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首页 英美概况之爱尔兰

英美概况之爱尔兰.ppt

英美概况之爱尔兰

会人会语
2019-04-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英美概况之爱尔兰ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

Chapter:PoliticsandEconomyPoliticsIncommonwithmostcountriesinWesternEurope,Irelandisarepresentativedemocracy:mostofitsofficesarefilledthroughelection,eitherdirectorindirect,bytheIrishPeoplePoliticsInstructure,likemostformercoloniesofGreatBritain,theIrishRepublichasaprimeMinisterorTaoiseachandaDeputyPrimeMinisterwhoappointsacabinettoexecutethedailybusinessofgovernmentTheParliamentorDailenactsalllegislationforthecountryThislegislationisinterpretedbyahierarchyofcourtsFinallythelawsareenforcedbyanunarmedpoliceforce,calledtheGardaSiochana(orldquoGuardiansofthePeacerdquo)Beingarepublic,ratherthanamonarchy,thegovernmentisheadedbyaPresident,whoiselecteddirectlybythepeopleThePresidentUndertheConstitution,thePresident(Uachtaran)iselectedbythedirectvoteofthepeopleEverycitizenofyearsofageoroveriseligibletorunforPresidentEverycitizenwhohasarighttovoteinatanelectionformembersoftheIrishParliamentalsohastherighttovoteatanelectionforPresidentThePresidentrsquostermofofficeisyearsAPresidentcanbereelectedonceonlyThePresidentactsasasymbolicHeadofStateonlyanddoesnothaveexecutivefunctionsTheGovernmentTheexecutivepowersoftheStateareexercisedby,orontheauthorityof,theGovernmentTheConstitutionprovidesthattheGovernmentshallconsistofnotlessthanandnotmorethanmembers:allmustbeelectedmembersoftheIrishparliamentTheGovernmentactscollectivelyandisresponsibletotheDailorIrishParliamentTheGovernmentThePrimeMinisterisappointedbythePresidentonthenominationoftheParliamentThusthePrimeMinistermustemergeasanagreedcandidateofthelargestpoliticalpartyoftheParliament,oronethatisagreedbyacoalitionofParliamentparties,andmustresignifheceasestoretainthesupportofamajorityofmembersintheParliamentThePrimeMinisternominatestheDeputyPrimeMinisterTheGovernmentThePrimeMinisteralsoassignsdifferentareasofresponsibilityorDepartmentsofStatetomembersoftheGovernmentThePrimeMinisteralsoappointsanAttorneyGeneralParliamentThesolepowerofmakinglawsforthestateisvestedintheIrishParliamentTheParliamentofIrelandiscomprisedoftwohouses:theDailandtheSeanadortheSenateGovernmentpolicyandadministrationmaybeexaminedandcriticizedinbothHousesbutundertheConstitutiontheGovernmentisresponsibletotheDailaloneParliamentInthepassageoflegislationtheprimacyofDailisclearlyshowninrelationtolegislationregardingmoney(allocationandspending),onwhichtheSenateisempoweredonlytomakerecommendations(notamendments)AtpresentIrishparliamenthasmemberscalledTeachtaiDala(TDs)AtpresenttheSenatehasmembersVotinginElectionsandReferendaOpportunitiesforthegeneralpublictovoteariseinseparatedecisionmakingprocedures:theelectionthePresident(everyyears)Dail(orparliamentary)elections(atleasteveryyears)referendaonproposedConstitutionalamendmentstheelectionofrepresentativestotheEuropeanparliament(everyyears)electionstolocalauthorities(usuallyeveryyears)VotinginElectionsandReferendaEveryresidentcitizenovertheageofmayvoteatDail,Presidential,localandEuropeanelections,andreferendaEUcitizensmayvoteatEuropeanandlocalelectionsAllresidentsofIreland,regardlessofcitizenship,mayvoteatlocalelectionsTheCivilServiceThecivilserviceisdividedintoGovernmentDepartments,eachheadedbyaMinisterappointedbythePrimeMinisterThecivilserviceispoliticallyindependentintheperformanceofitsdutiesandhasnoinvolvementinpartypoliticsAtpresent,therearesome,peopleemployedinthecivilserviceTheIrishLegalSystemTheIrishlegalsystemisbasedonaconstitution,whichsetsouttheprimaryprinciplestobefollowedinframingIrishlawJudgesareappointedbythePresidentontheadviceofthegovernmentTheHighCourthasfulljurisdictionanddeterminingpowerinallmattersoflaworfact,civilorcriminalItcandecidethevalidityofanylaw,havingregardtotheprovisionsoftheConstitutionTheSupremeCourtisthecourtoffinalappealEconomyIrelandisasmall,open,tradedependenteconomyItisanislandonthewesternedgeofEuropeInrecentdecades,theIrisheconomyhasbeentransformedfrombeingagrarianandhavingatraditionalmanufacturingbasetooneincreasinglybasedonthehitechandinternationallytradedservicesIn,theservicessectoraccountedforofemployment,industryfor,andagricultureforonlyEconomyFromitsfoundinginuntilthes,Irelandasaneconomytendedtobeinwardlooking,andconcentratedongoalsnowseentobefutile,suchasbecomingselfsufficientEconomyOverthelastdecade,unprecedentedeconomicgrowthhasseenthelevelofIrishrealGNPalmostdoubleinsizeThereasonsare:TherewasapopulationboomTherewasthereformofeducationThegovernmenthadaconversiontomarketeconomicsItsentrancetotheEUhastransformedlaborpracticeandgivenIrelandaccesstotheSingleMarketTheEU:EconomicPoliciesInitiallymuchofthemoneycamefromtheEU,intheformofstructuralfundsmdashusedtoimprovetheinfrastructureandforeducationandtrainingApartfromthemassiveinfusionofstructuralfunds,theEUrsquosmostimportantbenefitforIrelandisingrantingitaccesstoEuropeIrelandjoinedtheEUinTheavailabilityofsuchalaborforcehasbecomeamajorincentiveforforeignindustrytolocateinIrelandToday,theIrisheconomyisdominatedinmanywaysbymanymultinationalsTheEU:SocialPoliciesOneofthemostobviousmarkersofthewaytheEUmembershiphaschangedIrelandwouldbeinthestatusofwomenThemostobviousoutcomeoftheaccessiontotheEUisachangeinIrelandrsquoslabormarket:NowallIrishcitizenswereentitledtoanEUpassport,whichallowsthemtoworklegallyinanymembercountryInturn,anyothercitizenofanEUcountrycouldworklegallyinIrelandTheyoungIrishpersonoftodayisinflightfromthelandandthetraditionalcultureembodiedinitHeorshewouldbemostlikelyuniversityeducatedandheadedforaprofessionalorsemiprofessionalcareerRatherthanemigratingtotheUnitedStatesorBritaininsearchofemployment,theyoungIrishpersonoftodaywouldbelookingtowardsthenewmemberstatesoftheEUforjobopportunitiesThustodayrsquosIrishyoungpersonismorelikelytothinkoftheirfuturemoreinglobalratherthanlocaltermsIrelandTodayWhatisstrikinginIrelandisthelackofadequatepublicfacilitiesandprogramstotackletheseemergingproblemsIntermsofsocialwelfare,housingpriceshaveledtoarapidincreaseinhomelessness,whichhasreachedalmostcrisisinsomecitiessuchasDublinIrelandTodayHomeworkExercisesI,II,III,(P)

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