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首页 CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technical.Interview.Ed4.2…

CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technical.Interview.Ed4.2010.pdf

CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technica…

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2011-01-08 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《CareerCup.Cracking.the.Technical.Interview.Ed4.2010pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

t�����SPHSBNNJOH�*OUFSWJFX�VFTUJPOT�BOE�PMVUJPOT�t�'JWF�SPWFO�"QQSPBDIFT�UP�PMWJOH�PVHI�"MHPSJUIN�VFTUJPOTt�FO�JTUBLFT�$BOEJEBUFT�BLF����"OE�)PX�UP�"WPJE�IFNt�UFQT�UP�SFQBSF�GPS�#FIBWJPSBM�BOE�FDIOJDBM�VFTUJPOTt�*OUFSWJFX�BS�UPSJFT��"�JFX�GSPN�UIF�*OUFSWJFXFS�T�JEF(BZMF�BBLNBOOGAYLELAAKMANNFounderandCEO,CareerCupcomprogramminginterviewquestionsandsolutionsPlus:t�Fiveprovenapproachestosolvingtoughalgorithmquestionst�Tenmistakescandidatesmakeandhowtoavoidthemt�Stepstoprepareforbehavioralandtechnicalquestionst�Interviewerwarstories:aviewfromtheinterviewer’ssideFOURTHEDITIONCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWCRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEWProgrammingInterviewQuestionsandSolutionsGAYLELAAKMANNFounderandCEO,CareerCupcomCareerCup,LLCSeattle,WACRACKINGTHECODINGINTERVIEW,FOURTHEDITIONCopyright©byGayleLaakmannAllrightsreservedPublishedbyCareerCup,LLC,Seattle,WAVersionVisitourwebsiteat:wwwcareercupcomNopartofthisbookmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwithoutwrittenpermissionexceptinthecaseofbriefquotationsincriticalarticlesorreviewsFormoreinformation,contactsupportcareercupcomPrintedinUnitedStatesofAmerica(ISBN)CrackingtheCodingInterviewBCMF�PG�$POUFOUT'PSFXPSE���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������*OUSPEVDUJPO�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������#FIJOE�UIF�DFOFT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������TheMicrosoftInterviewTheAmazonInterviewTheGoogleInterviewTheAppleInterviewTheYahooInterview*OUFSWJFX�BS�UPSJFT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������#FGPSF�UIF�*OUFSWJFX�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������ResumeAdviceBehavioralPreparationTechnicalPreparationIF�*OUFSWJFX�BOE�#FZPOE���������������������������������������������������������������������������HandlingBehavioralQuestionsHandlingTechnicalQuestionsFiveAlgorithmApproachesTheOfferandBeyondTopTenMistakesCandidatesMakeFrequentlyAskedQuestions*OUFSWJFX�VFTUJPOT�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������BUB�USVDUVSFT��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter|ArraysandStringsChapter|LinkedListsChapter|StacksandQueuesChapter|TreesandGraphs$PODFQUT�BOE�"MHPSJUINT�������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter|BitManipulationChapter|BrainTeasersCareerCupcomBCMF�PG�$POUFOUTChapter|ObjectOrientedDesignChapter|RecursionChapter|SortingandSearchingChapter|MathematicalChapter|TestingChapter|SystemDesignandMemoryLimits,OPXMFEHF�#BTFE�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter|CChapter|JavaChapter|DatabasesChapter|LowLevelChapter|NetworkingChapter|ThreadsandLocks"EEJUJPOBM�FWJFX�SPCMFNT���������������������������������������������������������������������Chapter|ModerateChapter|HardPMVUJPOT�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������*OEFY������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������PDL�*OUFSWJFXT����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������"CPVU�UIF�"VUIPS��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������CareerCupcom'PSFXPSEDearReaders,WelcometothetheditionofCrackingtheCodingInterviewThisvolumeupdatestherdeditionwithnewcontentandrefreshedinformationBesuretocheckoutourwebsite,wwwcareercupcom,toconnectwithothercandidatesandtodiscovernewresourcesForthoseofyounewtotechnicalinterviews,theprocesscanseemoverwhelmingInterviewersthrowquestionsatyou,expectyoutowhipupbrilliantalgorithmsonthespot,andthenaskyoutowritebeautifulcodeonawhiteboardLuckily,everyoneelseisinthesameboat,andyou’realreadyworkinghardtoprepareGoodjob!Asyougetreadyforyourinterviews,considerthesesuggestions:�»SJUF�$PEF�PO�BQFS��Mostinterviewerswon’tgiveyouacomputerandwillinsteadexpectyoutowritecodeonawhiteboardoronpaperTosimulatethisenvironment,tryansweringinterviewproblemsbywritingcodeonpaper!rst,andthentypingthemintoacomputerasisWhiteboardpapercodingisaspecialskill,whichcanbemasteredwithconstantpractice�»,OPX�:PVS�FTVNF��Whiletechnicalskillsareextremelyimportant,that’snoreasontoneglectyourownresumeMakesuretoprepareyourselftogiveaquicksummaryofanyprojectorjobyouwereinvolvedwith,andtodiscussthehardestandmostinterestingproblemsyouencounteredalongtheday�»PO�U�FNPSJF�PMVUJPOT��Whilethisbooko$ersarepresentativesampleofinterviewquestions,therearestillthousandsofinterviewquestionsoutthereMemorizingsolutionsisnotagreatuseofyourtimeRather,usethisbooktoexploreapproachestoproblems,tolearnnewconcepts,andtopracticeyourskills�»BML�VU�PVE��Interviewerswanttounderstandhowyouthinkandapproachproblems,sotalkoutloudwhileyou’resolvingproblemsLettheinterviewerseehowyou’retacklingtheproblem,andtheyjustmightguideyouaswell"OE�SFNFNCFS����JOUFSWJFXT�BSF�IBSE���InmyyearsofinterviewingatGoogle,Isawsomeinterviewersask“easy”questionswhileothersaskharderquestionsButyouknowwhatGettingtheeasyquestionsdoesn’tmakeitanyeasiertogettheo$erReceivingano$erisnotaboutsolvingquestions"awlessly(veryfewcandidatesdo!),butrather,itisaboutansweringquestionsbetterthanothercandidatesSodon’tstressoutwhenyougetatrickyquestioneveryoneelseprobablythoughtitwashardtoo!I'mexcitedforyouandfortheskillsyouaregoingtodevelopThoroughpreparationwillgiveyouawiderangeoftechnicalandcommunicationskillsItwillbewellworthitnomatterwherethee$orttakesyou!Studyhard,practice,andgoodluck!GayleLaakmannCrackingtheCodingInterview*OUSPEVDUJPOPNFUIJOH�T�SPOHWewalkedoutofthehiringmeetingfrustrated,againOftheten“passable”candidateswereviewedthatday,nonewouldreceiveo$ersWerewebeingtooharsh,wewonderedI,inparticular,wasdisappointedWehadrejectedoneofmycandidatesAformerstudentOnewhoIhadreferredHehadaGPAfromtheUniversityofWashington,oneofthebestcomputerscienceschoolsintheworld,andhaddoneextensiveworkonopensourceprojectsHewasenergeticHewascreativeHeworkedhardHewassharpHewasatruegeek,inallthebestwaysBut,Ihadtoagreewiththerestofthecommittee:thedatawasn’tthereEvenifmyemphaticrecommendationwouldswaythemtoreconsider,hewouldsurelygetrejectedinthelaterstagesofthehiringprocessTherewerejusttoomanyred"agsThoughtheinterviewersgenerallybelievedthathewasquiteintelligent,hehadstruggledtodevelopgoodalgorithmsMostsuccessfulcandidatescould"ythroughthe!rstquestion,whichwasatwistonawellknownproblem,buthestruggledtodevelophisalgorithmWhenhecameupwithone,hefailedtoconsidersolutionsthatoptimizedforotherscenariosFinally,whenhebegancoding,he"ewthroughthecodewithaninitialsolution,butitwasriddledwithmistakesthathethenfailedtocatchThoughhewasn’ttheworstcandidatewe'dseenbyanymeasure,hewasfarfrommeeting“thebar”RejectedWhenheaskedforfeedbackoverthephoneacoupleofweekslater,IstruggledwithwhattotellhimBesmarterNo,IknewhewasbrilliantBeabettercoderNo,hisskillswereonparwithsomeofthebestI'dseenLikemanymotivatedcandidates,hehadpreparedextensivelyHehadreadKR’sclassicCbookandhe'dreviewedCLRS'famousalgorithmstextbookHecoulddescribeindetailthemyriadofwaysofbalancingatree,andhecoulddothingsinCthatnosaneprogrammershouldeverwanttodoIhadtotellhimtheunfortunatetruth:thosebooksaren’tenoughAcademicbooksprepareyouforfancyresearch,butthey’renotgoingtohelpyoumuchinaninterviewWhyI'llgiveyouahint:yourinterviewershaven’tseenRedBlackTreessincetheywereinschooleitherTocrackthecodinginterview,youneedtopreparewithrealinterviewquestionsYoumustpracticeonrealproblems,andlearntheirpatternsCrackingtheCodingInterviewistheresultofmy!rsthandexperienceinterviewingattopcompaniesItistheresultofhundredsofconversationswithcandidatesItistheresultofthethousandsofcandidateandinterviewercontributedquestionsAndit’stheresultofseeingsomanyinterviewquestionsfromsomany!rmsEnclosedinthisbookareofthebestinterviewquestions,selectedfromthousandsofpotentialproblemsCareerCupcom*OUSPEVDUJPOZ�"QQSPBDIThefocusofCrackingtheCodingInterviewisalgorithm,codinganddesignquestionsWhyBecausewhileyoucanandwillbeaskedbehavioralquestions,theanswerswillbeasvariedasyourresumeLikewise,whilemany!rmswillasksocalled“trivia”questions(eg,“Whatisavirtualfunction”),theskillsdevelopedthroughpracticingthesequestionsarelimitedtoveryspeci!cbitsofknowledgeThebookwillbrie"ytouchonsomeofthesequestions,toshowyouwhatthey’relike,butIhavechosentoallocatespacewherethere’smoretolearnZ�BTTJPOTeachingismypassionIlovehelpingpeopleunderstandnewconcepts,andgivingthemtoolssothattheycanexcelintheirpassionsMy!rstexperience“ocially”teachingwasincollegeattheUniversityofPennsylvania,whenIbecameateachingassistantforanundergraduateComputerSciencecourseduringmysecondyearIwentontoTAforseveralothercourses,andeventuallylaunchedmyownCScourseattheuniversityfocusedon“handson”skillsAsanengineeratGoogle,trainingandmentoring“Nooglers”(yes,that’sreallywhattheycallnewGoogleemployees!)weresomeofthethingsIenjoyedmostIwentontousemy“time”toteachtwoComputerSciencecoursesattheUniversityofWashingtonCrackingtheCodingInterviewand$BSFFS$VQ�DPNre"ectmypassionforteachingEvennow,youcanoften!ndme“hangingout”atCareerCupcom,helpinguserswhostopbyforassistanceJoinusGayleLaakmannCrackingtheCodingInterview#FIJOE�UIF�DFOFTFormanycandidates,interviewingisabitofablackboxYouwalkin,yougetpoundedwithquestionsfromavarietyofinterviewers,andthensomehoworotheryoureturnwithanofferornotHaveyoueverwondered:»Howdodecisionsgetmade»Doyourinterviewerstalktoeachother»WhatdoesthecompanyreallycareaboutWell,wondernomore!CareerCupsoughtoutinterviewingexpertsfrom!vetopcompaniesMicrosoft,Google,Amazon,YahooandAppletoshowyouwhatreallyhappens“behindthescenes”Theseexpertswillwalkusthroughatypicalinterviewdayanddescribewhat’stakingplaceoutsideoftheinterviewingroom,andwhathappensafteryouleaveOurinterviewingexpertsalsotolduswhat’sdi$erentabouttheirinterviewprocessFrombarraisers(Amazon)toHiringCommittees(Google),eachcompanyhasitsownquirksKnowingtheseidiosyncrasieswillhelpyoutoreactbettertoasupertoughinterviewer,ortoavoidbeingintimidatedwhentwointerviewersshowupatthedoor(Apple!)Inaddition,ourspecialistso$eredinsightastowhattheircompanystressesintheirinterviewsWhilealmostallsoftware!rmscareaboutcodingandalgorithms,somecompaniesfocusmorethanothersonspeci!caspectsoftheinterviewWhetherthisisbecauseofthecompany’stechnologyoritshistory,nowyou'llknowwhatandhowtoprepareSo,joinusaswetakeyoubehindthescenesatMicrosoft,Google,Amazon,YahooandAppleCareerCupcom#FIJOE�UIF�DFOFT��TheMicrosoftInterviewMicrosoftwantssmartpeopleGeeksPeoplewhoarepassionateabouttechnologyYouprobablywon’tbetestedontheinsandoutsofCAPIs,butyouwillbeexpectedtowritecodeontheboardInatypicalinterview,you'llshowupatMicrosoftatsometimeinthemorningand!lloutinitialpaperworkYou'llhaveashortinterviewwitharecruiterwhereheorshewillgiveyouasamplequestionYourrecruiterisusuallytheretoprepyou,andnottogrillyouontechnicalquestionsBenicetoyourrecruiterYourrecruitercanbeyourbiggestadvocate,evenpushingtoreinterviewyouifyoustumbledonyour!rstinterviewTheycan!ghtforyoutobehiredornot!Duringtheday,you'lldofouror!veinterviews,oftenwithtwodi$erentteamsUnlikemanycompanies,whereyoumeetyourinterviewersinaconferenceroom,you'llmeetwithyourMicrosoftinterviewersintheiroceThisisagreattimetolookaroundandgetafeelfortheteamcultureDependingontheteam,interviewersmayormaynotsharetheirfeedbackonyouwiththerestoftheinterviewloopWhenyoucompleteyourinterviewswithateam,youmightspeakwithahiringmanagerIfso,that’sagreatsign!ItlikelymeansthatyoupassedtheinterviewswithaparticularteamIt’snowdowntothehiringmanager’sdecisionYoumightgetadecisionthatday,oritmightbeaweekAfteroneweekofnowordfromHR,sendthemafriendlyemailaskingforastatusupdateDenitelyPrepare:“WhydoyouwanttoworkforMicrosoft”Inthisquestion,Microsoftwantstoseethatyou’repassionateabouttechnologyAgreatanswermightbe,“I’vebeenusingMicrosoftsoftwareaslongasIcanremember,andI'mreallyimpressedathowMicrosoftmanagestocreateaproductthatisuniversallyexcellentForexample,I’vebeenusingVisualStudiorecentlytolearngameprogramming,andit’sAPIsareexcellent”Notehowthisshowsapassionfortechnology!What’sUnique:You'llonlyreachthehiringmanagerifyou’vedonewell,butifyoudo,that’sagreatsign!CrackingtheCodingInterview#FIJOE�UIF�DFOFT��TheAmazonInterviewAmazon’srecruitingprocessusuallybeginswithoneortwophonescreensinwhichyouinterviewwithaspeci!cteamTheengineerwhointerviewsyouwillusuallyaskyoutowritesimplecodeandreaditaloudonthephoneTheywillaskabroadsetofquestionstoexplorewhatareasoftechnologyyou’refamiliarwithNext,you"ytoSeattleforfouror!veinterviewswithoneortwoteamswhichhaveselectedyoubasedonyourresumeandphoneinterviewsYouwillhavetocodeonawhiteboard,andsomeinterviewerswillstressotherskillsInterviewersareeachassignedaspeci!careatoprobeandmayseemverydi$

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