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Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems.pdf

Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectr…

上传者: 淡水咸鱼 2010-12-18 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systemspdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域,主题内容包含MultiCarrierandSpreadSpectrumSystemsFromOFDMandMCCDMAtoLTEandWiMAXSecondEd符等。

MultiCarrierandSpreadSpectrumSystemsFromOFDMandMCCDMAtoLTEandWiMAXSecondEditionKFazelEricssonGmbH,GermanyandSKaiserDOCOMOCommunicationsLaboratoriesEuropeGmbH,GermanyAJohnWileyandSons,Ltd,PublicationMultiCarrierandSpreadSpectrumSystemsMultiCarrierandSpreadSpectrumSystemsFromOFDMandMCCDMAtoLTEandWiMAXSecondEditionKFazelEricssonGmbH,GermanyandSKaiserDOCOMOCommunicationsLaboratoriesEuropeGmbH,GermanyAJohnWileyandSons,Ltd,PublicationThiseditionfirstpublishedJohnWileySons,LtdRegisteredofficeJohnWileySonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussexPOSQ,UnitedKingdomFordetailsofourglobaleditorialoffices,forcustomerservicesandforinformationabouthowtoapplyforpermissiontoreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwwwwileyeuropecomorwwwwileycomTherightoftheauthortobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUKCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherWileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformatsSomecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooksDesignationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarksAllbrandnamesandproductnamesusedinthisbookaretradenames,servicemarks,trademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersThepublisherisnotassociatedwithanyproductorvendormentionedinthisbookThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldontheunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesoughtLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataFazel,KhaledMulticarrierandspreadspectrumsystems:fromOFDMandMCCDMAtoLTEandWiMAXKFazel,SKaiser–ndedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNSpreadspectrumcommunicationsMultiplexingIKaiser,Stefan,–IITitleTKF–dcAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNTypesetbyLaserwordsPrivateLimited,Chennai,IndiaPrintedandboundinSingaporebyMarkonoPrintMediaPte,Ltdtomyparents,mywifeMiriam,mydaughtersSarah,Sophia,andSusanna(KF)mywifeSusanna,mysonsLukasandPhilippandmydaughterAnna(SK)ContentsForewordxiPreface(SecondEdition)xiiiPreface(FirstEdition)xvAcknowledgementsxviiIntroductionFromGtoGandBGMultipleAccessSchemesFromGtoGMultipleAccessSchemesMultiCarrierSpreadSpectrumTheAimofThisBookReferencesFundamentalsRadioChannelCharacteristicsUnderstandingRadioChannelsChannelModelingChannelFadeStatisticsInterSymbol(ISI)andInterChannelInterference(ICI)ExamplesofDiscreteMultiPathChannelModelsMultiCarrierChannelModelingDiversityMultiCarrierTransmissionOrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultiplexing(OFDM)AdvantagesandDrawbacksofOFDMApplicationsandStandardsSpreadSpectrumTechniquesDirectSequenceCodeDivisionMultipleAccessAdvantagesandDrawbacksofDSCDMAApplicationsofSpreadSpectrumMultiCarrierSpreadSpectrumPrincipleofVariousSchemesAdvantagesandDrawbacksExamplesofFutureApplicationAreasReferencesviiiContentsMCCDMAandMCDSCDMAMCCDMASignalStructureDownlinkSignalUplinkSignalSpreadingTechniquesDetectionTechniquesPreEqualizationCombinedEqualizationSoftChannelDecodingFlexibilityinSystemDesignPerformanceAnalysisMCDSCDMASignalStructureDownlinkSignalUplinkSignalSpreadingDetectionTechniquesPerformanceAnalysisReferencesHybridMultipleAccessSchemesIntroductionMultiCarrierFDMAOrthogonalFrequencyDivisionMultipleAccess(OFDMA)OFDMAwithCodeDivisionMultiplexing:SSMCMADistributedDFTSpreadOFDM:InterleavedFDMA(IFDMA)LocalizedDFTSpreadOFDMMultiCarrierTDMAUltraWidebandSystemsPseudoRandomPPMUWBSignalGenerationUWBTransmissionSchemesComparisonofHybridMultipleAccessSchemesReferencesImplementationIssuesMultiCarrierModulationandDemodulationPulseShapinginOFDMDigitalImplementationofOFDMVirtualSubCarriersandDCSubCarrierDAandADConversion,IQGenerationSynchronizationGeneralEffectsofSynchronizationErrorsMaximumLikelihoodParameterEstimationTimeSynchronizationFrequencySynchronizationAutomaticGainControl(AGC)ChannelEstimationTwoDimensionalChannelEstimationContentsixOneDimensionalChannelEstimationFilterDesignImplementationIssuesPerformanceAnalysisTimeDomainChannelEstimationDecisionDirectedChannelEstimationBlindandSemiBlindChannelEstimationChannelEstimationinMCSSSystemsChannelEstimationinMIMOOFDMSystemsChannelCodingandDecodingPuncturedConvolutionalCodingConcatenatedConvolutionalandReedSolomonCodingTurboCodingLowDensityParityCheck(LDPC)CodesOFDMwithCodeDivisionMultiplexing:OFDMCDMSignalConstellation,Mapping,DeMapping,andEqualizationSignalConstellationandMappingEqualizationandDeMappingAdaptiveTechniquesinMultiCarrierTransmissioningofWeakSubCarriersAdaptiveChannelCodingandModulationAdaptivePowerControlRFIssuesPhaseNoiseNonlinearitiesNarrowbandInterferenceRejectioninMCCDMALinkBudgetEvaluationReferencesApplicationsIntroductionGPPLongTermEvolution(LTE)IntroductionRequirementsonLTERadioAccessNetwork(RAN)ArchitectureRadioProtocolArchitectureDownlinkTransmissionSchemeUplinkTransmissionSchemePhysicalLayerProceduresSupportedBandwidthsFrequencyBandsSpectrumMasksPerformanceWiMAXScopeFromIEEExandETSIBRANHIPERMANTowardsWiMAXSystemArchitectureBroadbandWirelessAccessStandards:HIPERMANandIEEExTransmitDiversityMIMOinWiMAXWiMAXProfilesxContentsPerformanceFutureMobileCommunicationsConceptsandFieldTrialsObjectivesNetworkTopologyandBasicConceptExperimentsandFieldTrialsVSFOFCDMAccessSchemeSystemParametersWirelessLocalAreaNetworksNetworkTopologyChannelCharacteristicsIEEEaTransmissionPerformanceInteractionChannelforDVBT:DVBRCTNetworkTopologyChannelCharacteristicsMultiCarrierUplinkTransmissionTransmissionPerformanceReferencesAdditionalTechniquesforCapacityandFlexibilityEnhancementIntroductionMIMOOverviewBLASTArchitectureSpace–TimeCodingAchievableCapacityDiversityTechniquesforMultiCarrierTransmissionTransmitDiversityReceiveDiversityTransmitReceiveDiversityPerformanceAnalysisSpace–FrequencyBlockCodes(SFBC)SFBCPerformanceAnalysisSpatialPreCodingforMultiCarrierTransmissionSpatialPhaseCoding(SPC)SelectionDiversity(SD)EqualGainTransmission(EGT)MaximumRatioTransmission(MRT)PerformanceAnalysisSoftwareDefinedRadioGeneralBasicConceptMCCDMABasedSoftwareDefinedRadioReferencesDefinitions,Abbreviations,andSymbolsDefinitionsAbbreviationsSymbolsIndexForewordThisbookdiscussesmulticarriermodulationandspreadspectrumtechniques,recognizedasthemostpromisingcandidatemodulationmethodsforthethgeneration(G)ofmobilecommunicationssystemsTheauthorsofthisbookwerethefirsttoproposeMCCDMAforthenextgenerationofmobilecommunications,andarestillcontinuingtheircontributiontowardsbeyondGConsideringtherequirementsofGsystems,multicarrierandspreadspectrumsystemsappeartobethemostsuitableastheyprovidehigherflexibility,highertransmissionrates,andfrequencyusageefficiencyThisisthefirstbookonthesemethods,providingthereaderwiththefundamentalsofthetechnologiesinvolvedandtherelatedapplicationsThebookdealswiththeprinciplesthroughdefinitionsofbasictechnologiesandthemultipathchanneloverwhichthesignalsaretransmittedItdefinesMCCDMAasafrequencyPNpatternandMCDSCDMAasastraightextensionofDSCDMAandarguesthatthesetwinasymmetrictechnologiesaremostsuitableforGsinceMCCDMAissuitableforthedownlinkandMCDSCDMAissuitablefortheuplinkinthecellularsystemsAlthoughMCCDMAperformsbetterthanMCDSCDMA,itneedschipsynchronizationbetweenusers,andisthereforedifficulttodeployintheuplinkThus,forthisasymmetricstructureitisveryimportanttounderstandthemulticarrierspreadspectrummethodsHybridmultipleaccessschemeslikeMultiCarrierFDMA,MultiCarrierTDMA,andUltraWideBandsystemsarediscussedasmoreextendedsystemsImplementationissues,includingsynchronization,channelestimation,andRFissues,arealsodiscussedindepthWirelesslocalareanetworks,broadcastingtransmission,andcellularmobileradioareshowntorealizeseamlessnetworkingforGAlthoughcellularsystemshavenotyetbeencombinedwithotherwirelessnetworks,differentwirelesssystemsshouldbeseamlesslycombinedThelastpartofthisbookdiscussescapacityandflexibilityenhancementtechnologieslikediversitytechniques,space–timefrequencycoding,andSDR(SoftwareDefinedRadio)ThisbookgreatlyassistsnotonlytheoreticalresearchersbutalsopracticingengineersofthenextgenerationofmobilecommunicationssystemsProfMasaoNakagawaDepartmentofInformationandComputerScienceKeioUniversity,JapanPreface(SecondEdition)ThedemandforhighdataratewirelessmultimediaapplicationshasincreasedsignificantlyinthepastfewyearsThewirelessuser’spressuretowardsfastercommunications,nomatterwhethermobile,nomadic,orfixedpositioned,withoutextracostisnowadaysarealityFindinganoptimalsolutionforthisdilemmaischallenging,notonlyformanufacturersbutalsofornetworkoperatorsTherecentstrategyfollowedwithinETSIGPPLTEandtheWiMAXForumwasanevolutionaryconcept,especiallyformobileapplicationsBothhaveadoptedanewPHYlayermulticarriertransmissionwithaMIMOscheme,apromisingcombinationofferingahighdatarateatlowcostSincethefirsteditionofourbookin,theapplicationfieldofmulticarriertransmissioninmobilecommunicationshasbeenextendedintwoimportantareas:GPPLongTermEvolution(LTE)andWiMAXParalleltothat,thetopicofMIMOinconjunctionwithOFDMhastakenfurtherstepsNewexperiencesgainedduringtheabovementionedstandardizationactivitiesandthelatestresearchresultsonMIMOOFDMgaveussufficientbackgroundandmaterialtoextendthisbooktowardsitsSecondEdition,iecoveringnewapplicationfields(LTEandWiMAX)andnewtrendsonMIMOOFDMtechnologyWehopethattheSecondEditionofthisbookwillfurthercontributetoabetterunderstandingoftheprinciplesofmulticarriertransmissionandofitsvarietyofapplicationfields,and,finally,itmaymotivateresearchtowardnewdevelopmentsKFazel,SKaiserPreface(FirstEdition)Nowadays,multicarriertransmissionisconsideredtobeanoldconceptItsbasicideagoesbacktothemidsNevertheless,behindanyoldtechniquetherearealwaysmanysimpleandexcitingideas,theterrainforfurtherdevelopmentsofnewefficientschemesOurfirstexperiencewiththesimpleandexcitingideaofOFDMstartedinearlywithdigitalaudiobroadcasting(DAB)From,ouractiveparticipationinseveralresearchprogrammesondigitalterrestrialTVbroadcasting(DVBT)gaveusfurtheropportunitiestolookatseveralaspectsoftheOFDMtechniquewithitsnewadvanceddigitalimplementationpossibilitiesTheexperiencegainedfromthejoinedspecificationofseveralOFDMbaseddemonstratorswithintheGermanHDTVTandtheEURACEdTTbresearchprojectsservedasabasisforourcommitmentintothefinalspecificationsoftheDVBTstandard,relayingonthemulticarriertransmissiontechniqueParalleltotheHDTVTandthedTTbprojects,ourfurtherinvolvementfromintheEURACECODITproject,withthescopeofbuildingafirstEuropeanGtestbed,followingtheDSCDMAscheme,inspiredourinterestinanotheroldtechnique,spreadspectrum,beingasimpressiveasmulticarriertransmissionAlthoughthefinalchoiceofthespecificationoftheCODITtestbedwasbasedonwidebandCDMA,analternativemultipleaccessschemeexploitingthenewideaofcombiningOFDMwithspreadspectrum,iemulticarrierspreadspectrum(MCSS),wasconsideredasapotentialcandidateanddiscussedwidelyduringthedefinitionphaseofthefirsttestbedOurstrongbeliefintheefficiencyandflexibilityofmulticarrierspreadspectrumcomparedtoWCDMAforapplicationssuchasbeyondGmotivatedus,fromtheintroductionofthisnewmultipleaccessschemeatPIMRC’,tofurthercontributetoit,andtoinvestigatedifferentcorrespondingsystemlevelaspectsDuetotherecognitionofthemeritsofthiscombinationbywellknowninternationalexperts,sincethePIMRC’conference,MCSShasrapidlybecomeoneofthemostwidespreadindependentresearchtopicsinthefieldofmobileradiocommunicationsThegrowingsuccessofourorganizedseriesofinternationalworkshopsonMCSSsince,thelargenumberoftechnicalsessionsdevotedininternationalconferencestomulticarriertransmission,andtheseveralspecialeditionsoftheEuropeanTransactionsonTelecommunications(ETT)onMCSShighlighttheimportanceofthiscombinationforfuturewirelesscommunicationsSeveralMCCDMAdemonstrators,egoneofthefirstbuiltwithinDLRanditslivedemonstrationduringtherdinternationalMCSSworkshop,amultitudeofrecentinternationalresearchprogrammesliketheresearchcollaborationbetweenDOCOMOEuroLabsxviPreface(FirstEdition)andDLRonthedesignofafuturebroadbandairinterfaceortheEUISTMATRICE,MORE,andWINNERprojects,andespeciallytheNTTDOCOMOresearchinitiativetobuildademonstratorforbeyondGsystemsbasedonthemulticarrierspreadspectrumtechnique,emphasizethecommitmentoftheinternationalresearchcommunitytothisnewtopicOurexperiencegainedduringtheabovementionedresearchprogrammes,ourcurrentinvolvementintheETSIBRANproject,ouryearlyseminarsorganizedwithinCarlGranzGesellschaft(CCG)ondigitalTVbroadcastingandonWLANWLLhavegivenussufficientbackgroundknowledgeandmaterialtotakethisinitiativetocollectinthisbookmostoftheimportantaspectsonmulticarrier,spreadspectrum,andmulticarrierspreadspectrumsystemsWehopethatthisbookwillcontributetoabetterunderstandingoftheprinciplesofmulticarrierandspreadspectrumandmaymotivatefurtherinvestigationintoanddevelopmentofthisnewtechnologyKFazel,SKaiserAcknowledgementsTheauthorswouldliketoexpresstheirsincerethankstoProfMNakagawafromKeioUniversity,Japan,forwritingtheforewordManythanksgotoDrHAtarashi,DrNMaeda,DrSAbeta,andDrMSawahashifromNTTDOCOMOforprovidinguswithmaterialregardingtheirmulticarrierspreadspectrumactivitiesManythanksalsoforthesupportofDrEAuerfromEricssonGmbHandforhelpfultechnicaldiscussionswithmembersoftheDOCOMOEuroLabsandtheMobileRadioTransmissionGroupfromDLRFurtherthanksalsogotoDrICosovicfromDOCOMOEuroLabswhoprovideduswithresultsfortheuplink,especiallywithpreequalizationKFazel,SKaiserIntroductionThemainfeatureofthenextgenerationwirelesssystemswillbetheconvergenceofmultmediaservicessuchasspeech,audio,video,image,anddataThisimpliesthatafuturewirelessterminal,byguaranteeinghighspeeddata,willbeabletoconnecttodifferentnetworksinordertosupportvariousservices:switchedtraffic,IPdatapackets,andbroadbandstreamingservicessuchasvideoThedevelopmentofwirelessterminalswithgenericprotocolsandmultiplephysicallayersorsoftwaredefinedradiointerfacesisexpectedtoallowuserstoseamlesslyswitchaccessbetweenexistingandfuturestandardsTherapidincreaseinthenumberofwirelessmobileterminalsubscribers,whichcurrentlyexceedsbillionusers,highlightstheimportanceofwirelesscommunicationsinthisnewmillenniumThisrevolutionintheinformationsocietyhastakenplace,especiallyinEuropeandJapanthroughacontinuousevolutionofemergingstandardsandproductsbykeepingaseamlessstrategyforthechoiceofsolutionsandparametersThecontinuousadaptationofwirelesstechnologiestotheuser’srapidlychangingdemandshasbeenoneofthemaindriversforthesuccessofthisevolutionTherefore,theworldwidewirelessaccesssystemisandwillcontinuetobecharacterizedbyaheterogeneousmultitudeofstandardsandsystemsThisplethoraofwirelesscommunicationsystemsisnotlimitedtocellularmobiletelecommunicationsystemssuchasGSM,IS,DAMPS,PDC,CDMA,WCDMAUMTS,HSDPA,HSUPA,orGPPLTE,butalsoincludeswirelesslocalareanetworks(WLANs),egIEEEanandBluetooth,broadbandwirelessaccess(BWA)suchasWiMAXsystemswiththeirfirstgoaltointroducewirelesslocalloops(WLL)servicesbasedonETSIHIPERMANandIEEExstandardsandinafuturesteptosupportfullcellularmobility,aswellasbroadcastsystemssuchasdigitalaudiobroadcasting(DAB)anddigitalvideobroadcasting(DVBTandDVBH)Thesetrendshaveacceleratedsincethebeginningoftheswiththereplacementofthefirstgenerationanaloguemobilenetworksbythecurrentsecondgeneration(G)systems(GSM,IS,DAMPS,andPDC),whichopenedthedoorforafullydigitalnetworkThi

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