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CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technical.Interview.Ed4.2010.pdf

CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technica…

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简介:本文档为《CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technical.Interview.Ed4.2010pdf》,可适用于IT书籍领域,主题内容包含tSPHSBNNJOH*OUFSWJFXVFTUJPOTBOEPMVUJPOTt'JWFSPWFO"QQSPBDIFTUPPMWJOHPVHI"MH符等。

tSPHSBNNJOH*OUFSWJFXVFTUJPOTBOEPMVUJPOTt'JWFSPWFO"QQSPBDIFTUPPMWJOHPVHI"MHPSJUINVFTUJPOTtFOJTUBLFT$BOEJEBUFTBLF"OE)PXUP"WPJEIFNtUFQTUPSFQBSFGPS#FIBWJPSBMBOEFDIOJDBMVFTUJPOTt*OUFSWJFXBSUPSJFT"JFXGSPNUIF*OUFSWJFXFSTJEF(BZMFBBLNBOOGAYLELAAKMANNFounderandCEO,CareerCupcomprogramminginterviewquestionsandsolutionsPlus:tFiveprovenapproachestosolvingtoughalgorithmquestionstTenmistakescandidatesmakeandhowtoavoidthemtStepstoprepareforbehavioralandtechnicalquestionstInterviewerwarstories:aviewfromtheinterviewer’ssideFOURTHEDITIONCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWProgrammingInterviewQuestionsandSolutionsGAYLELAAKMANNFounderandCEO,CareerCupcomCareerCup,LLCSeattle,WACRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEW,FOURTHEDITIONCopyrightbyGayleLaakmannAllrightsreservedPublishedbyCareerCup,LLC,Seattle,WAVersionVisitourwebsiteat:wwwcareercupcomNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwithoutwrittenpermissionexceptinthecaseofbriefquotationsincriticalarticlesorreviewsFormoreinformation,contactsupportcareercupcomPrintedinUnitedStatesofAmerica(ISBN)CrackingtheCodingInterviewBCMFPG$POUFOUT'PSFXPSE*OUSPEVDUJPO#FIJOEUIFDFOFTTheMicrosoftInterviewTheAmazonInterviewTheGoogleInterviewTheAppleInterviewTheYahooInterview*OUFSWJFXBSUPSJFT#FGPSFUIF*OUFSWJFXResumeAdviceBehavioralPreparationTechnicalPreparationIF*OUFSWJFXBOE#FZPOEHandlingBehavioralQuestionsHandlingTechnicalQuestionsFiveAlgorithmApproachesTheOfferandBeyondTopTenMistakesCandidatesMakeFrequentlyAskedQuestions*OUFSWJFXVFTUJPOTBUBUSVDUVSFTChapter|ArraysandStringsChapter|LinkedListsChapter|StacksandQueuesChapter|TreesandGraphs$PODFQUTBOE"MHPSJUINTChapter|BitManipulationChapter|BrainTeasersCareerCupcomBCMFPG$POUFOUTChapter|ObjectOrientedDesignChapter|RecursionChapter|SortingandSearchingChapter|MathematicalChapter|TestingChapter|SystemDesignandMemoryLimits,OPXMFEHF#BTFEChapter|CChapter|JavaChapter|DatabasesChapter|LowLevelChapter|NetworkingChapter|ThreadsandLocks"EEJUJPOBMFWJFXSPCMFNTChapter|ModerateChapter|HardPMVUJPOT*OEFYPDL*OUFSWJFXT"CPVUUIF"VUIPSCareerCupcom'PSFXPSEDearReaders,WelcometothetheditionofCrackingtheCodingInterviewThisvolumeupdatestherdeditionwithnewcontentandrefreshedinformationBesuretocheckoutourwebsite,wwwcareercupcom,toconnectwithothercandidatesandtodiscovernewresourcesForthoseofyounewtotechnicalinterviews,theprocesscanseemoverwhelmingInterviewersthrowquestionsatyou,expectyoutowhipupbrilliantalgorithmsonthespot,andthenaskyoutowritebeautifulcodeonawhiteboardLuckily,everyoneelseisinthesameboat,andyou’realreadyworkinghardtoprepareGoodjob!Asyougetreadyforyourinterviews,considerthesesuggestions:SJUF$PEFPOBQFSMostinterviewerswon’tgiveyouacomputerandwillinsteadexpectyoutowritecodeonawhiteboardoronpaperTosimulatethisenvironment,tryansweringinterviewproblemsbywritingcodeonpaper!rst,andthentypingthemintoacomputerasisWhiteboardpapercodingisaspecialskill,whichcanbemasteredwithconstantpractice,OPX:PVSFTVNFWhiletechnicalskillsareextremelyimportant,that’snoreasontoneglectyourownresumeMakesuretoprepareyourselftogiveaquicksummaryofanyprojectorjobyouwereinvolvedwith,andtodiscussthehardestandmostinterestingproblemsyouencounteredalongthedayPOUFNPSJFPMVUJPOTWhilethisbooko$ersarepresentativesampleofinterviewquestions,therearestillthousandsofinterviewquestionsoutthereMemorizingsolutionsisnotagreatuseofyourtimeRather,usethisbooktoexploreapproachestoproblems,tolearnnewconcepts,andtopracticeyourskillsBMLVUPVEInterviewerswanttounderstandhowyouthinkandapproachproblems,sotalkoutloudwhileyou’resolvingproblemsLettheinterviewerseehowyou’retacklingtheproblem,andtheyjustmightguideyouaswell"OESFNFNCFSJOUFSWJFXTBSFIBSEInmyyearsofinterviewingatGoogle,Isawsomeinterviewersask“easy”questionswhileothersaskharderquestionsButyouknowwhatGettingtheeasyquestionsdoesn’tmakeitanyeasiertogettheo$erReceivingano$erisnotaboutsolvingquestions"awlessly(veryfewcandidatesdo!),butrather,itisaboutansweringquestionsbetterthanothercandidatesSodon’tstressoutwhenyougetatrickyquestioneveryoneelseprobablythoughtitwashardtoo!I'mexcitedforyouandfortheskillsyouaregoingtodevelopThoroughpreparationwillgiveyouawiderangeoftechnicalandcommunicationskillsItwillbewellworthitnomatterwherethee$orttakesyou!Studyhard,practice,andgoodluck!GayleLaakmannCrackingtheCodingInterview*OUSPEVDUJPOPNFUIJOHTSPOHWewalkedoutofthehiringmeetingfrustrated,againOftheten“passable”candidateswereviewedthatday,nonewouldreceiveo$ersWerewebeingtooharsh,wewonderedI,inparticular,wasdisappointedWehadrejectedoneofmycandidatesAformerstudentOnewhoIhadreferredHehadaGPAfromtheUniversityofWashington,oneofthebestcomputerscienceschoolsintheworld,andhaddoneextensiveworkonopensourceprojectsHewasenergeticHewascreativeHeworkedhardHewassharpHewasatruegeek,inallthebestwaysBut,Ihadtoagreewiththerestofthecommittee:thedatawasn’tthereEvenifmyemphaticrecommendationwouldswaythemtoreconsider,hewouldsurelygetrejectedinthelaterstagesofthehiringprocessTherewerejusttoomanyred"agsThoughtheinterviewersgenerallybelievedthathewasquiteintelligent,hehadstruggledtodevelopgoodalgorithmsMostsuccessfulcandidatescould"ythroughthe!rstquestion,whichwasatwistonawellknownproblem,buthestruggledtodevelophisalgorithmWhenhecameupwithone,hefailedtoconsidersolutionsthatoptimizedforotherscenariosFinally,whenhebegancoding,he"ewthroughthecodewithaninitialsolution,butitwasriddledwithmistakesthathethenfailedtocatchThoughhewasn’ttheworstcandidatewe'dseenbyanymeasure,hewasfarfrommeeting“thebar”RejectedWhenheaskedforfeedbackoverthephoneacoupleofweekslater,IstruggledwithwhattotellhimBesmarterNo,IknewhewasbrilliantBeabettercoderNo,hisskillswereonparwithsomeofthebestI'dseenLikemanymotivatedcandidates,hehadpreparedextensivelyHehadreadKR’sclassicCbookandhe'dreviewedCLRS'famousalgorithmstextbookHecoulddescribeindetailthemyriadofwaysofbalancingatree,andhecoulddothingsinCthatnosaneprogrammershouldeverwanttodoIhadtotellhimtheunfortunatetruth:thosebooksaren’tenoughAcademicbooksprepareyouforfancyresearch,butthey’renotgoingtohelpyoumuchinaninterviewWhyI'llgiveyouahint:yourinterviewershaven’tseenRedBlackTreessincetheywereinschooleitherTocrackthecodinginterview,youneedtopreparewithrealinterviewquestionsYoumustpracticeonrealproblems,andlearntheirpatternsCrackingtheCodingInterviewistheresultofmy!rsthandexperienceinterviewingattopcompaniesItistheresultofhundredsofconversationswithcandidatesItistheresultofthethousandsofcandidateandinterviewercontributedquestionsAndit’stheresultofseeingsomanyinterviewquestionsfromsomany!rmsEnclosedinthisbookareofthebestinterviewquestions,selectedfromthousandsofpotentialproblemsCareerCupcom*OUSPEVDUJPOZ"QQSPBDIThefocusofCrackingtheCodingInterviewisalgorithm,codinganddesignquestionsWhyBecausewhileyoucanandwillbeaskedbehavioralquestions,theanswerswillbeasvariedasyourresumeLikewise,whilemany!rmswillasksocalled“trivia”questions(eg,“Whatisavirtualfunction”),theskillsdevelopedthroughpracticingthesequestionsarelimitedtoveryspeci!cbitsofknowledgeThebookwillbrie"ytouchonsomeofthesequestions,toshowyouwhatthey’relike,butIhavechosentoallocatespacewherethere’smoretolearnZBTTJPOTeachingismypassionIlovehelpingpeopleunderstandnewconcepts,andgivingthemtoolssothattheycanexcelintheirpassionsMy!rstexperience“ocially”teachingwasincollegeattheUniversityofPennsylvania,whenIbecameateachingassistantforanundergraduateComputerSciencecourseduringmysecondyearIwentontoTAforseveralothercourses,andeventuallylaunchedmyownCScourseattheuniversityfocusedon“handson”skillsAsanengineeratGoogle,trainingandmentoring“Nooglers”(yes,that’sreallywhattheycallnewGoogleemployees!)weresomeofthethingsIenjoyedmostIwentontousemy“time”toteachtwoComputerSciencecoursesattheUniversityofWashingtonCrackingtheCodingInterviewand$BSFFS$VQDPNre"ectmypassionforteachingEvennow,youcanoften!ndme“hangingout”atCareerCupcom,helpinguserswhostopbyforassistanceJoinusGayleLaakmannCrackingtheCodingInterview#FIJOEUIFDFOFTFormanycandidates,interviewingisabitofablackboxYouwalkin,yougetpoundedwithquestionsfromavarietyofinterviewers,andthensomehoworotheryoureturnwithanofferornotHaveyoueverwondered:HowdodecisionsgetmadeDoyourinterviewerstalktoeachotherWhatdoesthecompanyreallycareaboutWell,wondernomore!CareerCupsoughtoutinterviewingexpertsfrom!vetopcompaniesMicrosoft,Google,Amazon,YahooandAppletoshowyouwhatreallyhappens“behindthescenes”Theseexpertswillwalkusthroughatypicalinterviewdayanddescribewhat’stakingplaceoutsideoftheinterviewingroom,andwhathappensafteryouleaveOurinterviewingexpertsalsotolduswhat’sdi$erentabouttheirinterviewprocessFrombarraisers(Amazon)toHiringCommittees(Google),eachcompanyhasitsownquirksKnowingtheseidiosyncrasieswillhelpyoutoreactbettertoasupertoughinterviewer,ortoavoidbeingintimidatedwhentwointerviewersshowupatthedoor(Apple!)Inaddition,ourspecialistso$eredinsightastowhattheircompanystressesintheirinterviewsWhilealmostallsoftware!rmscareaboutcodingandalgorithms,somecompaniesfocusmorethanothersonspeci!caspectsoftheinterviewWhetherthisisbecauseofthecompany’stechnologyoritshistory,nowyou'llknowwhatandhowtoprepareSo,joinusaswetakeyoubehindthescenesatMicrosoft,Google,Amazon,YahooandAppleCareerCupcom#FIJOEUIFDFOFTTheMicrosoftInterviewMicrosoftwantssmartpeopleGeeksPeoplewhoarepassionateabouttechnologyYouprobablywon’tbetestedontheinsandoutsofCAPIs,butyouwillbeexpectedtowritecodeontheboardInatypicalinterview,you'llshowupatMicrosoftatsometimeinthemorningand!lloutinitialpaperworkYou'llhaveashortinterviewwitharecruiterwhereheorshewillgiveyouasamplequestionYourrecruiterisusuallytheretoprepyou,andnottogrillyouontechnicalquestionsBenicetoyourrecruiterYourrecruitercanbeyourbiggestadvocate,evenpushingtoreinterviewyouifyoustumbledonyour!rstinterviewTheycan!ghtforyoutobehiredornot!Duringtheday,you'lldofouror!veinterviews,oftenwithtwodi$erentteamsUnlikemanycompanies,whereyoumeetyourinterviewersinaconferenceroom,you'llmeetwithyourMicrosoftinterviewersintheiroceThisisagreattimetolookaroundandgetafeelfortheteamcultureDependingontheteam,interviewersmayormaynotsharetheirfeedbackonyouwiththerestoftheinterviewloopWhenyoucompleteyourinterviewswithateam,youmightspeakwithahiringmanagerIfso,that’sagreatsign!ItlikelymeansthatyoupassedtheinterviewswithaparticularteamIt’snowdowntothehiringmanager’sdecisionYoumightgetadecisionthatday,oritmightbeaweekAfteroneweekofnowordfromHR,sendthemafriendlyemailaskingforastatusupdateDenitelyPrepare:“WhydoyouwanttoworkforMicrosoft”Inthisquestion,Microsoftwantstoseethatyou’repassionateabouttechnologyAgreatanswermightbe,“I’vebeenusingMicrosoftsoftwareaslongasIcanremember,andI'mreallyimpressedathowMicrosoftmanagestocreateaproductthatisuniversallyexcellentForexample,I’vebeenusingVisualStudiorecentlytolearngameprogramming,andit’sAPIsareexcellent”Notehowthisshowsapassionfortechnology!What’sUnique:You'llonlyreachthehiringmanagerifyou’vedonewell,butifyoudo,that’sagreatsign!CrackingtheCodingInterview#FIJOEUIFDFOFTTheAmazonInterviewAmazon’srecruitingprocessusuallybeginswithoneortwophonescreensinwhichyouinterviewwithaspeci!cteamTheengineerwhointerviewsyouwillusuallyaskyoutowritesimplecodeandreaditaloudonthephoneTheywillaskabroadsetofquestionstoexplorewhatareasoftechnologyyou’refamiliarwithNext,you"ytoSeattleforfouror!veinterviewswithoneortwoteamswhichhaveselectedyoubasedonyourresumeandphoneinterviewsYouwillhavetocodeonawhiteboard,andsomeinterviewerswillstressotherskillsInterviewersareeachassignedaspeci!careatoprobeandmayseemverydi$

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