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首页 北二外语篇分析课件Discourse Analysis

北二外语篇分析课件Discourse Analysis.ppt

北二外语篇分析课件Discourse Analysis

th_calla314
2011-01-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《北二外语篇分析课件Discourse Analysisppt》,可适用于人文社科领域

DiscourseAnalysisDiscourseAnalysisLecturesforthethyearstudentsDiscourseAnalysisDiscourseAnalysis:Introduction:BasicissuesinDA:Texture(Halliday’sTheory):Texture(BeaugrandeDressler’sTheory):Cohesionandcoherence:Thematicandinformationstructure:TenseandAspect:Discoursestructure:Conversationanalysis:Discourseandcontext:DAinapplication:IntroductionAgeneralunderstanding:IntroductionAgeneralunderstandingWhenCameintobeingsincesasanindependentdisciplinesincesWhattostudyLanguageunitslargerthansentences,includingbothwrittenandspokenlanguage:IntroductiondevelopmentofDA:IntroductiondevelopmentofDATextLinguisticsTextlinguistics(ordiscourselinguistics)developedonthebasisofsyntax(句法学)Soitisalsocalledtextgrammar(篇章语法)ordiscourseanalysis(语篇分析话语分析):IntroductiondevelopmentofDA:IntroductiondevelopmentofDAStages()ThePreparatoryStage(s):Harris()TheDevelopmentalStage(orTheEmergenceofDiscourseAnalysisAsANewDiscipline)(s):Halliday()TheMaturedStage(s):GYule,TGivon,SThompson,JSPetofi,WChafe,WMann,RLongacre,etcinAmericaGBrown,VanDijk,MCoulthard,JSinclair,EVentola,etcinwesternEuropeMAKHalliday,RHasan,JMartin,C,Matthiessen,etcinAustaliaMBakhtininRussia廖秋忠,陈平,胡壮麟,沈家煊,顾曰国,任绍曾,申丹黄国文,张德禄,朱永生等。:Introductiondefinition:IntroductiondefinitionTheCommonSenseDefinitionsTheTheoreticalDefinitions:formalist:discourseusaparticularunitoflanguage(abovethesentence)functionalist:discourseisdefinedasaparticularfocusonlanguageuse:Introductiondefinition:IntroductiondefinitionFormalist:LanguageabovethesentenceFunctionalist:LanguageuseDiscourse:utterances:Introductioncharacteristics:IntroductioncharacteristicsdiscoursemustbegrammaticallycorrectandsemanticallycoherentdiscourseshouldhaveanargumentativestructureandlogicalstructureitisgenerallyheldthattheboundaryofdiscourseanalysisshouldexceedthelimitofasimplesentenceHallidayandHasan()proposethatdiscourseisasemanticunit,notaunitofformIntroduction:TextDiscourseIntroduction:TextDiscourseDifferentdefinitionstotextdiscourse:HallidayHasan(),Quirketal():textforbothwrittenandspokenlanguageCoulthard():textforwritten,discourseforspokenLeechetal():discourseforbothWiddowson():discourseforwritten:IntroductionTheTaskofDA:IntroductionTheTaskofDAFromthemacroperspective:Howdoeslanguageuseinfluencebeliefsandinteraction,orviceversaHowdoaspectsofinteractioninfluencehowpeoplespeakHowdobeliefscontrollanguageuseandinteraction?Whataretherelationshipsamonglanguageuse,beliefsandinteraction:IntroductionTheTaskofDA:IntroductionTheTaskofDAFromthemicroperspective:(a)thesemanticlinksbetweensentences,(b)textualcohesionandcoherence,(c)conversationalprinciples,(d)therelationshipbetweendiscourseandcontext,(e)therelationshipbetweenthediscoursesemanticstructureandideology,(f)therelationshipbetweendiscourseandthinkingpatterns,etc:IntroductionVarietiesofApproachesTowardsDA:IntroductionVarietiesofApproachesTowardsDAInsociologyInphilosophyIncognitivepsychologyInliteratureInlinguisticsIncriticallinguisticstudyIncognitivelinguistics:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDACohesionCoherenceSentence,sentencegroupandtextPatternsofsententialrelationshipsDiscoursestructureDAlevels:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDACohesion:AimportantfeatureoftexturerealizedatthesurfacestructureofatextToberealizedbyusinggrammaticaldevices(egreference,substitutionandellipses,etc)andlexicaldevices(egreiterationandcollocation,etc)Atangiblenetworkofthetext:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDACoherence:Thesemanticrelationinatextlyinginnotonthesurfacebutthedeeplevelofthetextrealizedbylogicalreasoninganintangiblenetworkofthetext:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDACohesion:A:WhoseisthispenB:Oh,it’stheoneIlostCoherence:A:That’sthetelephoneB:I’minthebathA:OK:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDASentence,sentencegroupandtextSentence:thelargestgrammaticalunitSG:composedbyormoresentencesClause:Clausecomplex:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDASententialrelationships:ThestructuralandsemanticrelationsbetweensentencesinacoherenttextClausecomplexes:Asentencecanbeinterpretedasaclausecomplex:aHeadclausetogetherwithotherclausesthatmodifyitTheclausecomplexwillbetheonlygrammaticalunitwhichweshallrecognizeabovetheclause(Halliday,):BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDABasictypesofclausecomplexes:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDATwosystemicdimensions:Thesystemofinterdependency:parataxisandhypotaxisThelogicosemanticsystem:expansionandprojection:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDADiscoursestructure“Thisnoiseisgivingmeaheadache”“Me,too!”*“It’sgoingtorainsoon”“Me,too!”:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDADiscoursestructurelinearization(线性表现)IcameIsawIconquered(JuliusCaesar)ThepolicemanhelduphishandThecarstopped:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDADiscoursestructurebasicrelationalstructures(基本关系结构)(Quirk,)generalandparticular:WorkinginwoodcallsforgreatmanualskillTheordinarysawitselfisnoteasytohandleTheordinaryhouseholdsawisnoteasytouseInfact,anysortofwoodworkcallsforgreatmanualskillManyoftheaudiencebecameopenlyhostileForexamplemyunclewrotealettertothemanagementnextday:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDAprogression(递进)(以时间先后、推理起结为序)WangChinggetsupathalfpastsixHedresses,washesandgoesouttodomorningexercisesThenhehasbreakfastHemustbeBob’sbrotherIrememberhe’sgotabigrednoseFirst,boilthericeinwellsaltedwaterdrainitimmediatelyNext,…:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDALevelsofDAphonologicallevelSuprasegmentalfeatures:stress,duration,quantity,quality,pitch,juncture,transition,pause,intonation,rhythmAdspoems:alliteration,assonance,consonance,reverserhyme,pararhyme,rhymePhonologicaldeviation:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDAgraphologicallevelLayout,shape,presentation,arrangementofsentences,etclexicalsemanticlevelWordformation,wordcomplexity,wordstylisticfeatures,wordsemanticfeatures,etc:BasicissuesinDA:BasicissuesinDAsyntacticlevelSentencetype,sentencecomplexity,sentencearrangementandthedistributionandgivenandnewinformation,etctextuallevelTextstructureetcleveloftextualorientationTherelationshipsamongthetime,placeandparticipantsofanarrativeeven,factuality,etc:Texture:TextureTextureisalsocalledtextualityTobeatext,itmusthavetextureWhatdoestexturemeanHowcanwedeterminewhetheratexthastextureornot:Texture:TextureTheStudyofTextureHalliday’sTheoryHalliday(:)said:“Atexthastexture(语篇特征)andthisiswhatdistinguishesitfromsomethingthatisnotatext…Thetextureisprovidedbythecohesiverelation”Forexample:WashandcoresixcookingapplesPutthemintoafireproofdishAccordingtoHalliday,thecohesiverelationsinclude:reference,substitution,ellipsisandlexicalrelationship:Texture:TextureReferenceReferenceisdividedintoendophoricreferenceandexophoricreferenceExphoricreferenceisalsocalledsituationalreferenceEndophoricreferenceisalsocalledtextualreferenceAccordingtoHalliday,onlyendophoricreferenceiscohesiveExphoricreferencecontributestothecreationoftext,butitdoesnotcontributetothecohesionofthetext,becauseexphoricreferencelinksthelanguagewiththecontextofsituationEndophoricreferenceincludesthreetypes:personal,demonstrative,andcomparative:Texture:TexturePersonalReferencereferencemadebypersonalpronounsincluding:I,me,my,mine,you,your,yours,he,him,his,she,her,hers,we,us,our,ours,they,them,their,theirs,etcLimerickTherewasayoungladyofNiger,WhosmiledassherodeonatigerTheyreturnedfromtherideWiththeladyinsideAndthesmileonthefaceofthetigerHeresheandtheyareanaphoric,‘pointing’respectivelytoayounglady,andayoungladyandatigerAnanaphoricrelationshipofthiskindcreatescohesionPresentedwiththesewords,thelistenerhastolookbackforitsinterpretationSothesewordshavetheeffectoflinkingthetwosentencesintoacohesiveunity:Texture:TextureDemonstrativeReferencereferencemadebythefollowingwordssuchasthe,this,that,these,those,here,there,etc,whichexpressesthedegreeofproximityEgInotherwords,economicalwritingisefficientandaestheticallysatisfyingWhileitmakesamaximumdemandontheenergyandpatienceofreaders,itreturnstothemamaximumofsharplycompressedmeaningYoushouldacceptthisasyourbasicresponsibilityasawriter:thatyouinflictnounnecessarywordsonyourreaders–justasadentistinflictsnounnecessarypain,alawyernounnecessaryriskHerethisiscataphoric,‘pointing’tothelatterpartofthesentence:Texture:TextureComparativeReferencereferencemadebythefollowingwordssuchassame,different,identical,similar,equal,equally,more,less,better,etc,whichexpressesIDENTITYorSIMILARITYAReasonableAfflictionMattewPriorOnhisdeathbedpoorLubinliesHisspouseisindespairWithfrequentsobsandmutualcriesTheybothexpresstheircare“Adifferentcause,”saysParsonSly,“Thesameeffectmaygive:PoorLubinfearsthathemaydieHiswife,thathemaylive”Heredifferentiscataphoric,‘pointing’forward,andsameisanaphoric,‘pointing’towhathasbeensaidinthefirstpartofthispoem:Texture:TextureEllipsisEllipsismeanssomethingleftunsaidTherearethreetypesofellipsis:nominalellipsis,verbalellipsisandclausalellipsis:Texture:TextureNominalEllipsisEllipsiswithinthenominalgroupThenominalgroupiscomposedofaHeadwiththeotherelements:Deictic,Numerative,Epithet,Classifier,andQualifierTheDeicticisnormallyadeterminersuchasthose,these,etc,theNumerativeanumeralorotherquantifiersuchastwo,four,etc,theEpithetanadjectivesuchasfast,etc,theClassifieranounoranadjectivesuchastrainintrainset,electric,etcThefunctionoftheHead,whichisalwaysfilled,isnormallyservedbythecommonnoun,propernounorpronounexpressingthethingUndercertaincircumstances,thecommonnounmaybeomittedandthefunctionoftheHeadistakenonbyoneoftheseotherelementsEgaHerearemytwowhitesilkscarvesbWhereareyoursAsforbyours(Deictic)isHead,andthepresupposedelementsincludenotonlyscarves(Thing)butalsosilk(Classifier),white(Epithet)andpossiblytwo(Numerative):Texture:TextureVerbalEllipsisEllipsiswithintheverbalgroupForexample:aHaveyoubeenplayingfootball–Yes,IhavebWhathaveyoubeendoing–PlayingfootballThetwoverbalgroupsintheanswers,havein(a)andplayingin(b)arebothinstancesofverbalellipsis:Texture:TextureClausalEllipsisClausalellipsisisrelatedtothequestionanswerprocessindialogue,whichdeterminesthattherearetwokindsofellipsis:yesnoellipsis,andWHellipsis:Texture:TextureYesNoEllipsisFirst,inayesnoquestionanswersequence,theanswermayinvolvetheellipsisofthewholeclauseForexample:SpurgeonMorefunnystoriesaretoldofSpurgeonthanperhapsanygreatpreacherHereisagoodoneHewascalledtothetelephonebyafriendwhosaid:“Haveyoureadthismorning’spaper”“Yes(Ihave)”“DidyouseeinitanoticethatIwasdead”“Yes(Idid)”“Whatdoyouthinkofit”“Don’tknow,”repliedSpurgeon“WhatIwanttoknowiswhereyouarespeakingfrom”Second,inayesnoquestionanswersequence,theremaybeellipsisofjustonepartofit,theResidueForexample:MustwehandinourpaperattheendofthistermOfcourseyoumust(handinyourpaperattheendofthisterm):Texture:TextureWHellipsisFirst,inaWHsequence,theentireclauseisusuallyomittedexceptfortheWHelementitself,ortheitemthatistheresponsetotheWHelement:“Whatdidyouthinkofthebird,Mother”heaskedeagerly“Delicious!”,hismothersaidSecond,sometimesinaWHclause,oritsresponse,theMoodelementisleftinandonlytheResidueisomittedForexample:WithWHSubjectWho’reatworknowIam(atworknow):Texture:TextureSubstitutionSubstitutionmeansthereplacementofoneitembyanotherTherearethreetypesofsubstitution:nominal,verbalandclausal:Texture:TextureNominalSubstitutionTheitemsthatoccurassubstitutesareone,ones,thesameForexample:Averyniceoldladyhadafewwordstosaytohergranddaughter“Mydear,”saidtheoldlady,‘IwishyouwoulddosomethingformeIwishyouwouldpromisemenevertousetwowordsOneis‘lousy’andtheotheris‘swell’Wouldyoupromisemethat”TheclimateinNorthernChinaisnotthesameasthatinSouthernChina:Texture:TextureVerbalSubstitutionTheverbalsubstituteinEnglishisdo,withtheusualmorphologicalvariantformsdo,does,did,doing,doneForexample:Shecansingaswellashedoes(does=sings)DoyouplayviolineverydayYes,Ido(do=playviolin)ThesubstitutedoisoftenusedwithsotosubstitutethePredicator,theObjectorthePredicatorandAdjunctHecansingmanyItaliansongs,butIcan’tdoso(doso=singmanyItaliansongs):Texture:TextureClausalSubstitutionWhatispresupposedisnotanelementwiththeclausebutanentireclauseThewordsusedassubstitutesaresoandnotSubstitutionofthe(Reported)ClauseWilltheyarriveontimeIhopeso(=Ihopetheywillarriveontime)SubstitutionofConditionalClauseConditionalclausesarefrequentlysubstitutedbysoandnot,especiallyfollowingifbutalsoinotherformssuchasassumingso,supposenotForexample:EveryoneseemstosupporthimIfso(=ifeveryonesupportshim),hewillbecometheprincipalofourschoolSubstitutionofModalizedClausesSoandnotcancombinewithsomemodaladverbs(egperhaps,certainly,probably)andoccurassubstitutesforclausesexpressingmodalityForexample:()–HavetheymarriedPerhapsnot(=Perhapstheyhaven’tmarried):Texture:TextureConjunctionConjunctionmeansthataclauseorclausecomplex,orsomelongerstretchoftext,mayberelatedtowhatfollowsitbyoneorotherofaspecificsetofsemanticrelations(orthedevicesofvariouslogicalrelation)Therearefourtypesofconjunction:additive,adversative,causal,andtemporal:Texture:TextureItookabath,dined,andthendozedfitfullyforawhile(additive)Lawand–orderisthelongestrunningandprobablythebestlovedpoliticalissueinUShistoryYetitispainfullyapparentthatmillionsofAmericanswhowouldneverthinkofthemselvesaslawbreakers,letalonecriminals(adversative)Redlightrunninghasalwaysbeenrankedasaminorwrong,andsoitmaybeinindividualinstances(Causal)SoonafterwardsthecloudsankdowntoearthandcoveredtheseaithadalreadyblottedoutCapriandhiddenthepromontoryofMisenumfromsightThenmymotherimplored,entreated,andcommandedmetoescapeasbestasIcould–ayoungmanmightescape,whereasshewasoldandslowandcoulddieinpeaceaslongasshehadnotbeenthecauseofmydeathtoo(temporal)Thewordsand,yet,soandthencanbetakenastypifyingthesefourgeneralconjunctiverelationsActuallyalotofwordscanbefoundwithinthesefourgeneralcategoriesofconjunction:Texture:TextureLexicalCohesionLexicalcohesionreferstotheselectionofitemsthatarerelatedinsomewaytothosethathavegonebeforeItincludesthefollowingdevicessuchasrepetition,synonymyantonymy,collocation,etc:Texture:TextureRepetitionRepetitionisthemostdirectformoflexicalcohesionItmeansthechoiceofthelexicalitemthatisinsomesensesimilartotheprecedingoneForexample:Theyoungmandoesnotlikebears,soyesterdayintheparkhegavethebearsomepoisonousfoodtoeatInaddition,therepeatedlexicalitemneednotbeinthesamemorphologicalshapeForexample,dine,dining,diner,dinnerareallthesameitem,andanoccurrenceofanyoneconstitutesarepetitionLookatanotherexample:ABarkingWifeAmanwhohadbeenmarriedfortenyearswasconsultingamarriagecounselor“WhenIwasfirstmarried,IwasveryhappyI’dcomehomefromaharddaydownattheshop,andmylittledogwouldracearoundbarking,andmywifewouldbringmemyslippersNoweverything’schangedWhenIcomehome,mydogbringsmemyslippers,andmywifebarksatme”“Idon’tknowwhatyou’recomplainingabout,”saidthecounselor“You’restillgettingthesameservice”Inthispassage,therearethreechainsoflexicalcohesion:marriedandmarriage,barkingandbarks,bringandbrings,whichsuggestthatmarrymarriedmarriage,barkbarksbarking,bringbringsarerespectivelyoneandthesamelexicalitem:Texture:TextureSynonymyandAntonymySynonymyLexicalcohesioncanresultfromthechoiceofalexicalitemthatisinsomesensesynonymouswithaprecedingoneforexamplejokeandstory,smiledandlaughedinthefollowingpassageTheJokeSirWilliamThompsonwasverydeafbuthedidnotlikepeopletoknowthisOneeveninghehadinvitedseveralfriendstodinner,andwhiletheyweresittingatthetable,oneofthefriendstoldafunnystoryEveryonelaughed,andSirWilliam,whohadlaughedasloudaseveryone,said,“Thatwasaveryfunnyjoke,butIknowafunnieroneWouldyouliketohearit”Theyallsaidtheywould,soSirWilliambeganhisstoryWhenitended,everyonelaughedlouderthaneverandSirWilliamsmiledhappilyButhedidn’tknowthereasonfortheirlaughterHehadtoldtheverysamestorythathisfriendhadjusttold:Texture:TextureWhatiscloselyrelatedwithsynonymyishyponym(下义词),whosemeaningisincludedintothecategoryofsuperordinate(上坐标词)Onesuperordinate(egflower)oftensubsumesseveral‘cohyponyms’:Flowerrosedaffodildaisydandelionsnowdrop…Thesuperordinateexpressesgeneralandabstractmeaningwhilethehyponymthespecificandconcretemeaning:Texture:TextureAnothersemanticrelationshipismeronym(局部词),whichseemstobecongruentwithhyponym,butinfacttherelationshipbetweenmeronymandsuperordinateisakindofpartwholeratherthanspecificgeneralForexample:Treeroottrunkbranchleaf…Ascanbeseen,root,trunk,branch,leaf,etcareagroupofcomeronyms:Texture:TextureCohesioncanalsoariseoutofthehyponymyandthemeronymForinstance:RavenousfishandtastyplanktonRainforestsdrippingwithnamelessreptiles,birdsglidingundercanopiesofleaves,insectsbuzzinglikeelectronsinanacceleratorFrostbeltswherevolesandle

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北二外语篇分析课件Discourse Analysis

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