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首页 First things First

First things First.pdf

First things First

zchengfan
2011-01-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《First things Firstpdf》,可适用于战略管理领域

FirstThingsFirstAHandbookofPrioritySettinginExtensionLaverneForestSheilaMulcahyPublishedby:DivisionofProgramandStaffDevelopmentUniversityofWisconsinExtensionArtworkby:DaleMannLayoutandDesignby:ColleenSchuhThisbookletispartofaprofessionaldevelopmentmoduleonprioritysettingthatincludestwoaudiovisualpresentations,aworkbook,anddiscussionguideThismoduleandotherprofessionaldevelopmentmaterialswereproducedbytheDivisionofProgramandStaffDevelopment,UniversityofWisconsinExtension,underaspecialneedsgrantfromtheExtensionService,UnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureUniversityofWisconsinExtension,GaleLVandeBerg,director,incooperationwiththeUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureandWisconsincounties,publishesthisinformationtofurtherthepurposeoftheMayandJune,ActsofCongressandprovidesequalopportunitiesinemploymentandprogrammingCopyrightbyUniversityofWisconsinExtension,DivisionofProgramandStaffDevelopmentContentsPageIntroductionWhatIsPrioritySettingPrioritySettingWhyHowDoWeSetPrioritiesStep:UnderstandingthePrioritySettingSituationStep:IdentifyingthePossiblePrioritiesStep:IdentifyingCriteriaforSelectingPrioritiesStep:DeterminingtheRelativeImportanceofPrioritiesStep:ReflectingonPriorities:ConsequencesandTimingStep:CommitmenttoActionPrioritySettingThreeCaseStudiesDickSnelling,CountyYouthAgentElaineJackson,StatePlantPathologySpecialistHankPorter,AreaResourceAgentReferencesIntroductionPrioritysettingisaprocessweExtensionprofessionalsmustcontinuallyusetosetandresetourdaytodayandprogramprioritiesYet,manytimeswefindourselvesworkingonlowprioritygoalsoronactivitiesunrelatedtohighpriorityconcernsSometimeswe'reawareofourbusynesswithnonpriorityitemsbutoftenwe'repressuredbyothersto"setourpriorities"Atthispoint,weexclaim,"IknowbuthowcanIsetmyprioritieswheneveryonesayseverythingishighpriority!"ThesemomentsoffrustrationseemtobeoccurringmoreoftenIncreasingpressuresbymanypeople,andthegrowingcomplexityofproblemsandsocietymaketheExtensionprofessional'sprioritysettingmoredifficultThisbookletisintendedforExtensionpeoplewhowishtodealwiththeseproblemsandwhowishtoindependentlystudyandthinkabouthowasystematicprocessofsettingprioritiesrelatestotheirExtensionjobsThebooklethasthreesectionsthatprovideanswerstothesequestions:IWhatisprioritysettingIIWhymustwesetprioritiesIIIHowdowesetprioritiesThisbookletstressesprioritysettingasapersonalcommitmentmadebyprofessionalExtensionworkersThoughExtensionworkerscooperatewithclienteleindevelopingprogramsandrelatedactivities,manyExtensionpeopledon'timplementprogramsunlesstheyseethemastheirownpersonalprioritiesThoughmanythingsinfluenceandpressureExtensionpeople,onlyanindividualcandecidewhetheragoaloractivityishighpriorityanddosomethingaboutitThisbookletdiscussesprioritysettinginthecontextofprogramdevelopmentThisdoesn'tmeanprioritysettingandprogramdevelopmentaresynonymousTheyaren'tButtheprioritysettingprocessmayregisterthemostimpactinaprogramdevelopmentsituationandtheideasaretransferabletomanyshortrangesituations,suchas"whatdoIdothisweek"Furthermore,onceapersonhassetprogrampriorities,thosepriorities,plustheprocessshehasmastered,influencethemoreimmediateanddaytodayprioritiesInSection,"HowDoWeSetPriorities"acaseexample(acountyhomeeconomist)ispresentedwitheachstepinthestepprocessFurthercaseexamplesareoutlinedstepbystepfollowingSectionIfitwillhelpyouunderstandthesteps,turntothecasestudymostlikeyourownsituationasyoureadYoumaywishtoreviewsomesectionslightly,othersinmoredepthRegardlessofhowmuchtimeyouspendthinkingabouttheideas,you'llgetthemostfromthesepagesbydiscussingthemwithothersinsimilarpositions,andmostimportantlybyapplyingthemtoyourspecificExtensionjobsituationWhatIsPrioritySettingDefinitionFirst,whatisapriorityDictionariessayit's:Thestateofbeingearlierintime,orofprecedingsomethingelsePrecedenceinorder,rank,etcThehavingofcertainrightsbeforeanotherapreferentialrating,especiallyonethatallocatesrightsandservicesusuallyinlimitedsupplysomethingmeritingpriorattentionAnExtensionconceptofprioritysettingis:Adynamicprocessofdecidingwhatgoalsoractionsaremostimportantnow,andacommitmentofselfandresourcestothatdecisionLet'sexamineeachpartoftheabovestatement"ADynamicPrioritysettinginExtensionisacomplexprofessionalProcess"responsibilityIt'sacontinualprocessofsubjectiveandinterrelateddecisions,aflexibilitytorespondtoproblemsastheyariseandbeforetheyarisePrioritiesmustbesetineveryphaseofprogramdevelopmentincluding:identifyingtargetaudiences,delineatingneeds,specifyinggoals,determiningneededactionsandfollowingthroughwiththem,andevenselectingtheverysmalltaskstobedonedailyorweeklytoaccomplishgoalsOurpersonaljobprioritiesaffectothersandtheirsaffectusTheprioritiesofExtensionandourclientgroupsmaydeterminethemoneyandotherresourcesavailabletousInturn,ourprogramprioritiesaffecttheExtensionsystemandthepeopleweserve"Deciding"Allofusmakedecisionsallourlives,someofthemtrivialandsomeveryimportantBasedonourresources,limitations,andalternatives,wedecidewhatwe'regoingtowearinthemorning,whattoeatforbreakfast,whatTVchanneltowatch,whattodoforfunontheweekend,whattodoforaliving,andhowtovoteThemainfactorsinathoughtfuldecisionarethesame,whetherthequestiontobedecidedistrivialorveryimportantAdecisionfirstinvolvespossibilitiesoralternatives,forwithoutalternativestherecanbenochoiceForinstance,wecanreturntotheofficeafteradayoffandfindthe"in"basketfilledwithletters,booklets,phonecallmemosThesearepriorityalternativesWhattodofirstWe'rehelpedtodecidebyknowingthenatureofthelettersandcalls,thetopicsofthebooklets,howwefeel,andthescheduleforthedayaheadThesefactorsbecomethecriteriaforchoiceFreedomtochooseisaprivilegeandaresponsibilityHowever,we'reonlyasfreeasourresources,limitations,andalternativesallowIfthewholedayistiedupwithmeetings,wemayonlyhavetimetoreturnonecallIfouralternativesarebroad,wehaveagreaterresponsibilityforourchoicesandtheirconsequencestoothersandourselvesDependingonourroles,ourdecisionsmayaffectonlyus,afewothers,oreventhousandsofpeopleMakingdecisionsinprioritysettinginvolves:Understandingtheprioritysettingsituation(whattodotoday)Purposeorgoaltobeachieved(touseonefreehourtodaymosteffectively)Availablealternatives(letters,booklets,phonecalls,coffeebreak,orconversation)Probableconsequencesofeachalternative(Icanmakephonecallsinthenexthour,butIcan'tgetthroughallthosemeetingswithoutcoffee)Valuestothedecisionmakeroftheseprobableconsequences(myneedforthecoffeeismoreimportantthanreturningthiscallorthiscallismoreimportantthanmyphysicalneed)PrioritysettingasanapplicationofdecisionmakingisparticularlycomplexTheprioritiesalreadyset,thenumbersandneedsofthepeopleourcurrentprioritysettingwillaffect,andthealternativesavailabletousalladdtothecomplexityInprioritysetting,decisionsaremadeaboutwhatismosturgentandcriticalWhatneedstobedonefirst"GoalsandActions"WeneedtosetprioritiesonbothgoalsandactionsAgoaliswhatwehopetoachieveactionsarehowweachieveourgoalsWefirstask:"WhatneedsdoingWhatresultsdowehopetoget"Andthen,"WhatmustwedotoachievethatendHowarewegoingtodoit"Sometimeswegetinvolvedinanactivityforwhichwe'reunsureofthegoalThisdoesn'tmeanwe'renotgoaloriented,butitshouldforceustoevolveagoalanddecidemorespecificdirectionfortheactivityIfwedon't,we'llcontinuetobebusywithoutasenseofdirectionorachievementGoalsmaybegeneralorspecificOftenspecificgoalsareaimedatfulfillingabroadergoalForinstance,ourgeneralgoalmightbetoimprovetheeconomyofacommunityAspecificgoaltoachievethatbroadergoal(foracommunitydevelopmentagent)wouldbetoimprovethemarketingproceduresofsmallmanufacturersor(foranagricultureagent)toimprovethelivestockproductionoffarmersintheareaGoalsmaybelongorshortrangeForexample,alongrangegoalmightbeforthecommunitytoprovideculturaldevelopmentactivitiesforitscitizensWemightanticipatebuildingacivictheaterorartcentersometimeinthefutureBut,ashortrangegoaltofulfillthesamelongrangeobjectivemightbetoholdasuccessfulsummerartfairthisyearGoalsmaybeinstitutionalorindividualIfExtension'sgoalistoprovideeducationalopportunitiesforlowincomeseniorcitizens,ourindividualprogramgoalmightbetosponsoreducationonlowcostnutritionfortheelderlyinourcountyOr,ifalltheelderlyfolksinourcountyarewelloff,wemaynotconsidertheinstitutionalgoaltobeimportantinourprogramsOntheotherhand,ifourcommunityhasalargenumberoflowincomepeopleover,wemighthaveinitiatedthegoalfortheinstitutionInExtension,thesegoalsareinterrelatedActionshelpusachievegoalsActionshelpusachievegoalsandclarifygoalsIfwewanttohelpthecommunitygetaculturalcenter(goal),wecanconsultwiththecityplanningcommission,citizensgroups,andartclubs,andhelpthempetitionforabondissue(actions)Forourmoreimmediategoals,wemighthelporganizeasummerartfaircommitteetogetparkspacefordisplays,contactartists,andgetconcessionsTheinterrelationshipofgoalsandactionsbecomesclearerifweseethatthegoalswesetasprioritiesbecome,inturn,basesforsettingprioritiesonouractionsPrioritysettingasaprocessrelatestoanyoneoftheabovetypesofgoalsandactionsBut,wemustseethedifferencebetweengoalsandactionstosetprioritiesandsticktothemWecan't,forinstance,saythatourhomevisitsorcountyfair(actions)areahigherprioritythanimprovinglivestockmarketinginacommunity(goal)That'slikecomparingapplesandorangesInsettingpriorities,wemustcomparegoalswithgoals,andactionswithactions"MostSettingprioritiesisaspecifickindofdecisionmakingImportantNow"withtwodimensions:valueandtimeIt'snotonlydecidingwhattodo(what'smostvaluableandimportant),butwhattodofirst(what'smostimportantnow),andhowmuchtimetogivetoitWhenwesetapriority,wejudgeonepossibilitytobemoreimportant,urgent,orvaluablethananotheratthistimeWesetprioritiesonbothourgoalsandouractions,sincepriorityimpliesasequenceofactivities,firstthingsfirst,aswellasarankinginimportanceForinstance,it'simportanttorecruitHleadersandtotrainthembutiftherearenoleaderstotraininaparticularproject,it'smoreimportanttorecruitthemfirstsowecantrainthemButifthedeadlineforHenrollmentistomorrow,gettingthedetailssettledwilltakepriorityoverbothrecruitingandtrainingPrioritysetting,then,is:DecidingwhatneedsdoingmostDecidingwhatneedsdoingfirstFirst,welookatourgoalstoseewhichismoreurgentnowSecond,wedecidewhatmorespecificgoalsneedtobeachievedifthatlongrangegoalistobemetThird,actionsmustbedesignedtoachievethegoalsHowcanwejudgewhat'smostimportantorcriticalnowOnewayistorecognizethatprioritysettingimplieslookingaheadtoseethefutureconsequencesofouractionsorlackofactiononaproblemtohelpusjudgeitsimportanceWhatwillhappenifIdon'tcallthefarmerwithcornrootwormproblems,butinsteadphonefaircommitteememberstoarrangeameetingfornextweekIfIdon'tcallthefarmer,hisentirecropcouldbedamagedtomorrowcouldbetoolateButIcanstillarrangenextweek'scommitteemeetingtomorroworhavesomeoneelsedothephoningSeeingtheconsequencesofouractionscertainlyhelpsusdetermineprioritiesSometimeswecanonlyguesswhatthepossibleresultsofouractionorlackofactionwillbeThisisariskthatcanbeminimizedbygettinggoodinformationaboutpriorityalternativesandcomparingthem(seepage)Theimportance,sequence,andconsequencesofourgoalsettingandactionsinsettingprioritiescanbeshownbyhowwemakegardeningdecisionsFirst,wemustdecideonagoal:Whatdowewanttoharvestatseason'sendTomatoesandcornButthegardenplotisonlyxfeetSincetomatoesandcornmatureatthesametime,wewon'thaveenoughroomforbothWhichcropwillsaveusmoremoneyatthesupermarketSincetomatoesaremoreexpensivetobuyandcorntakesuptoomuchroom,we'llprofitmorefromatomatocropCouldanearlierharvestcropbeplantedtouseavailablespacebeforethetomatoesmatureHowaboutasetofradishes,orsomepolebeanstoclimbupandsavespaceFirstthingsfirst!Nowthatwe'vedecidedwhattoplant,wemustsequenceactivitiestoachievethegoalWecanbuyseedsandstartthemindoorssothey'rebigenoughbyplantingtime,thentillthesoil,andfertilizeinadvanceAllthesethingsmustbedoneinsequencetogetthedesiredresultsatsummer'sendSettingprogrampriorities,ofcourse,isamuchmorecomplexandfarreachingprocessthanplanningagarden,butittakesthesamethingsintoaccount"CommitmentPrioritysettingiscriticalwhenmanypossiblealternativeofSelfandgoalsexistandonlylimitedresourcestocommittothemResourcesAtthosetimes(andthey'reoccurringmoreandmoreoften),wemustmakeaprofessionaldecisionandapersonalcommitmenttoactionThoughagroupororganizationlikeExtensionsetsconstraintsandparametersonwhatourprioritiesoughttobe,onlywecancommitourselvesFinallyonlywecandecide:areweoraren'twegoingtodoitAsExtensioneducators,ourprioritiesaffectthelivesofcountlessothersOurinformationfordeterminingprioritiescomesfrommanypeople,groups,agencies,andinstitutions,includingExtensionOuralternativesmaybeasbroadasthesocietyweserveWe'relimitedandguidedbythegoalsofourorganization,ourjobdescriptions,theresourcesavailable,andtheappropriatenessofanactivitytoourclienteleandtheirgoalsButnoneofthesedecidesforusorcommitsustoapriorityOnlywecandothatThussettingprioritiesmeanssayingyes,now,tocertaingoalsandrelatedactionsandthendoingtheminafirstthingsfirstsequenceItalsoimpliesreshufflingprioritiessogoalsandactionsoflesserimportancegetlesstimeorfewerresources,aredonebysomeoneelse,orgetanoDecidingnottodosomethingisasvalidasdecidingwhattodoDecidingwhattodomeanswewon'thavetimetodocertainotherthingsSummarySettingprogramprioritiesisasixstepprocessofconsideringvariousalternativegoalsandactionspresentedfrommanysources,allocatingadequateresourcesandenergytothemostimportantproblemsneedingimmediateattention,andcommittingouractionstogetresultsWemusttakeintoaccountpreviouslysetpriorities(ongoingprograms),crisissituations,thegoalsandthrustsofourinstitutionandorprogramarea,pastexpectationsofpeople,differentinterestgroupstobeserved,andavailableresourcesorexpertise,everytimeweconsideranewpriorityalternativePrioritysettingisn'teasy,butit'snecessaryWhyPrioritySettingWhyTherearemanyreasonstosetprioritiesSomeareimportanttotheclientelegroupsandlargersocietyweservesomeareimportantforustodoourjobswellThesereasonsfallintofivecategories:ChangingNeedsPrioritysettingisimportanttomeetthechangingandRolesneedsandrolesofouraudiencesTheworldischangingatafasterpacethaneverbeforePeoplechange,theirrolesinlifechange,theirneedsandproblemschangeProblemsarebecomingmorecomplexandinterrelatedastimegoesbyPeoplearebettereducatedanddemandmoreofustodaythantheydidinthepastbothinqualityandquantityNewlawsandregulationsontheenvironment,populationdistribution,pesticides,etc,demandeducationalaswellaslegalinputTheinterrelatednessofproblemsandinstitutionscreatesmorechallengesforExtensionprofessionalsthaninthepastNolongerareourprogramsstrictlyruralorientedThefarmpopulationhaschangedandshiftedMuchofithasmovedtothecitiesandtownsFarmsaregettingbiggerandmorespecializedTheneedforbetterfarmproductiononlesslandisgreaternowthaneverbefore,andthefarmer'sneedsaremorecomplexPeopleinbigcitiesandsmalltownsneedhelpwiththeirspecificproblemsandtheproblemsaregrowingdailyIfExtensionisaproblemsolvinginstitution,andifExtensionagentsareindeedchangeagents,wemusthelppeoplerespondnotonlytopresentneedsandcrises,butalsotoproblemsofthefuture:HowtodealwithnewtechnologiesWhatconstitutesahealthyhumanbeingHowcanwehelppeopleprepareforthechangesthefuturewilldemandButExtensionresourcesarelimitedWecan'tbeallthingstoallpeople,eventhoughthedemandsaregreatSettingprioritiesandstickingtothemistheonlywaytoapplygluetoaprobleminsteadofawaterypastethatspreadsitselfthinovermanyprojectsandwearsoffinashorttimeExtensionprioritiesandourprogramprioritiesmustnotmerelyfollowthetrendsofsocietyWemustbeintheadvanceguardoffutureproblems,topreventthembeforetheyoccurortohelppeoplemeetthemwhenthey'reinevitableWemustbeflexibleenoughtorespondtopeople'sneeds,butfirmenoughtostickwithprioritiesandreachdefinedgoalsHelpsPreventCrisesPrioritysettinghelpsuspreventfuturecrisisPresidentKennedyoncesaidheaskedexpertstoadvisehim"notwhatshouldIdo,butwhatwillhappenifIdo"Wemusttaketheconsequencesofouractionsintoaccountaswesetprioritiessowecanmakejudgmentsaboutwhatwedointhe

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