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2008 WORLD DRUG REPORT.pdf

2008 WORLD DRUG REPORT

walknetor
2011-01-21 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《2008 WORLD DRUG REPORTpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

WORLDDRUGREPORTAcknowledgementsThisReportwasproducedinthePolicyAnalysisandResearchBranchunderthesupervisionofSandeepChawla,bytheStatisticsandSurveySection(headedbyAngelaMe)andtheStudiesandThreatAnalysisSection(headedbyThibaultlePichon)CoreTeam:CoenBussink(maps),PhilipDavis(dataanalysis),LauretaKazanxhiu(maps),SuzanneKunnen(graphicdesignanddesktoppublishing),andKristinaKuttnig(graphicdesignanddesktoppublishing),TheodoreLeggett(editorialassistance),MatthewNice(ATStrendsandstatisticalassistance),ThomasPietschmann(estimates,trends,marketandglobalanalysis,Chapter),CatherinePysden(interactivedata),MartinRaithelhuber(coca,opiumandcannabisproductiondataandanalysis),WolfgangRhomberg(databasemanagement),AliSaadeddin(dataentryandstatisticalassistance),MelissaTullis(projectmanagement,globalanalysis,editorialassistance)TheReportalsobenefitedfromtheworkandexpertiseofmanyotherUNODCstaffinViennaandaroundtheworldUNODCreiteratesitsappreciationandgratitudetoStatesMembersforthereportsandinformationthatprovidedthebasisofthiseditionoftheWorldDrugReportaswellastotheInternationalNarcoticsControlBoard(INCB)andtheEuropeanMonitoringCentreonDrugsandDrugAddiction(EMCDDA)UNODCwouldliketothanktheGovernmentofSwedenforitscontinuedfinancialsupporttotheWorldDrugReportUnitedNationsPublicationSalesNoEXITheboundaries,namesanddesignationsusedinallmapsinthisbookdonotimplyofficialendorsementoracceptancebytheUnitedNationsThispublicationhasnotbeenformallyeditedCONTENTSPrefaceIntroductionExplanatorynotesExecutiveSummaryTRENDSINWORLDDRUGMARKETSOverviewGlobalevolutionGlobaloutlookOpiumHeroinmarketSummaryTrendOverviewProductionTraffickingConsumptionCocaCocainemarketSummaryTrendOverviewProductionTraffickingConsumptionCannabismarketSummaryTrendOverviewProductionTraffickingConsumptionAmphetaminetypestimulantsmarketSummaryTrendOverviewProductionTraffickingConsumptionACENTURYOFINTERNATIONALDRUGCONTROLOrigins:ThedevelopmentoftheopiumprobleminChinaThefoundationofaninternationaldrugcontrolsystemDrugcontrolundertheLeagueofNations,DevelopmentofthepresentsystemundertheUnitedNationsAchievementsandunintendedconsequencesoftheinternationaldrugcontrolsystemCONTENTSSTATISTICALANNEXProductionAfghanistanBoliviaColombiaLaoPDRMyanmarPeruSeizuresSeizuresofillictlaboratoriesPricesOpiates:Wholesale,streetpricesandpuritylevelsCocaine:Wholesale,streetpricesandpuritylevelsCannabis:Wholesale,streetpricesandpuritylevelsAmphetaminetypestimulants:Wholesale,streetpricesandpuritylevelsConsumptionAnnualPrevalenceOpiatesCocaineCannabisAmphetaminetypestimulants(excludingecstasy)EcstasyTreatmentDemandPrimarydrugsofabuseamongpersonstreatedfordrugproblemsinAfricaPrimarydrugsofabuseamongpersonstreatedfordrugproblemsinAmericaPrimarydrugsofabuseamongpersonstreatedfordrugproblemsinAsiaPrimarydrugsofabuseamongpersonstreatedfordrugproblemsinEuropePrimarydrugsofabuseamongpersonstreatedfordrugproblemsinOceaniaMETHODOLOGYPrefaceIndicatorsoftheworlddrugsituationremainfavourableoverthelongterm,buttherearerecentwarningsignsthatmustbeheededAglobalandlongtermperspectiverevealsthatillicitdrugusehasbeencontainedtolessthanoftheadultpopulation(yearlyincidencerateforpeopleaged)Inotherwords,lessthanoneineverytwentypeopleusedillicitdrugsatleastonceinthepastmonthsProblemdrugusers(peopleseverelydrugdependent)arelimitedtolessthanonetenthofthisalreadylowpercentage:theremaybemillionofthem,aboutoftheplanet’sadultpopulationThisisanimpressiveachievementwhenconsideredinthehistoricalperspectiveofacenturyofdrugcontrol(reviewedinChapter),orthedecadesinceaspecialsessionoftheUnitedNationsGeneralAssembly(UNGASS)inwhichmotivatedcountriestobemoreproactiveinreducingdrugsupplyanddemandItisalsoanundeniablesuccesswhencomparedtotheconsumptionoftobaccooralcohol,addictivepsychoactivedrugsthatareusedbyatleastonequarteroftheworld’sadultpopulation,andcausemillionsofdeathseveryyearIntheabsenceofthedrugcontrolsystem,illicitdrugusemaywellhavereachedsuchlevels,withdevastatingconsequencesforpublichealthInshort,intermsofreducingdemand,nationalandmultilateraldrugcontrolseemtobeworkingOnthesupplyside,thestoryisdifferentThisReportprovidesevidenceofasurgeinthesupplyofillicitdrugsinAfghanistanhadarecordopiumharvest,andworldopiumproduction(becauseofhigheryields)almostdoubledbetweenandCocacultivationincreasedintheAndeancountrieslastyear,althoughcocaineproductionremainedstablebecauseofloweryieldsperhectareInthecannabismarket,therearetwoworryingtrends:Afghanistanhasbecomeamajorproducerofcannabisresinindevelopedcountries,indoorcultivationisproducingmorepotentstrainsofcannabisherbThepastfewWorldDrugReportshavestatedthattheworlddrugproblemisbeingcontainedinthesensethatithadstabilizedThisyear’sReportshowsthatcontainmentisunderthreatUrgentstepsmustbetakentopreventtheunravellingofprogressthathasbeenmadeinthepastfewdecadesofdrugcontrolFurthermore,containmentshouldnotbeseenasanendinitselfRealsuccesswillonlycomewhensupplyanddemandactuallygodown(ratherthanleveloff),acrosstheworldThecurrentupsurgeinsupplytogetherwiththedevelopmentofnewtraffickingroutes(mostlythroughAfrica)couldeventuallystrengthendemandwhereitalreadyexists(mostlyindevelopedcountries)andcreatenewmarketsforsomeoftheworld’sdeadliestsubstances(mostlyindevelopingcountries)ProgressisneededinthreeareasFirst,publichealth–thefirstprincipleofdrugcontrol–shouldbebroughtbacktocentrestageCurrently,theamountofresourcesandpoliticalsupportforpublicsecurityandlawenforcementfaroutweighthosedevotedtopublichealthThismustberebalancedDrugdependenceisanillnessthatshouldbetreatedlikeanyotherMoreresourcesareneededtopreventpeoplefromtakingdrugs,totreatthosewhoaredependent,andtoreducetheadversehealthandsocialconsequencesofdrugabuseSecond,drugcontrolshouldbelookedatinthelargercontextofcrimepreventionandtheruleoflawinordertocutlinksbetweendrugtrafficking,organizedcrime,corruptionandterrorismSomeoftheworld’sbiggestdrugproducingregions(inAfghanistan,Colombia,andMyanmar)areoutofthecontrolofthecentralgovernmentDrugtraffickingisunderminingnationalsecurity(forexampleinpartsofCentralAmerica,theCaribbean,Mexico,andWestAfrica)Drugmoneyisusedasalubricantforcorruption,andasourceofterroristfinancing:inturn,corruptofficialsandterroristsmakedrugproductionandtraffickingeasierThird,protectingpublicsecurityandsafeguardingpublichealthshouldbedoneinawaythatupholdshumanrightsandhumandignityThisyear’sthanniversaryoftheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRightsprovidesuswithausefulreminderoftheinalienablerightstolifeandafairtrialAlthoughdrugskill,weshouldnotkillbecauseofdrugsAswemoveforward,humanrightsshouldbeapartofdrugcontrolInshort,toholdthelineandtofurtherreducethethreatposedbydrugs,moreattentionmustbedevotedtoreducingdemandfordrugs,promotingsecurityanddevelopmentintheworld’smajordrugproducingregions,assistingstatescaughtinthecrossfireofdrugtrafficking,andstemmingthespreadofdrugsintocountriesintransitionAntonioMariaCostaExecutiveDirectorUnitedNationsOfficeonDrugsandCrimeTheUnitedNationsOfficeonDrugsandCrime(UNODC)isagloballeaderinthemultilateraleffortagainstillicitdrugsandinternationalcrimeThethreepillarsofitsworkprogrammeare:Researchandanalyticalworktoincreaseknowledge•andunderstandingofdrugsandcrimeissuesandexpandtheevidencebaseforpolicyandoperationaldecisionsNormativeworktoassistStatesintheratification•andimplementationoftheinternationaltreaties,thedevelopmentofdomesticlegislationondrugs,crimeandterrorism,andtheprovisionofsecretariatandsubstantiveservicestothetreatybasedandgoverningbodiesandFieldbasedtechnicalcooperationprojectstoen•hancethecapacityofStatesMemberstocounteractillicitdrugs,crimeandterrorismRecognizingtheimportanceofcomprehensive,factualandobjectiveinformationinthefieldofinternationaldrugcontrol,aswellastheneedtoimprovetheevidencebaseavailableforpolicymaking,theGeneralAssemblyentrustedUNODCwiththemandatetopublish“comprehensiveandbalancedinformationabouttheworlddrugproblem”inUNODChaspublishedsuchassessmentsannuallysinceThisyear,theReportretainstheonevolumeformatintroducedinUnderthemoresyntheticformat,thedetailedseizurestablesareavailableonUNODC’swebsiteAPDFfilecontainingthedetailedseizuretablesisavailableforreviewanddownloadingat:wwwunodcorgThedetailedseizuretablesarealsoavailableonCDbyrequestCDscanbeorderedviathefollowingemailaddress:RASunodcorgTheReportcontinuestoprovideindepthtrendanalysisofthefourmaindrugmarketsinitsfirstsectionInaddition,tomarktheonehundredyearanniversaryoftheShanghaiOpiumCommission,andonehundredyearsofinternationaldrugcontrol,theReportcontainsanindepthlookatthedevelopmentoftheinternationaldrugcontrolsystemTheReportalsocontainsasmallstatisticalannexwhichprovidesadetailedlookatproduction,pricesandconsumptionAsinpreviousyears,thepresentReportisbasedondataobtainedprimarilyfromtheannualreportsquestionnaire(ARQ)sentbyGovernmentstoUNODCin,supplementedbyothersourceswhennecessaryandwhereavailableTwoofthemainlimitationshereinare:(i)thatARQreportingisnotsystematicenough,bothintermsofnumberofcountriesrespondingandofcontent,and(ii)thatmostcountrieslacktheadequatemonitoringsystemsrequiredtoproducereliable,comprehensiveandinternationallycomparabledataNationalmonitoringsystemsare,however,improvingandUNODChascontributedtothisprocessElectroniccopiesoftheWorldDrugReportReportcanbeaccessedviawwwunodcorgCommentsandfeedbackontheReportarewelcomeandcanbesentto:RASunodcorgIntroductionThisReporthasnotbeenformallyeditedThedesignationsemployedandthepresentationofthematerialinthispublicationdonotimplytheexpressionofanyopinionwhatsoeveronthepartoftheSecretariatoftheUnitedNationsconcerningthelegalstatusofanycountry,territory,cityorareaorofitsauthorities,orconcerningthedelimitationofitsfrontiersorboundariesCountriesandareasarereferredtobythenamesthatwereinofficialuseatthetimetherelevantdatawerecollectedTerms:Sincethereissomescientificandlegalambiguityaboutthedistinctionsbetweendrug'use','misuse'and'abuse',thisReportusestheneutralterms,drug'use'or'consumption'Maps:TheboundariesandnamesshownandthedesignationsusedonmapsdonotimplyofficialendorsementoracceptancebytheUnitedNationsAdottedlinerepresentsapproximatelythelineofcontrolinJammuandKashmiragreeduponbyIndiaandPakistanThefinalstatusofJammuandKashmirhasnotyetbeenagreeduponbythepartiesDisputedboundaries(ChinaIndia)arerepresentedbycrosshatchduetoimpossibilityofdetailThedataonpopulationusedinthisReportcomesfrom:UnitedNations,DepartmentofEconomicandSocialAffairs,PopulationDivision()WorldPopulationProspects:TheRevisionInvarioussections,thisReportreferstoanumberofregionaldesignationsThesearenotofficialdesignationsTheyaredefinedasfollows:WestandCentralEurope:EU,EFTA,SanMarinoandAndorraEastEurope:EuropeanCIScountriesSouthEastEurope:TurkeyandthenonEUBalkancountriesNorthAmerica:Canada,MexicoandtheUnitedStatesofAmericaThefollowingabbreviationshavebeenusedinthisReport:ARQannualreportsquestionnaireATSamphetaminetypestimulantsCICADInterAmericanDrugAbuseControlCommissionCISCommonwealthofIndependentStatesDEAUnitedStatesofAmerica,DrugEnforcementAdministrationDELTAUNODCDatabaseonEstimatesandLongTermTrendAnalysisDUMADrugUseMonitoringinAustraliaEMCDDAEuropeanMonitoringCentreforDrugsandDrugAddictionESPADEuropeanSchoolSurveyProjectonAlcoholandotherDrugsFOUNODCFieldOfficeGovtGovernmentICMPUNODCGlobalIllicitCropMonitoringProgrammeIDUInjectingdruguseINCBInternationalNarcoticsControlBoardINCSRUnitedStatesofAmerica,InternationalNarcoticsControlStrategyReportInterpolInternationalCriminalPoliceOrganizationLSDlysergicaciddiethylamideNAPOLNationalPolicePCPphencyclidineTHCtetrahydrocannabinolUNAIDSJointandCosponsoredUnitedNationsProgrammeonHumanImmunodeficiencyVirusAcquiredImmunodeficiencySyndromeUNODCUnitedNationsOfficeonDrugsandCrimeWCOWorldCustomsOrganization(alsoWHOWorldHealthOrganizationWeightsandmeasurementsuUnitltLitrekgKilogramhaHectaremtMetrictonExplanatorynotesExecutiveSummaryTrendsinWorldMarketsOverviewThelongtermstabilizationofworlddrugmarketscontinuedinto,althoughnotableexceptionsoccurredinsomecriticalareasAslongtermtrendsareobviouslymoremeaningfulandindicativethanshorttermfluctuations,theselimitedreversalsdonotappeartonegatethecontainmentofthedrugmarketsrecordedsincethelatesOnthesupplyside,despitecultivationincreasesforbothcocaandopiatesin,theoveralllevelofcultivationremainedbelowtheonerecordedatthebeginningoftheUNGASSprocess()andwellbelowannualpeaksinthelasttwodecades(foropiumandforcoca)In,opiumcultivationincreasedinbothAfghanistanandMyanmar:coupledwithhigheryields,especiallyinsouthernAfghanistan,thisgeneratedmuchgreaterworldoutputWithregardtococaine,cultivationincreasedinBolivia,PeruandespeciallyColombia,butyieldsdeclined,soproductionremainedstableOnthedemandside,despiteanapparentincreaseintheabsolutenumberofcannabis,cocaineandopiatesusers,annualprevalencelevelshaveremainedstableinalldrugmarketsInotherwords,asthenumberofpeoplewhohaveusedaparticulardrugatleastonceinthepastmonthshasrisenataboutthesamerateaspopulation,drugconsumptionhasremainedstableinrelativetermsGiventheseyearlychanges,thecontainmentofworlddrugmarketsrecordedinthesereportsoverthelastfewyearsappearsconfirmedbutunderstrainFurtherconsolidation,inandbeyond,willmeantighteningoverallmarketcontainmentandaddressingslippageinareaswheresomeexpansionwasregisteredinOnthesupplysidethisdictatestwocriticalpriorities:loweringopiumpoppycultivation,especiallyinAfghanistanandreturningtothepathofsteadilydecliningcocacultivationregisteredinthefirstfewyearsofthiscenturyOnthedemandside,moreeffectivelycontainingthenumberofdrugusers,particularlyindevelopingcountries,hastobecomeacriticalpriorityandmoreattentionshouldbegiventoprevention,treatmentandreducingthenegativeconsequencesofdrugabuseRichcountries'drugsmarketsfluctuate,mostlysidewaysandoccasionallydownwards:itisequallyimportanttonurtureandfortifythedownwardtrendThecontainmentofillicitdrugusetolessthanoftheworldpopulationagedto(basedonannualprevalenceestimates,seeFigurebelow)isaconsiderableachievement,documentedhistoricallyinthepagesofthisreportTheachievementismanifestonthetwoscalesoftimeconsideredhere:thecenturysincethebeginningsoftheinternationaldrugcontrolsystem(thesubjectofChapter)orthedecadesinceUNGASSinIngeneral,containmentoftheillicitdrugproblemtoarelativelysmallfractionoftheworldpopulation(agedto)beginstolooklikeanevenmoreimportantachievementwhenconsideredinthelightofthreeotherestimatesFirst,problemdrugusehasbeencontainedtoamarginalfractionoftheworldpopulation()agedtoSecondly,theconsumptionoftobacco,anaddictive,psychoactivedrugthatissoldwidelyinopen,albeitregulatedmarkets,affectsasmuchasoftheworldadultpopulationThirdly,mortalitystatisticsshowthatillicitdrugstakeasmallfractionofthelivesclaimedbytobacco(about,ayearforillicitdrugsversusaboutmillionayearfortobacco)GlobaltrendsinDrugProductionThetotalareaunderopiumcultivationroseto,hainThisincreaseoffromputsglobalcultivationatjustaboutthesamelevel,thoughstillmarginallylower,thanthe,harecordedinAlthoughtherewassomegrowthinSouthEastAsianpoppycultivation,theglobalincreasewasalmostentirelyduetotheexpansionofcultivationinAfghanistan,whichisnow,haWithAfghanistanaccountingforofworldopiumcultivation,theproportionofSouthEastAsianexpansioninoverallcultivationwassmallItisnotunimportant,however,asitreversessixstraightyearsofdeclineOpiumpoppycultivationinMyanmarincreased,from,hainto,ha,inAfghanistan’shigheryieldingopiumpoppyledtoasecondyearofglobalopiumproductionincreasesOpiumproductionalmostdoubledbetweenand,reaching,mtin,alevelunprecedentedinrecentyearsIn,AfghanistanaloneaccountedforoverofglobalopiumproductionCocacultivationincreasedinColombia,Bolivia,andPeruinInColombia,theareaundercultivationexpandedto,haIncreasesforBoliviaandPeruweremuchsmaller:andrespectivelyIntotal,cocacultivationincreasedinCrops,however

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