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首页 口译和笔译的不同

口译和笔译的不同.ppt

口译和笔译的不同

faithwl36
2011-01-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《口译和笔译的不同ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

INTRODUCTIONTOINTERPRETATIONINTRODUCTIONTOINTERPRETATION课程简介口译与笔译的不同口译与笔译的不同工作环境不同:口译具有很强的现场性和时限性。口译员必须面对公众现场翻译而笔译的工作环境则无限制。口译一般有很强的时限性口译员一般不能对已经翻译过的内容进行大量的更正和补充除非发现重大错漏。而在笔译中译者大多有充足的时间反复阅读原文翻译完初稿后还可以反复修改润色直到译者满意为止。工作方法不同口译员通常独自工作口译时一般无法求助于他人也没时间查阅词典或其他材料。而笔译员则可以随时查阅各种参考书反复斟酌也可请教相关领域的专家。反馈形式不同口译是现场的翻译活动。译员面对讲话人和听众可以随时从他们的面部表情、情绪、手势和其他身势语中接收到反馈信息译员可根据现场的情况和听众的反馈及时调整自己的音量、语速、用词等。而笔译员在翻译过程中一般没有机会与作者和读者面对面进行交流也无法根据他们的反馈进行调整和修改。质量标准不尽相同笔译讲究“信、达、雅”口译则强调“准、顺、快”。“准”即准确指准确理解原语信息并即时将其译成目的语。“顺”即通顺指译员在用目的语表达原语信息时要通顺流畅符合语言表达规范。“快”即译员反应要快讲话者的话音刚落译员就要开始翻译。另外口译质量的判定还取决于参与交际的各方(如讲者、听者和雇主)从各个角度所认定的交际效果。WhytoBeaProfessionalInterpreterWhytoBeaProfessionalInterpreterGoods:GoodplacestovisitGoodfoodtoeatGoodmoneytomakeGoodpeopletomeetACompetentInterpreter:ACompetentInterpreter:isagoodpublicspeakerenjoysboththespotlightandthescenebehindworksunderpressurereactsandadaptstothesurroundingsdresseswellbutquietneverpresumesthathesheknowsmorethanthespeakerwaitpatientlyforthetimetocomewhatInterpretationmeanswhatInterpretationmeansacommunicationbdistinguishthattheterm“translate”,“translator”or“translation”isusedwhentheimmediateresultoftheworkisawrittentextandtheterm“interpret”,“interpreter”or“interpretation”,whentheimmediateresultisaspeechreproducedorallyinalanguageHistoryofconferenceinterpretingHistoryofconferenceinterpretingL’interprétationdeconférenceadébutéenàlaConférencedelapaixdeParisoùlaLiguedesNations(LN)etsesorganes,laCourpermanentedejusticeinternationaleetl’Organisationinternationaledutravail(OIT),ontétéconçuscommelesinstrumentsd’unenouvellediplomatiequiexerceraitdésormaisaumoyendeconférencesABSTRACTConferenceinterpretingbeganattheParisPeaceConference,wheretheLeagueofNations(LN)anditsoffsprings,thePermanentCourtofInternationalJusticeandtheInternationalLabourOrganization(ILO),weredesignedastoolsofanewdiplomacybyconferencesHighlightstwooftheearliestmilestonesinsimultaneousinterpreting(theNurembergTrialsandTokyoTrials)focusingonconferenceinterpretingItisoftenarguedthatthefirstWarCrimesTrial(NurembergTrial)couldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutsimultaneousinterpretationTypesandcriteriaofinterpretingTypesandcriteriaofinterpretingsimultaneousinterpreting:tointerpretwhiletheoriginalspeechisbeingmadeConferenceinterpretationrequireratherexpensiveandhighlysophisticatedsetsofelectronicequipmentwhisperinginterpreting:itissometimesusedat“smallmeetings”(egasubcommitteeoradraftingcommittee)oratameetingwherenoarrangementorequipmentforeitherconsecutiveorsimultaneousinterpretationismadesightinterpreting:alsoonsightinterpretationsimilartosimultaneousinterpretationThenotabledifferenceisthatindoingsightinterpretation,theinterpreterservingtheinternationalmeetinghasawrittentextinfrontofhimhertobeinterpretedintothetargetlanguagewhiletheoriginalspeakerisreadingthesametextCriteriaCriteriaaccuracyandfluencyProceduresofinterpretingProceduresofinterpretingreception→decoding→memory→encoding→expressionalso:understandingtransferencespeakingThemaindifficultyThemaindifficultyThemaindifficultywithinterpretationisthatitisimpossibletodoitperfectlyAllveteraninterpretersagreethatwithpropertrainingandlongyearsofpractice,onecanachieveafairlyhighdegreeofcompetencyininterpretation口译能力的构成口译能力的构成A智力因素双语支柱外语:听力是基础个tapehours词汇量、语法知识、阅读理解能力汉语:词汇量、措辞能力、组句能力、修辞能力、文学修养、古汉语知识宽广的知识面:要了解百科基本知识具备社会科学、人文科学和自然科学领域内的一般知识关注国内外的时政新闻和热点话题:科技进步、种族冲突、经济全球化等。Knoweverythingofsomething,andsomethingofeverything跨文化意识:口译是跨语言、跨文化的交际活动其最终目的是要让听众和讲话人达到思想文化的交流。B非智力因素心理素质身体素质态度责任心口译员基本素质口译员基本素质扎实的双语基本功广博的知识面熟练掌握口译技巧(关键素质)出众的记忆力(首先事先要记住大量词汇、典故、成语、缩略词等其次工作中必须依靠记忆和笔记的结合)快速学习知识和运用知识的能力(非专家需要在短时间内进行高强度的学习并能在口译时运用自如。)过硬的身体素质和良好的心理素质(极耗费脑力和体力要有健康的体魄和旺盛的精力以保证长时间工作且不会因舟车劳顿或到处奔波而影响发挥。要有良好的心理素质能够承受压力做到不怯场、不心慌以防因紧张甚至失控而影响口译质量。)敏捷的思维能力(以快速、正确地分析理解接收到的信息)、快速的反应能力(以迅速完成原语到译入语的准确转换)和灵活的应变能力(在有限的时间内妥善处理随时出现的突发事件如出错。)PrerequisitesPrerequisitesPrerequisitesforInterpretation(asdistinctfromthosefortranslation)orBasicrequirementsforinterpreters:quitewitted,calm,resourcefulProfessionalcodesofconductProfessionalcodesofconduct)Strongsenseofresponsibilityandgoodprofessionalethics:strongsenseofduty:preconferencepreparation,conscientiousinfollowingtheoriginalspeakerandfurnishingthebestpossiblerendition,conscientiousinabidingbytheprofessionalethicsimprovehiscompetency)Linguisticcompetenceandphoneticcompetence:linguisticproficiencymeansafairlygoodcommandofthelanguagesinvolvedandagoodcommandoftheculturesofthelanguagesinvolvedSpecifically,interalia,acutehearing,exceptionallylargevocabulary,precisionandflexibilityofexpression,goodarticulationandelocutionProfessionalcodesofconductProfessionalcodesofconduct)Encyclopedicknowledgeandsubjectknowledge:tohavesomeknowledgeinallthemultifariousfields)Outstandingmemoryandnotetakingability:Twothingsareusuallyexpectedofaninterpreter’smemory(a)itshouldstoreupanexceptionallylargevocabularyandagreatwealthofrelevantimportantformulationsalongwiththecorrespondingcorrecttranslationinthetargetlanguage(b)itshouldaccuratelyabsorbandretaintheideaNotetaking:twodistinctfeatures:tosupplementmemoryefficiencyessentiallyindividualincharacteranarduousprocessoftrainingandcoachingintegratedwithanenormousamountofpracticeiscalledforTheobjectofnotetakingistosupplementmemory,astoensureaccuracyininterpretingProfessionalcodesofconductProfessionalcodesofconduct)Quitewittedness:allthefacilityisdeniedaninterpretoratworkWhereas,aconsecutiveinterpretorisevendeniedthelastresort“Ibegyoupardon”Timeistheonlyfactorthatdistinguishestranslationfrominterpretation)Crossculturalawareness)CalmnessTrainingandmasteryofinterpretingskillsTrainingandmasteryofinterpretingskills)MemorytrainingaSourcelanguagerepetitionbTargetlanguagerepetitioncShadowingdLogicanalysis)Figuretraining)Notetaking)Sightinterpreting)Trainingofvarioustranslationskills:GenuineknowledgecomesfrompracticePracticehasledustobelievethatcompetenceininterpretationcan'tbeattainedbymerelyreadingessaysorbooksonthesubjectStepbystep,persistentandintensiveinterpretationpracticeisessentialInterpretersareMadenotBornInterpretersareMadenotBornConferenceinterpreter(CI)trainingsincetheNurembergTrials,wheresimultaneousinterpretationwassuccessfullyusedonawidescaleforthefirsttimeTheestablishmentofinterpretingschoolsanddevelopmentoftheCIcurriculumandtrainingparadigmarefollowedthroughtothepresentdayTheroleplayedbyAIICinestablishingtheCItrainingparadigmviasymposia,workshopsandpublicationsL’Histoiredel’AssociationInternationaledesInterprètesdeConférence(AIIC)L’Histoiredel’AssociationInternationaledesInterprètesdeConférence(AIIC)AsAIICevolvedanditsmembershipincreasedtoaboutmembersaroundtheworld,sodiditscomplexityItsevolutionmirrorsthecomingofageofaprofessionwiththeconcomitantchallengesthateveryprofessionandprofessionalorganizationmustfacetoday:safeguardingstandardsofquality,maintainingandimprovingworkingconditions,theforcesofderegulationandchangesbroughtaboutbynewtechnologiesAIICcanlookbackonsolidaccomplishmentscoveringmosteveryfacetoftheprofession,itsachievementsservingprofessionalinterpretersaroundtheworld,whethertheyaremembersofAIICornotBriefHistoryofConferenceInterpretingBriefHistoryofConferenceInterpretingDuringtheParisPeaceConference,CIdebutedofficiallyIBMfirstpatentedSIasatechniqueinIn,SIforEnglish,French,RussianandGermanusedfullscaleattheNurembergtrialSIhasbeenwithUNsinceInterpretingasaprofession:thefoundationofInternationalAssociationofConferenceInterpreters(AIIC)inChinesewasacceptedasaworkinglanguageinlatesInterpretationinChina舌人口译的主要形式口译的主要形式根据信息的传递形式可分为交替传译(连续传译)consecutiveinterpreting同声传译simultaneousinterpreting根据口译的场合和内容可分口译为会议口译conferenceinterpreting商务口译businessinterpreting法庭口译courtinterpreting媒体口译mediainterpreting社区口译communityinterpreting电话口译telephoneinterpreting

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口译和笔译的不同

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