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首页 【夏皮罗】抽象艺术的本质

【夏皮罗】抽象艺术的本质.pdf

【夏皮罗】抽象艺术的本质

Isvara
2010-12-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【夏皮罗】抽象艺术的本质pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

NatureofAbstractArtMeyerSchapiro()Beforetherewasanartofabstractpainting,itwasalreadywidelybelievedthatthevalueofapicturewasamatterofcolorsandshapesaloneMusicandarchitecturewereconstantlyhelduptopaintersasexamplesofapureartwhichdidnothavetoimitateobjectsbutderiveditseffectsfromelementspeculiartoitselfButsuchideascouldnotbereadilyaccepted,sincenoonehadyetseenapaintingmadeupofcolorsandshapes,representingnothingIfpicturesoftheobjectsarounduswereoftenjudgedaccordingtoqualitiesofformalone,itwasobviousthatindoingsoonewasdistortingorreducingthepicturesyoucouldnotarriveatthesepaintingssimplybymanipulatingformsAndinsofarastheobjectstowhichtheseformsbelongedwereoftenparticularindividualsandplaces,realormythicalfigures,bearingtheevidentmarksofatime,thepretensionthatartwasabovehistorythroughthecreativeenergyorpersonalityoftheartistwasnotentirelyclearInabstractart,however,thepretendedautonomyandabsolutenessoftheaestheticemergedinaconcreteformHere,finally,wasanartofpaintinginwhichonlyaestheticelementsseemtobepresentAbstractarthadthereforethevalueofapracticaldemonstrationInthesenewpaintingstheveryprocessesofdesigningandinventingseemedtohavebeenbroughtontothecanvasthepureformoncemaskedbyanextraneouscontentwasliberatedandcouldnowbedirectlyperceivedPainterswhodonotpracticethisarthavewelcomeditonjustthisground,thatitstrengthenedtheirconvictionoftheabsolutenessoftheaestheticandprovidedthemadisciplineinpuredesignTheirattitudetowardpastartwasalsocompletelychangedThenewstylesaccustomedpainterstothevisionofcolorsandshapesasdisengagedfromobjectsandcreatedanimmenseconfraternityofworksofart,cuttingacrossthebarriersoftimeandplaceTheymadeitpossibletoenjoytheremotestarts,thoseinwhichtherepresentedobjectswerenolongerintelligible,eventhedrawingsofchildrenandmadmen,andespeciallyprimitiveartswithdrasticallydistortedfigures,whichhadbeenregardedasartlesscuriosevenbyinsistentlyaestheticcriticsBeforethistimeRuskincouldsayinhisPoliticalEconomyofArt,incallingforthepreservationofmedievalandRenaissanceworksthat"inEuropealone,pureandpreciousancientartexists,forthereisnoneinAmerica,noneinAsia,noneinAfrica"Whatwasonceconsideredmonstrous,nowbecamepureformandpureexpression,theaestheticevidencethatinartfeelingandthoughtarepriortotherepresentedworldTheartofthewholeworldwasnowavailableonasingleunhistoricalanduniversalplaneasapanoramaoftheformalizingenergiesofmanThesetwoaspectsofabstractpainting,theexclusionofnaturalformsandtheunhistoricaluniversalizingofthequalitiesofart,haveacrucialimportanceforthegeneraltheoryofartJustasthediscoveryofnonEuclidiangeometrygaveapowerfulimpetustotheviewthatmathematicswasindeSchapiropendentofexperience,soabstractpaintingcutattherootsoftheclassicideasofartisticimitationTheanalogyofmathematicswasinfactpresenttothemindsoftheapologistsofabstractarttheyhaveoftenreferredtononEuclidiangeometryindefenseoftheirownposition,andhaveevensuggestedanhistoricalconnectionbetweenthemTodaytheabstractionistsandtheirSurrealistoffspringaremoreandmoreconcernedwithobjectsandtheolderclaimsofabstractarthavelosttheoriginalforceofinsurgentconvictionsPainterswhohadonceupheldthisartasthelogicalgoaloftheentirehistoryofformshaverefutedthemselvesinreturningtotheimpurenaturalformsThedemandsforlibertyinartarenolongerdirectedagainstafetteringtraditionofnaturetheaestheticofabstractionhasitselfbecomeabrakeonnewmovementsNotthatabstractartisdead,asitsphilistineenemieshavebeenannouncingforovertwentyyearsitisstillpracticedbysomeofthefinestpaintersandsculptorsinEurope,whoseworkshowsafreshnessandassurancethatarelackinginthenewestrealisticartTheconceptionofapossiblefieldof"pureart"whateveritsvaluewillnotdiesosoon,thoughitmaytakeonformsdifferentfromthoseofthelastthirtyyearsandverylikelytheartthatfollowsinthecountrieswhichhaveknownabstractionwillbeaffectedbyitTheideasunderlyingabstractarthavepenetrateddeeplyintoallartistictheory,evenoftheiroriginalopponentsthelanguageofabsolutesandpuresourcesofart,whetheroffeeling,reason,intuitionorthesubconsciousmind,appearsintheveryschoolswhichrenounceabstraction"Objective"paintersstrivefor"pureobjectivity,"fortheobjectgiveninits"essence"andcompleteness,withoutrespecttoaviewpoint,andtheSurrealistsderivetheirimagesfrompurethought,freedfromtheperversionsofreasonandeverydayexperienceVerylittleiswrittentodaysympathetictomodernartwhichdoesnotemploythislanguageofabsolutesInthisarticleIshalltakeasmypointofdepartureBarr'srecentbook,thebest,Ithink,thatwehaveinEnglishonthemovementsnowgroupedasabstractartIthasthespecialinterestofcombiningadiscussionofgeneralquestionsaboutthenatureofthisart,itsaesthetictheories,itscauses,andeventherelationtopoliticalmovements,withadetailed,matteroffactaccountofthedifferentstylesButalthoughBarrsetsouttodescriberatherthantodefendortocriticizeabstractart,heseemstoacceptitstheoriesontheirfacevalueinhishistoricalexpositionandincertainrandomjudgmentsInplaceshespeaksofthisartasindependentofhistoricalconditions,asrealizingtheunderlyingorderofnatureandasanartofpureformwithoutcontentHenceifthebookislargelyanaccountofhistoricalmovements,Barr'sconceptionofabstractartremainsessentiallyunhistoricalHegivesus,itistrue,thedatesofeverystageinthevariousmovements,asiftoenableustoplotacurve,ortofollowtheemergenceoftheartyearbyyear,butnoconnectionisdrawnbetweentheartandtheconditionsofthemomentHeexcludesasirrelevanttoitshistorythenatureofthesocietyinwhichitarose,exceptasanincidentalobstructingoracceleratingatmosphericfactorThehistoryofmodernartispresentedasaninternal,immanentprocessamongtheartistsabstractartarisesbecause,astheauthorsays,representationalarthadbeenexhaustedOutofboredomwith"paintingfacts,"theartiststurnedtoabstractartasapureaestheticactivity"Byacommonandpowerfulimpulsetheyweredriventoabandontheimitationofnaturalappearance"justastheartistsofthefifteenthcentury"weremovedbyapassionforimitatingnature"Themodernchange,however,was"thelogicalandinevitableconclusiontowardwhichartwasmovingSchapiroThisexplanation,whichiscommoninthestudiosandisdefendedbysomewritersinthenameoftheautonomyofart,isonlyoneinstanceofawiderviewthatembraceseveryfieldofcultureandeveneconomyandpoliticsAtitsordinarylevelthetheoryofexhaustionandreactionreduceshistorytothepatternofpopularideasonchangesinfashionPeoplegrowtiredofonecolorandchooseanoppositeoneseasontheskirtsarelong,andthenbyreactiontheyareshortInthesamewaythepresentreturntoobjectsinpaintingisexplainedastheresultoftheexhaustionofabstractartAllthepossibilitiesofthelatterhavingbeenexploredbyPicassoandMondrian,thereislittleleftfortheyoungerartistsbuttotakeupthepaintingofobjectsThenotionthateachnewstyleisduetoareactionagainstaprecedingisespeciallyplausibletomodernartists,whoseworkissooftenaresponsetoanotherwork,whoconsidertheirartafreeprojectionofanirreduciblepersonalfeeling,butmustformtheirstyleincompetitionagainstothers,withtheobsessingsenseoftheoriginalityoftheirworkasamarkofitssincerityBesides,thecreatorsofnewformsinthelastcenturyhadalmostalwaystofightagainstthosewhopracticedtheoldandseveralofthehistoricalstyleswereformedinconsciousoppositiontoanothermannerRenaissanceagainstGothic,BaroqueagainstMannerism,NeoclassicagainstRococo,etcTheantitheticformofachangedoesnotpermitus,however,tojudgeanewartasasheerreactionorastheinevitableresponsetothespendingofalltheresourcesoftheoldNomorethanthesuccessionofwarandpeaceimpliesthatwarisduetoaninherentreactionagainstpeaceandpeacetoareactionagainstwarTheenergiesrequiredforthereaction,whichsometimeshasadrasticandinvigoratingeffectonart,arelostsightofinsuchanaccountitisimpossibletoexplainbyittheparticulardirectionandforceofthenewmovement,itsspecificmoment,regionandgoalsThetheoryofimmanentexhaustionandreactionisinadequatenotonlybecauseitreduceshumanactivitytoasimplemechanicalmovement,likeabouncingball,butbecauseinneglectingthesourcesofenergyandtheconditionofthefield,itdoesnotevendojusticetoitsownlimitedmechanicalconceptionTheoppositenessofareactionisoftenanartificialmatter,moreevidentinthepolemicsbetweenschoolsorintheschemasofformalistichistoriansthanintheactualhistoricalchangeTosupplyamotorforcetothisphysicalhistoryofstyles(whichpretendstobeantimechanical),theyarereducedtoamythoftheperpetualalternatingmotionofgenerations,eachreactingagainstitsparentsandthereforerepeatingthemotionsofitsgrandparents,accordingtothe"grandfatherprinciple"ofcertainGermanhistoriansofartAndafinalgoal,anunexplainedbutinevitabletrend,adestinyrootedintheraceorthespiritofthecultureortheinherentnatureoftheart,hastobesmuggledintoexplainthelargeunityofadevelopmentthatembracessomanyreactinggenerationsTheimmanentpurposesteersthereactionwhenanartseemstoveeroffthemainpathbecauseofanoverweightedorforeignelementYethowmanyartsweknowinwhichtheextremeofsomequalitypersistsforcenturieswithoutprovokingthecorrectivereactionThe"decay"ofclassicalarthasbeenattributedbytheEnglishcritic,Fry,toitsexcessivecultofthehumanbody,butthis"decay"evidentlylastedforhundredsofyearsuntilthemomentwasripefortheChristianreactionButeventhisChristianart,accordingtothesamewriter,wasfortwocenturiesindistinguishablefromthepaganThebroadreactionagainstanexistingartispossibleonlyonthegroundofitsinadequacytoartistswithnewvaluesandnewwaysofseeingButreactioninthisinternal,antitheticsense,farfrombeinganinherentanduniversalpropertyofculture,occursonlyunderimpellinghistoricalconditionsForSchapiroweseethatancientarts,liketheEgyptian,theworkofanonymouscraftsmen,persistforthousandsofyearswithrelativelylittlechange,provokingfewreactionstotheestablishedstyleothersgrowslowlyandsteadilyinasingledirection,andstillothers,inthecourseofnumerouschanges,foreignintrusionsandreactionspreserveacommontraditionalcharacterFromthemechanicaltheoriesofexhaustion,boredomandreactionwecouldneverexplainwhythereactionoccurredwhenitdidOntheotherhand,thebanaldivisionsofthegreathistoricalstylesinliteratureandartcorrespondtothemomentousdivisionsinthehistoryofsocietyIfweconsideranartthatisnearusintimeandisstillwidelypracticed,likeImpressionism,weseehowemptyistheexplanationofthesubsequentartsbyreactionFromalogicalviewpointtheantithesistoImpressionismdependsonhowImpressionismisdefinedWhereasthelaterschoolsattackedtheImpressionistsasmerephotographersofsunshine,thecontemporariesofImpressionismabuseditforitsmonstrousunrealityTheImpressionistswereinfactthefirstpaintersofwhomitwaschargedthattheirworksmadeaslittlesenserightsideupasupsidedownThemovementsafterImpressionismtakedifferentdirections,sometowardsimplifiednaturalforms,otherstowardtheircompletedecompositionbotharesometimesdescribedashistoricalreactionsagainstImpressionism,onerestoringtheobjectsthatImpressionismdissolved,theotherrestoringtheindependentimaginativeactivitythatImpressionismsacrificedtotheimitationofnatureActually,inthe'stherewereseveralaspectsofImpressionismwhichcouldbethestartingpointsofnewtendenciesandgoalsofreactionForclassicistpainterstheweaknessofImpressionismlayinitsunclarity,itsdestructionofdefinitelinearformsitisinthissensethatRenoirturnedforatimefromImpressionismtoIngresButforotherartistsatthesamemomentImpressionismwastoocasualandunmethodicalthese,theneoImpressionists,preservedtheImpressionistcolorism,carryingitevenfurtherinanunclassicalsense,butalsoinamoreconstructiveandcalculatedwayForstillothers,Impressionismwastoophotographic,tooimpersonalthese,thesymbolistsandtheirfollowers,requiredanemphaticsentimentandaestheticactivismintheworkTherewerefinallyartistsforwhomImpressionismwastoounorganized,andtheirreactionunderscoredaschematicarrangementCommontomostofthesemovementsafterImpressionismwastheabsolutizingoftheartist'sstateofmindorsensibilityaspriortoandaboveobjectsIftheImpressionistsreducedthingstotheartist'ssensations,theirsuccessorsreducedthemfurthertoprojectionsorconstructionsofhisfeelingsandmoods,orto"essences"graspedinatenseintuitionThehistoricalfactisthatthereactionagainstImpressionismcameinthe'sbeforesomeofitsmostoriginalpossibilitieshadbeenrealizedThepaintingofseriesofchromaticvariationsofasinglemotif(theHaystacks,theCathedral)datesfromthe'sandtheWaterLilies,withtheirremarkablespatialforms,relatedinsomewaystocontemporaryabstractart,belongtothetwentiethcenturyTheeffectivereactionagainstImpressionismtookplaceonlyatacertainmomentinitshistoryandchieflyinFrance,thoughImpressionismwasfairlywidespreadinEuropebytheendofthecenturyInthe's,whenImpressionismwasbeginningtobeacceptedofficially,therewerealreadyseveralgroupsofyoungartistsinFrancetowhomitwasuncongenialThehistoryofartisnot,however,ahistoryofsinglewillfulreactions,everynewartisttakingastandoppositethelast,paintingbrightlyiftheotherpainteddully,flatteningiftheothermodelled,anddistortingiftheotherwasliteralThereactionsweredeeplymotivatedintheexperienceoftheartSchapiroists,inachangingworldwithwhichtheyhadtocometotermsandwhichshapedtheirpracticeandideasinspecificwaysThetragiclivesofGauguinandVanGogh,theirestrangementfromsociety,whichsoprofoundlycoloredtheirart,werenoautomaticreactionstoImpressionismortheconsequencesofPeruvianorNorthernbloodInGauguin'scirclewereotherartistswhohadabandonedabourgeoiscareerintheirmaturityorwhohadattemptedsuicideForayoungmanofthemiddleclasstowishtolivebyartmeanadifferentthinginthaninByonlyartistshadfreedomandintegrity,butoftentheyhadnothingelseTheveryexistenceofImpressionismwhichtransformednatureintoaprivate,unformalizedfieldforsensitivevision,shiftingwiththespectator,madepaintinganidealdomainoffreedomitattractedmanywhoweretiedunhappilytomiddleclassjobsandmoralstandards,nowincreasinglyproblematicandstultifyingwiththeadvanceofmonopolycapitalismButImpressionisminisolatingthesensibilityasamoreorlesspersonal,butdispassionateandstilloutwardlydirected,organoffugitivedistinctionsindistantdissolvingclouds,waterandsunlight,couldnolongersufficeformenwhohadstakedeverythingonimpulseandwhoseresolutiontobecomeartistswasapoignantandinsomewaysdemoralizingbreakwithgoodsocietyWithanalmostmoralfervortheytransformedImpressionismintoanartofvehementexpression,ofemphatic,brilliant,magnified,obsessingobjects,oradjusteditscoloringandsurfacepatterntodreamsofaseasonlessexoticworldofidyllicfreedomEarlyImpressionism,too,hadamoralaspectInitsunconventionalized,unregulatedvision,initsdiscoveryofaconstantlychangingphenomenaloutdoorworldofwhichtheshapesdependedonthemomentarypositionofthecasualormobilespectator,therewasanimplicitcriticismofsymbolicsocialanddomesticformalities,oratleastanormopposedtotheseItisremarkablehowmanypictureswehaveinearlyImpressionismofinformalandspontaneoussociability,ofbreakfasts,picnics,promenades,boatingtrips,holidaysandvacationtravelTheseurbanidyllsnotonlypresenttheobjectiveformsofbourgeoisrecreationinthe'sand'stheyalsoreflectintheverychoiceofsubjectsandinthenewaestheticdevicestheconceptionofartassolelyafieldofindividualenjoyment,withoutreferencetoideasandmotives,andtheypresupposethecultivationofthesepleasuresasthehighestfieldoffreedomforanenlightenedbourgeoisdetachedfromtheofficialbeliefsofhisclassInenjoyingrealisticpicturesofhissurroundingsasaspectacleoftrafficandchangingatmospheres,thecultivatedrentierwasexperiencinginitsphenomenalaspectthatmobilityoftheenvironment,themarketandofindustrytowhichheowedhisincomeandhisfreedomAndinthenewImpressionisttechniqueswhichbrokethingsupintofinelydiscriminatedpointsofcolor,aswellasinthe"accidental"momentaryvision,hefound,inadegreehithertounknowninart,conditionsofsensibilitycloselyrelatedtothoseoftheurbanpromenaderandtherefinedconsumerofluxurygoodsAsthecontextsofbourgeoissociabilityshiftedfromcommunity,familyandchurchtocommercializedorprivatelyimprovisedformsthestreets,thecafesandresortstheresultingconsciousnessofindividualfreedominvolvedmoreandmoreanestrangementfromoldertiesandthoseimaginativemembersofthemiddleclasswhoacceptedthenormsoffreedom,butlackedtheeconomicmeanstoattainthem,werespirituallytornbyasenseofhelplessisolationinananonymousindifferentmassBytheenjoyingindividualbecomesrareinImpressionistartonlytheprivatespectacleofnatureisleftAndinneoImpressionism,whichrestoresandevenmonumentalizesthefigures,thesocialgroupbreaksupintoisolatedspectators,whoSchapirodonotcommunicatewitheachother,orconsistsofmechanicallyrepeateddancessubmittedtoapreordainedmovementwithlittlespontaneityTheFrenchartistsofthe'sand'swhoattackedImpressionismforitslackofstructureoftenexpresseddemandsforsalvation,fororderandfixedobjectsofbelief,foreigntotheImpressionistsasagroupThetitleofGauguin'spicture"WheredowecomefromWhatareweWherearewegoing”withitsinterrogativeform,istypicalofthisstateo

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【夏皮罗】抽象艺术的本质

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