserveWaterMovinginaPlantModelingSeedDispersalObserveRipeningAccidentsinSCIENCEavailableasavideolabGregVaughnGettyImagesiLBB:PMPagexiiB◆ContentDetailsLabsActivitiesObservingCyanobacteriaComparingAlgaeandProtozoansIdentifyingConifersComparingSeedlessPlantsStomatainLeavesTropisminPlants–Composting–GerminationRatesofSeeds–CreatingaFungusFieldGuide–PlantsasMedicine–HowmanyseedswillgerminateGrowthHormonesControllingBacterialGrowthIsitafungusoraprotistWhatisthevalueoftherainforestsCareer:,EarthScience:,Environment:,Health:,,History:,Physics:SocialStudies:,,,,,,,,,–,–,–,–,–StandardizedTestPracticeApplyingScienceApplyingMathUsetheInternetLabsModelandInventLabsDesignYourOwnLabsTwoPageLabsOnePageLabsMarkSteinmetziLBB:PMPage◆BPlantCommunicationPlantCommunicationForhundredsofyears,scientistshavebeenperformingexperimentstolearnmoreaboutplants,suchashowtheyfunctionandrespondtotheirenvironmentEarlyexperimentswerelimitedtojustobservationsToday,scientistsexperimentwithplantsinmanywaystolearnmoreabouttheirbiologyRecently,scientistshavebeeninvestigatingtheideaofplantcommunicationandaskingquestionslike“Isitpossibleforplantstocommunicatewitheachother”EvidenceofCommunicationObservationsofcertainspeciesofplantsreactingtopredatorsordiseasehaveinterestedscientistswhowereconductingexperimentsinanattempttounderstandtheexactnatureofplantcommunicationIn,researchersdiscoveredevidenceofplantcommunicationAspartoftheirdefenseagainstpredators,acacia(ahKAYshah)treesproduceatoxinapoisonoussubstanceInresponsetoapredator,suchasanantelopenibblingonitsleaves,anacaciatreereleasesagasthatstimulatesotheracaciatreesuptomawaytoproduceextratoxinwithinminutesAlthoughthetoxininitiallydoesnotpreventtheantelopesfromeatingtheacacialeaves,iftheantelopesconsumeenoughofthetoxin,itcankillthemThus,thechemicalwarningsystemusedbytheacaciascanhelpguardthesetreesagainstfutureattacksExperimentationFigureAtobaccoplantproducesmethylsalicylatewheninfectedwithTMVFigureAcaciatreescommunicatebyemittingagasthattravelstosurroundingtreesThiscommunicationhelpsprotectthemfrompredators(t)CarolCawthraAnimalsAnimals,(b)GrantHeilmanPhotographyLBBNOS:PMPageTHENATUREOFSCIENCEB◆AnotherWarningSystemOtherevidencesuggeststhattobaccoplantsalsomightuseachemicalwarningsystemOneofthemostcommonproblemsoftobaccoandseveralvegetableandornamentalplantsisthetobaccomosaicvirus(TMV)TMVcausesblistersonthetobaccoplant

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《科学探索者-模块B-从细菌到植物》

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