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首页 地球图文解释 英文彩色高请原版

地球图文解释 英文彩色高请原版.pdf

地球图文解释 英文彩色高请原版

外语书籍
2010-12-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《地球图文解释 英文彩色高请原版pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

OpenyoureyestoaworldofdiscoveryEyeWonderEyeWonderWhereareweCrusttocoreMovingworldThetipsoftheworldThefiremountainEarthquake!TherockcycleVitalsurvivalDowntoearthNature’ssculpturesFlowofwaterContentsWrittenandeditedbyPenelopeYorkDesignedbyCherylTelferandHelenMelvilleManagingeditorSusanLeonardManagingarteditorCathyChessonJacketdesignChrisDrewPictureresearcherMarieOsbornProductionShivaniPandeyDTPdesignerAlmudenaDíazConsultantChrisPellantFirstAmericanEdition,PublishedintheUnitedStatesbyDKPublishing,IncHudsonStreetNewYork,NewYorkCopyright©DorlingKindersleyLimited,LondonAllrightsreservedunderInternationalandPanAmericancopyrightconventionsNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightownerPublishedinGreatBritainbyDorlingKindersleyLimitedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataYork,PenelopeEarthbyPenelopeYorkChrisPellant,consultantstAmericanedpcm(Eyewonder)IncludesindexSummary:AnintroductiontoplanetEarth,itsfeatures,andtheforcesthathaveshapedthemISBNISBNX(libbdg)EarthJuvenileliteratureEarthITitleIISeriesQBYdcISBN(plc)ISBNX(alb)ColorreproductionbyColourscan,SingaporePrintedandboundinItalybyLEGOSeeourcompleteproductlineatwwwdkcomLONDON,NEWYORK,MUNICH,MELBOURNE,andDELHIUnderworldsThepoweroficeThemightywaveTheoceanfloorEarth’streasuresEarth’singredientsGrounddetectivesDifferentworldsPlanetpollutionPlanetprotectionGlossaryIndexandacknowledgmentsWhereistheEarthGoodquestionLet’slookintospaceandfindoutwhereweareandwhatisaroundusThenwe’llzoomincloserWhereareweTheEarthfromspaceWhenwezoominandtakealookatourEarthfromspace,wecanseehowthecountriesandoceansarelaidoutYouaresomewheredownthereThisisaphotographoftheUnitedStatestakenbyasatelliteSpottingcitiesWhenwelookabitcloser,westarttoseebuiltupcityareasandgreencountryareasYouarenowlookingatFloridaCanyouseeanyoneyetVenusMarsSunEarthCanyouseethetownsLet’szoominontheEarthMercuryTheSolarSystemOurEarthisinthemiddleofafamilyofplanetsthatallmovearoundourSunWecallthistheSolarSystemSofar,lifehasnotbeendiscoveredonanyotherplanetsbesidesEarth,butitsoonmightbe!UranusNeptuneFindingpeopleZoominonahouseand,atlast,wecanseekids!NowlookbackattheEarth,andyou’llsoonrealizehowbigitisIt’sabsolutelyenormousHuntingdownhousesDivingdownabit,wecannowseeatowninFloridanextdoortothebeachButwestillcan’tseeanypeopledownthereWherearethepeopleJupiterSaturnCrusttocoreWethinkweknowsomuchabouttheEarthandevenaboutspace,butwhatliesbeneathourfeetImaginethattheEarthisanappleThecrustthatwestandonwouldbeasthickastheappleskinThatleavesalotofsomethingelseunderneathThecrustisthethinlayerofrockthatcoverstheEarthItcanbebetweenandmiles(andkm)thickThemantleisthelayerthatliesbelowthecrustThedeepermantleissolidrock,buttheupperlayersareplastic,movingrockAllaroundtheEarthisablanketcalledtheatmospherethatcontainstheairwebreathe•YoumaythinktheEarthisbig,buttheSuncouldswallowup,,Earths•IfyouwantedtowalkallthewayaroundtheEarthalongtheequator,thenitwouldtakeyouaboutawholeyear,nonstopYouwouldn’tevenbeabletosleep!EarthfactsGraniteBasaltPeridotiteTheEarth’ssurfaceEarthismadeupofrocksGraniteisatypicalcontinental(land)rockBasaltisatypicaloceanfloorrock,andperidotiteisamantlerockJourneytothecenteroftheEarthManhasonlydugaboutmiles(km)intotheEarth,whichisonlyaboutafivehundrethofthejourneytothecenterScientistscanonlyguesswhatisbeneath,butwedoknowthatitisvery,veryhotEarthmapAboutpercentoftheEarth’ssurfaceismadeupofland,whichisdividedintosevencontinents(apieceoflandthatisnotbrokenupbysea)TheseareNorthAmerica,SouthAmerica,Europe,Africa,Australasia,Asia,andAntarcticaPeopleonlyliveonpercentoftheEarth’ssurfaceTheoutercoreiscompletelyliquidItismadeofironandnickelTheinnercoreisaredhot,solidballofmoltenironandnickelthatis,°F(,°C)That’shot!MeltingmantleDeepdownunderthecrust,hot,moltenrockisconstantlyrisingupPartsofthemantlearesohotthattherockshavemeltedintoabutterlikeliquidPlatesThisiswhatthesevenbiggestplateslooklikewhentheyaretakenofftheEarthIftheplatesslippasteachother,theycancausetremorsorearthquakesontheEarth’ssurfaceTectonicplateisthenameforlargemovingpartsofcrustanduppermantleSpreadingboundaryiswheretwoplatesmoveapartandnewmaterialrisesupEarthwordsThecontinentsweknowtodaystartedtotakeshapemillionyearsagoThisiswhatthecontinentslookedlikemillionyearsagoThisistheEarthasitistodayWhatwillitlooklikeinanothermillionyearsUnderthecontinents,thecrustcanbeasmuchasmiles(kilometers)thickPlatelineThelinethattwoplatesrunalongsidebysideiscalledafaultWhentheplatesmoveagainsteachother,theycancreateearthquakes,volcanoes,orevenmountainsThecontinentsrideslowlyonplatesofcrustSlowprogressTheplatesdriftincertaindirectionsAstheyshift,theychangeinshapeandsize–thistakesmanymillionsofyearsSeewhattheEarthlookedlikemillionyearsagocomparedtotodayTheEarth’scrustismadeupofhugeplates,whichfittogetherlikeajigsawTheplateshavebeenmovingformillionsofyearsandstillshifttoday,withdramaticeffectsontheshapeofourplanet’ssurfaceMovingworldWithoutmountains,theEarthwouldlookfarlessspectacularAboutpercentoftheworld’slandsurfaceismadeupofamazinghighlandOldmountainsMountainsaremadewhentheEarth’scrustispushedupinbigfoldsorforcedupordowninblocksThemillionyearoldScottishHighlandsusedtobecraggyliketheHimalayas,below,butwindandrainhavewornthemdownTheplatepushesforwardslowlyovertheyears,makingmoreandmorefoldsThetipsoftheworldNewmountainsTheHimalayanMountains,inAsia,aregoodexamplesoffoldmountainsTheyaremillionyearsold,whichisrelativelynew!MountEverestintheHimalayasisthehighestpointonEarthThismodelshowshowplatespushtogether,fromtheleftside,forcingonesidetocrumpleintomountainsUnderwatermountainsLonglinesofislandsintheoceansareactuallythetipsofhugemountainranges,whichlieunderwaterTheislandofHawaii,MaunaKea,istheworld’stallestmountainfromthebottomoftheseatothetipBlockmountainsBlockmountainsareformedwhentheEarth’scrustismovedupordowninblocksMountRundle,BanffNationalPark,Canada,isaspectacularexampleofablockmountainFaultlinesoccurandablockdropsorliftstoproduceahighmountainandalowplainTheHimalayasarestillrisingby⁄in(mm)everyyearTheHimalayasbegantoformwhenIndiacollidedwithAsiaHawaiiisthetipofavery,verybigmountainMountainmakersAstheinsidesoftheEarthexplodeoutoftheground,thelavaandashsettle,andovertimeaperfectlyshapedmountainisformedIneffect,theEarthisturningalittlebitofitselfinsideoutThefiremountainThepressurebuildsupundergroundHot,liquidrock,calledmagma,findsitswaytoaweakpartbetweentheEarth’splatesandexplodesWelcometothevolcanoThebigkillerTheforceofanexplodingvolcanoisenormous–likeopeningacanofshaken,sodaChunksofmoltenrockasbigashousescanbeflunghighintotheair,anddustcantravelasmuchasmiles(km)highBubbletroubleInsomevolcanicareas,youcanseeheatcomingupfromunderthegroundMudbubblesandhotwaterjets,calledgeysers,shootuphighTheysometimessmellofrotteneggsbecauseofagascalledhydrogensulfideThelavathatburstsoutofavolcanoistimeshotterthanboilingwaterRiversoffireWhenmagmapoursoutofvolcanoes,itiscalledlavaItrollsslowlydownhillinahugeriver,burningeverythinginitspathWhenitcools,itsolidifiesintorock,calledigneousrockKILLERGASSometimesthegasthatcomesoutofavolcanoispoisonousInAD,MountVesuvius,Italy,eruptedviolentlyAcloudofgasrolleddownandpoisonedmanypeopleinPompeii,thetownatitsbaseAshburiedthemandcastshavebeenmadefromthespacesthebodiesleftEarthImaginewakinguponenighttofindthegroundtremblingandshakingThat’swhatit’sliketofeelanearthquakeThesesuddenmovementsintheEarth’splatescancauseterrifyingdamageThedeadlytsunamiWhenanearthquakehappensunderwater,vibrationscauseripplesintheseaTheygrowandgrowuntiltheyareenormous,deadlywaves,ortsunami,thatcrashontotheshoreWhosefaultAnearthquakeiscausedwhentwooftheEarth’splatesslideagainsteachotherThelinethattheyslidealongiscalledafaultWhentheymove,theycausevibrationsacrossthegroundShockwavescausedbyanearthquakearerecordedbyamachinecalledaseismometerquake!quake!EarthFaultlineDevastationEarthquakescanbesostrongthattheycausewholebuildingstocollapseChildrenwholiveinareasthathaveearthquakesaredrilledregularlyonhowtoremainsafeThemostpowerfulearthquakesareinJapanOneinkilled,peopleGeologistsdividetherocksthatmakeuptheEarth’scrustintothreegroups:igneous,sedimentary,andmetamorphicButtheyallcomefromthesameoriginalmaterial,whichmovesaroundinabigcycleTherockcycleIgneousrockGraniteandbasaltaretypicalexamplesofigneousrockTheystarttheirlivesasmeltedrock,suchasundergroundmagmaandlavathatcomesoutofvolcanoesOriginalrockIgneousrockeithercoolsdownandhardensbeneaththesurfaceoronthesurfacewheniteruptsfromavolcanoItisrockfromdeepintheEarth’scrustChalkisalsoatypeYoucanseethedifferentpiecesofsedimentinthislimestoneBreakdownLittlepiecesofigneousrockarebrokenoffbyrainandwindandarecarriedtotheseawheretheypileupaslayersofsedimentTheremainsofseacreaturesareburiedinthelayersandmaybecomefossilsMetamorphicrockMarbleisagoodexampleofthisrockItwasoncelimestonebeforeitwaschangedbyintenseheatWhenmarbleispolished,itproducesbeautifulswirlypatternsUnderpressureWhensedimentaryorigneousrocksaredraggeddeepintotheEarth’scrustbythemovingplates,theycangethot,changingthemintoanewrocktype–metamorphicIftherocksaretakensodeepthattheymelt,theyarebackwheretheystartedasmagmaThecyclestartsagainSedimentaryrockLimestoneandsandstonearetypicalsedimentaryrocksYoucanoftenseethelayersinabigpieceofrockwhentheyhavebeensquasheddownontheseabed,suchasinthisphotoofthePaintedDesertinArizonaofsedimentaryrockThismanischiselingasquarepieceofmarblefromamarblequarryinItalyVitalsurvivalAllaroundtheEarthisaprotectiveshieldcalledtheatmosphereItkeepsusfromburningundertheSunduringthedayandfromfreezingatnightWithinouratmosphereliethewaterandaircyclesWatergoesupandAirgoesinandoutWater,watereverywhereWatergoesupandwatercomesdownItisevaporatedintotheatmospherebytheSunandturnsintocloudsWhenthecloudscooldownhighupinthesky,rainfallsfromthemThewatercycleIt’sincredibletoimagine,butthewaterthatweuseeverydayisthesamewaterthatwasontheEarthmillionsofyearsagoItgoesupintotheclouds,andbackdowntoEarthasrain,andneverstopsitscycleTheaircycleTheairthatwebreatheisalsoinacontinuouscycleAnimalsbreatheinagascalledoxygenandbreatheoutcarbondioxideAllplantstakeincarbondioxideandmakeoxygendown,upanddownandaroundandaroundEssentialairBecauseoftheaircyclebetweenanimalsandplants,wecouldnotpossiblylivewithouteachotherWemaketheairforeachotherthatisvitalforlifeDowntoearthWithoutsoil,lifewouldbeimpossibleasnothingcangrowwithoutitSoilisthepartoftheEarththatliesbetweenusandthesolidbedrockOutofthesoilgrowmanyplantsAhandfulofsoilcontainsaboutsixbillionbacteria!WhatissoilSoilismadeupofrocks,minerals,deadplantsandanimals,tinycreatures,gases,andwaterAsplantsandanimalsdie,tinycreaturesandbacteriabreakthemdowntobecomesoilLayersofsoilIfyoucutasectionthroughthesoil,downtotherockbeneath,youwouldfindlotsoflayersThematerialnearestthetopistherichsoilneededforplantstogrow,andthebottomissolidrockUsefulsoilSoilcanbeusedinsomanyways,frommakingbrickstoprovidingclayforpottery,butitismostvitalforgrowingplantsforustoeatInSoutheastAsia,theybuildterracesonhillsidestostopsoilfromwashingawaywhenitrainsThesolidrockbelowthesoiliscalledbedrockThesubsoilhaslessgoodnessforplantstofeedonThisleveliscalledtopsoilItisrichinfoodforplantsandcontainslivingcreaturesAsyougetlower,thesoilbecomesrockierEssentialfoodPlantrootstakeinnutrientsandwaterfromthesoilPlantsneedtheseinordertomakefoodandgrowWrigglingwormsWormsarevitaltothesoilTheyeatdecayingplantsandanimalsanddepositthemintothesoilastheywrigglethroughitAstheytunnel,theyhelpthesoiltobreatheThemomentrockisexposedtoair,itisinseriousdangerofbeingreshapedWind,rain,air,andevenplants,allseemdeterminedtochangethelandscape,sometimeswithbeautifulresultsNature’ssculpturesFrostshatteringThisamazinglandscapewascarvedbyfrostWaterincracksintherockfreezesandexpandsandtherockshatters,leavingextraordinary,spikyshapesWhenair,wind,ice,orplantschangetheshapesofrock,itiscalled“weathering”LimestonepavementLimestoneisasoftrockthatisaffecteddramaticallybyrainwaterTheslightlyacidrainwaterchangesthelimestoneintoasofterrock,whichiswashedawayCracksgetlarger,andthegroundbecomesunevenWatchout!PlantattackTreessometimesspeeduprockcrackingwiththeirrootsAstherootsgrow,theycreepbetweencrackswhentheythicken,theyforcethecrackstoopenwiderPillarsoftheEarthThesestrangepillarsarecalledhoodoosTheyareformedbecausesoftrockliesbelowhardrockDownpoursofrainwashawaythesofterrock,leavingpillarsofharderrockaboveThisharderrockisleftbehindafterfloodsRunningwildAswaterrushesfromitssource,inthehighlands,downtothesea,itconstantlypicksupchunksofrock,sand,andmudalongthewayItthendepositsitelsewhere,changingtheshapeofthelandasitgoesDesertfloodsWatercanevenshapethedesertHeavyfloodssometimesrushthroughtheland,takingthelandwithitandleavingweirdtowersofrockbehind,suchasinMonumentValley,ArizonaFlowofwaterWaterisincrediblypowerfulstuffWhenthereisalotofit,movingathugespeeds,itcancarryawayalotoflooserockandmudWhenwaterchangestheshapeofalandscape,itiscallederosion•ThelongestriverintheworldistheNileinEgyptBeneaththeNilerunsanotherriverdeepundergroundthatholdssixtimesasmuchwater•ThehighestwaterfallintheworldisAngelFallsinVenezuelaThewaterfalls⁄timestheheightoftheEiffelTowerinParisRiverfactsWaterpowerTheGrandCanyonisthelargestgorgeintheworldIthasbeencarvedbytheColoradoRiverovermillionyearsDifferentrocksreactindifferentwaystothewater,sotheshapesareincrediblyspectacularNiagaraFallsNiagaraFallsisanenormouswaterfall,whichmovesbackwardbyftin(m)eachyearThelowerrockissoftandiswornawaybythewaterEventuallythetoprockcrashestothebottomwhenitcannolongerstaywhereitiswithoutsupportCavescanbeprettyscaryplaces–darkanddamp–buttheycanalsobebeautifulTheyformwhenwaterseepsthroughcracksinsoftrock,suchaslimestone,andtakethousandsofyearstobecomecavernsUnderworldsAncientmuralsBeforepeoplelivedinhouses,theylivedincavesTheypainteddrawingsonthewallslikethiscattleoneItwaspainted,yearsago,andfoundinLascaux,FranceMostcavesaredrippingwithwaterGorgesformwhencaveroofscollapseCavesportCavesmaybedark,buttheyarealsomagical,undergroundlandscapes,andsomepeopleenjoyexploringthemasahobbyThisisknownasspelunkingIt’saverydangeroussport,however,andmustalwaysbedoneusingtherightequipmentUpanddownWhenwaterdripsfromacave’sceiling,itleavesbehindtinypiecesofrockOvermanyyears,itgrowsdownwardintoalongicicleshapecalledastalactiteWherethewaterfallstotheground,stalagmitesgrowuplikecandlesItcantakethousandsofyearsforstalactitesandstalagmitestomeetThebiggestcaveintheworld,theSarawakChamber,Borneo,couldfittenniscourtsinsideitThere’smoretosnowandicethanmeetstheeyeNotonlydotheyproducesomeofthemostspectacularscenesonEarth,buttheyarepowerfultoolsthatsculptitThepoweroficeThemightyglacierAglacierisincrediblypowerfulItcarvesitswaythroughmountains,leavinghugegorgesorvalleysbehindOnthewayitswallowsupandmovesgiantbouldersYetitonlymovesataspeedofaboutaninchadayEarth’snaturalplowAglacierisanenormousmassoficethatflowsdownhillslowlyWhenglaciersmelt,theyshowhowmuchoftheEarthhasbeengorgedawayYoucanseehowithasshapedthisNorwegianfjordFloatingislandSomeicebergsarehugeButwhateveryouseeabovewater,thereisevenmorebelowTwothirdsliesunderwaterIcecavesIcebergsarebigblocksoficethatbreakawayfromtheendofaglacierAstheymelt,thewindandwavesbatterthemintoweirdshapes,sometimescreatingicecavesThemightywaveWhenyouplayonasandybeach,haveyouevernoticedhowoftenthewavescrashontoitWell,believeitornot,thatwavemovementisconstantlychangingthecoastlineWavesareevenpowerfulenoughtoreshapecliffs!Wavesdestroy•

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地球图文解释 英文彩色高请原版

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