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首页 Australias Ever Changing ForestsII

Australias Ever Changing ForestsII.pdf

Australias Ever Changing Forest…

晒在-拉萨
2011-01-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Australias Ever Changing ForestsIIpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Australia'sEverChangingForestsIIProceedingsoftheSecondNationalConferenceonAustralianforesthistoryEditedbyJohnDargavelandSueFearyr',Australia'sEverChangingForestsIIAustralia'sEverChangingForestsIIProceedingsoftheSecondNationalConferenceonAustralianforesthistoryEditedbyJohnDargavelandSueFearyPublishedinassociationwiththeAustralianForestHistorySocietybytheCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudiesTheAustralianNationalUniversityCanberra,ThepublishingprogramfortheCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudies,TheAustralianNationalUniversity,isdesignedtopresenttheresultsoftheCentre'sresearchandtheproceedingsofconferencesandworkshopsViewsexpressedinORESpubicationsaretheviewsoftheauthorsandarenotnecessarilythoseoftheCentreoranyinstitutionassociatedwithitAllORESpublicationsareavailablefrom:PublicationsSectionCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudies,TheAustralianNationalUniversityCANBERRATelephone:,Fax:Director:ProfessorHenryNixExecutiveOfficer:ValdaSemetsPublications:LoisKrukMcComasTaylorCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudies,TheAustralianNationalUniversityThisbookiscopyrightApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposesofstudy,reserch,criticismorreviewaspermittedundertheCopyrightAct,nopartmaybereproducedbyanyprocesswithoutpermissionInquiriesshouldbemadetothepublisherNationalLibraryofAustraliacataloguinginpublicationentryAustralia'severchangingforestsIIISBNForestsandforestryAustraliaHistoryCongressesForestecologyAustraliaHistoryCongresesForestpolicyAustraliaHistoryCongressesIDargavel,JohnIIFeary,SueIIITheAustralianNationalUniversityCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudiesIVTitleDesignandProduction:FayGoddardCoverdesign:DorothyManieroPrintedandmanufacturedinAustraliabyCTNPublicationsPtyLtd,FyshwickACTCONTENTSPrefaceiiiEARLYPERCEPTIONSNineteenthcenturyperceptionsofVictorianforests:ideasandconcernsofFerdinandMuellerLindenGillbankTallstoriesandtalltreesFrankRMouldsREGIONALANDENVIRONMENTALSTUDIESCulturalsignificanceofEastGippslandforestsAnitaBradySecretsoftheforest:writingenvironmentalhistoryTomGriffithsEffectofsettlementontheforestsoftheCentralPlateau,TasmaniaRCEllisPendersPerpetualForestPlantationSueFearyLandusehistoryofthewhitecypresspineforestsintheSnowyValley,KosciuskoNationalParkIFPulsford,JCGBanksandLHodgesEnvironmentalhistoryofWaratahCreekcatchment,CoolangubraStateForest,NewSouthWalesAngelaRymerVictorianSchoolofForestry:ForestryeducationFrankRMouldsVictorianSchoolofForestry:DemonstrationForestJaneLennonFORESTINDUSTRIESLoggingtechnologyandforestcuttingpracticesKevinFrawley^AssessingheritagevaluesofsawmillsandtramwaysinCentralVictoriaPeterEvansTrackingtheKTCfromKauritoKarritoChatleeMichaelRoche,JohnDargavelandJennyMillsPUBLICHISTORYChangingnatureofFederalStaterelationsinforestryLTCarronRegionalassessmentoftheheritagevaluesofforestsRosemaryPurdieandMikeCavanagh'Howmanyshipssailintheforest':InventoryofhistoricplacesinTasmania'sforestsAnneMcConnellForesthistoryattheNationalMuseumRuthLaneOralforesthistoryandtheNationalLibraryGreggBorschmannAuthorsIPrefaceiiiPREFACEMuchhashappenedsincetheinauguralconferenceonforesthistorywasheldinandtheForestHistorySocietywasformedAstheSociety'snewslettersshow,bothStateandFederalheritagebodieshavedirectedconsiderablefundstowardsforestbasedresearch,inanattempttoresolvetheongoingconflictbetweenconservationistsandthetimberindustryoverthemanagementofhardwoodforestsTheSocietyprovidesaforumforbringingtogetherthisresearchandgivingitanhistoricalperspectiveStimulatedbytheexpandingbodyofinformationonforestsandthesuccessofthefirstconference,severalSocietymembersformedacommitteeandbeganplanningasecondBecauseofthemultidisciplinarynatureofforesthistory,solicitingpaperswasnotdifficultandbymiditwasapparentthatthesecondconferencewouldbeasinterestingasthefirstThisvolumepresentstheproceedingoftheconferencewhichwasheldonDecemberattheVictorianSchoolofForestryinCreswick,VictoriaTheconferenceobjectivesweretofacilitateinformationexchangeanddevelopaholisticoutlookacrossabroadrangeofforestrelateddisciplinesTheemphasisonbringingtogetherthediverseapproachesusedtoinvestigatethenaturalandculturalenvironmentsofforestscanprovideavaluableframeworkfordevelopingmanagementpracticeswhichtakeaccountofpastnaturalandculturaleventsThediscerningreaderwillnoticesomedifferenceswhencomparingthescopeofpapersfromthetwoconferencesThisvolumeismorefocussedonforestryhistoryratherihznforesthistory,illustratingperhapsthedifficultiesofmaintaininganexusbetweenthenaturalsciencesandculturehistoryInhisopeningaddressFrankMouldsdescribedthehistoricalsignificanceoftheSchoolwhichhastrainedforesterssinceHenotedthattheforestssurroundingCreswickhavebeenamajoreconomic,cultural,socialandenvironmentalfactorintheevolutionofthedistrictThetownandsurroundshaveproducedsomefamouspeoplesuchastheLindsayfamily(Norman,Lionel,PercyandRuby),SirAlexanderPeacock,threetimesVictorianPremierJohnCurtin,SirMarcusOliphant,Leach(ofLeach'sbirdbooks),andProfessorLaby,notedphysicist,whowereallbomhereThelocalityhasbecomeamajorforceindevelopingskillsinlandmanagement,especiallyforestsbothhardwoodandsoftwoodwhichareofsubstantialandcontinuingbenefitnotonlytoVictoria,butAustraliawideandevenoverseasManygraduatesoftheSchoolhavemadesignificantcontributionswellbeyondtheboundariesofVictoriaivAustralia'severchangingforestsIIDrMouldsquotedfromarecentlecturegivenbyhistorianMichaelHowardtodemonstratetheneedforhistorianstobeimpartialwhenstudyingthepast:OuragendaissetbycurrentcontroversieswhetherwewishitornotIfwetakepartinthem,wehavenorighttoclaimthatourhistoricalstudiesprovideakindofinnerlightdeniedtolessermortalsHistoriansareasproneasanyoneelseunconsciouslytoformulateconclusionsonthebasisoftemperament,prejudiceandhabitandthencollecttheevidencetojustifythemItwouldbedishonesttopretendotherwiseHeendedhisaddresswithasalutarywarning,thatforesthistoriansmustnotbecomeantiquarians,studyingthepastforitsownsake,butshouldlearnlessonsfromthepasttoseekaphilosophyforthefutureEighteenpaperscoveringarangeoftopicswerepresentedoverthetwodaysInonewayoranother,allthepapersreflectedacommonthread,thattoday'sforestsaretheresultofalonghistoryofcomplexinteractionofhumanbeingswiththeirenvironment,whetheritbewithaspearorachainsawForexample,AnitaBradyshowedhowarchivalresearchoflandtitles,fireandlogginghistorieswereusedtoidentifytheremainingpatchesofoldgrowthforestinEastGippslandTomGriffithsinhiselegantdescriptionofVictoria'smountainashforestspointedouttheneedforhistorianstoseeforestsasbeingpartofthehistoricprocessandnotjustabackdroptoitThereweresomeinterestinginternationallinksMichaelRoche,etalenlightenedusabouttheconnectionsbetweenNewZealandKauriandWesternAustralianKarriandSueFearyillustratedamoretenuouslinkbetweenforestmanagementpracticesinthCenturyEuropeandthoseontheNSWsouthcoastinthesOnesessionwasdevotedtoaseriesofshort'workinprogress'presentationsThesewillappearinsubsequentissuesofthenewsletterThreefieldtripscomplementedthepapersTherewasaguidedtouroftheForestrySchoolbySimonWalley,andJaneLennonledusthroughtheadjacentdemonstrationforestThiscontainsevidenceofthevarioussilviculturalpracticesthataretaughtattheSchool,aswellassomeexcellentexamplesofalluvialgolddiggingsandwaterracesfromthenineteenthcenturyMostofustooktothebushonthelastdayforatripthroughWombatStateForest,wherewewereshownmodemsilviculturalpracticesandarangeofhistoricsitesVisitstoBoase'sandBlackForestsawmillsdemonstratedthemassivetechnologicaldifferencesbetweenthemoretraditional(attheformer)andtheultramodemTheSocietyhelditsmeetingonDecember,whenitagreedtocontinueasanonalignedorganisationrunbyitsconvenorsLesCarron,JohnDargavelSueFearyandKevinFrawley,thefirstconvenors,passedoverthereinsoftheSocietytoAnitaBradyandStephenLeggeEnquiriesabouttheSocietyshouldPrefacevbedirectedtoAnitaBrady,HistoricPlacesBranch,DepartmentofConservationandNaturalResources,VictoriaParade,EastMelbourneEttieOakmanandFayGoddardoftheCentreforResourceandEnvironmentalStudiestransformedthevariedconferencepapersintotheseproceedingswithcare,greatskillandmuchhardworkWethankthemsincerelyWehopethatreadersoftheseproceedingswillgainsomeappreciationoftheimportanceofconferencessuchasthis,whichbringtogetherpractitionersfromthenaturalsciencesandhumanhistoryThemeetingofthesedisciplinesisessentialforthelongtermprotectionandmanagementofourpreciousforestlegacyJohnDargavelandSueFearyAugustEarlyPerceptionsCHAPTERNINETEENTHCENTURYPERCEPTIONSOFVICTORIANFORESTS:IDEASANDCONCERNSOFFERDINANDMUELLERLindenGillbankIregardtheforestasanheritagegiventousbynature,notforspoilortodevastate,buttobewiselyused,reverentlyhonoured,andcarefullymaintainedIregardtheforestsasagift,intrustedsictoanyofusonlyfortransientcareduringashortspaceoftime,tobesurrenderedtoposterityagainasanunimpairedproperty,withincreasedrichesandaugmentedblessings,topassasasacredpatrimonyfromgenerationtogeneration(Muellerb:)Fromuntilhisdeathin,DrFerdinandMuellerwasVictoria'sfirstGovemmentBotanistFromtohewasalsoDirectorofMelbourne'sBotanicGardensandNationalHerbariumInhebecameBaronFerdinandvonMuellerHespentalmosthalfacenturyexploring,cataloguing,andconsideringusesforAustralia'sindigenousflora,includingtheforestfloraViahiscontactwithscientists,collectorsandsawmillers,hisinvolvementininternationalexhibitionsandroyalcommissions,andhisstreamofbotanicalspeechesandpublications,MuellershapedscientificandpublicperceptionsofthefloraDuringhistimeasGovemmentBotanisthewasofteninvolvedindiscussionsabouttheuseandmanagementofforestsThispaperexaminesMueller'sideasandperceptionsofVictorianforests,forestproductsandforestpracticesAsmanypapersinthisvolumedemonstrate,anunderstandingoftheforestedlandscapeisenhancedbyaknowledgeofthehistoryofthatlandscapeLikewiseforideasandpracticesAnunderstandingofpastforestpracticesandperceptionsallowsustoexaminethosecurrentlyinvoguewithgreaterwisdomOnlywithanunderstandingofthepastcanweappreciatetowhatextentourideas,practicesandconcernsarenoveltowhatextenttheyarebomofourtimesMueller'swasanauthoritativeandinfluentialnineteenthcenturybotanicalvoiceAssuchhisideasaboutforestsareofbothhistoricalandcomparativeinterestAusrralia'severchangingforestsIITowhatextentdidhisideaspresagecurrentattitudesandconcernsItiseasytoreadthewordswhichMuellerspokeandwroteregardingforestsmthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcenturyHowevertofullyunderstandthemeaningshewishedtoconveyviathosewords,weinthelatetwentiethcenturymustrelinquish,musterasefromourminds,certainideasandattitudesappropriatetothepresentbutquiteinappropriatetothepreviouscenturyWemusttumbackourmindsetbyacenturyandahalftopreecologicalandprepetrochemicaltimesThentheworidwasovertlyanddirectlydependantonitsfloratosatisfymanyhumanneedsfood,drugs,clothing,shelter,transport,andpowerThechemiczdplanthadnotyetgaineditsascendancyoverthebotanicalplantForestswererecognisedasimportantsourcesofvariousplantproducts,includingtimber,oil,andresinInthemidnineteenthcenturyNaturewasappreciatedforitsgenerousprovisionofagranddiversityofbotanicalresourcesaroundtheworldHowever,itwaswidelyarguedthatthedistributionofthoseresourcescouldandshouldbeimprovedToenhancehumansurvivalandcomfort,exoticplantsshouldbeintroducedintoregionsnotadequatelyblessedbyNatureBythemidnineteenthcenturythescienceofplanttaxonomywassufficientlydevelopedtoallowtheaccuraterecognitionanddescriptionofplantsinthewild,andtheselectionandtransferofknownspeciestonewlandscapesMagazinesandnewspaperskeptreadersinformedofthediscoveryandnamingofnewspecies,andoftheirintroductionintoalienlandsBotanicalinformationandmaterialwerespeedingroundtheworldForestspecies,withknownrequirementsforcultivationandwithknowncharacteristics,egtimbertypeordrugproduction,couldnowbesuccessfullysoughtforintroductionAnadequateplanttaxonomyunderpinnedaflourishingforestindustryBythestheterm'ecology'hadbeencoinedanddefinedHowever,notuntilthebeginningofthenextcentury,wasthescienceofecologyemergingasarespectedsisterdisciplinetoplanttaxonomyAnawarenessoftheenvironmentaldisasterssoilerosion,droughtanddiseasewhichhadfolloweddeforestationinthewakeofEuropeanexploitationofsuchverdantplacesasMauritius,StHelena,JamaicaandBarbadoshadleadtothewidespreadperceptionthatforestsincreasedrainfallandpreventedsoilerosionInontheCaribbeanislandofTobagoaboutpercentoftheislandwas'reservedinwoodforram'(Grove)FollowinghorrificdroughtsinIndiaandSouthAfncamtheearlyandmidnineteenthcentury,thedesiccationtheorywaswidelyespousedManyscientistswereconvincedthatdeforestationwasresponsibleforaridificationandtemperaturechangeonaglobalscale(Grove,)ThelinksbetweenforestsandrainfallandsoilconservationwerefirmlyetchedinmanymidnineteenthcenturymindsEveninthesepreecologicaltimesMueller'sperceptionsofVicrorianforestsFerdinandvonMuellerc(NationalHerbarium)interactionsbetweenplants,soilandclimatewererecognisedFollowingthepermanentdemiseofthedodoinitsonlyhomeMauritiusintheseventeenthcentury,andothercreatureselsewhere,therewasalsoanawarenessthatspeciescouldbecomeextinctThiswastheclimateofideasinwhichFerdinandMuellerthoughtandworkedinVictoriainthesecondhalfofthenineteenthcenturyAustralia'severchangingforestsIIFerdinandMuellerwastheepitomeofthenineteenthcenturybotanistHisideasreflectedthoseofhistimesandcoveredaverybroadspectrumofbotanicalwisdomHeattemptedtocommunicatewithasmanybotanicalinstitutionsandindividualsaspossible,andkeptuptodatewiththelatestpublishedandunpublishedwordonforestsandforestplantsHecouldseethepreciouswood(andotherforestvalues)forthetreesMueller'sunderstandingofplantsandofforestsallowedhimtosimultaneouslyrecogniseandintelligentlyintegrateseveralimportantvisionsofaforestreverential,environmental,biological,andeconomicHisbiologicalperceptionofaforestwasofagroupofplantswithspecificbiologicalneeds,egconditionsrequiredforregenerationorincreasedproductivityHiseconomicvisionwasoftheusefulproductswhichcouldbeextractedfromtheforestandoftheforestindustrieswhichcouldtherebybedevelopedMuelleralsorecognisedwaysinwhichforestsexertedabeneficialinfluenceonvariousaspectsoftheenvironmentButforestsweremorethanusefultypesofvegetationAsbeautifulpartsoftheCreator'swork,theywerealsotobereveredandmarvelledatMuellersharedanotuncommonnineteenthcenturyphilosophythatinformationandresourcesshouldbemadeavailabletothepublicScienceandplantswereforthepeopleMuellersawhisdutyasGovemmentBotanisttoprovidehisfellowcolonistswithbotanicalinformationandplantsandtoensurethecontinuedcolonialprovisionofthewidestpossiblerangeofbotanicalproductsfromfarmandforestInthesmallcommunityandtinyscientificcommunityofMelbourneitwasnotdifficultforMuellertomakehisargumentsheardHespokeonforestrymattersatscientificandpublicmeetings,withsomeofthesespeechesbeingreportedinnewspapersandotherpublicationsHewrotereports,articles,chaptersandhooksHepreparedexhibitsofforestproductsforMelbourne'sNationalHerbarium,andvariousexhibitions,andactedascommissionerandjurorforsomeofthemHeparticipatedinBoardsofInquiryandRoyalCommissionsonforestrymattersSomeofMueller'sforestfocussedactivitiesarelistedinTableHismuseumlectureprovidesthemainfocusofthispaper,withsomediscussionoftheexhibitionandtheRoyalCommissionMueller'simprintonAustralianforestsenduresinthenameshegavetomanyforesttreesVictorianeucalyptswhichstillbearMueller'snamesincludeEucalyptusbehriana,Efasciculosa,Egracilis,Elargiflorens,andEleucoxylon,whichhenamedin,Eregnans()andEbosistoana()MuelleriscommemoratedintheforestsofGippslandbyEmuelleriana,whichAlfredHowittnamedafterhiminMueller'sperceptionsofVicrorianforestsTableSomeVictorianforestryactivitiesofFerdinandMuellerExhibitionExhibitionExhibitionStateForestsInquiryIndustrialandTechnologicalMuseumLectureIndustrialandtechnologicalmuseumLectureForeignindustriesandforestsInquiryWattleBarkInquirySocialScienceCongressLectureVegetableProductsInquiryAustralasianAssociationfortheAdvancementofScienceLectureAustralasianAssociationfortheAdvancementofScienceLectureVictorianExhibitionOneimportantexhibitioninwhichMuellerwasinvolvedandwasresponsibleforastrongforestrypresencewasheldinMelbourneinInpreparationfortheInternationalExhibitionofAgriculturalandIndustrialProductstobeheldinLondonin,anexhibitionwasheldinMelbourneintoselectVictoria'sagriculturalandindustrialexhibitsfortheLondonExhibitionFerdinandMueller,MD,PhD,FRSjoinedthegroupofillus

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