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首页 Photoshop CS4摄影师专业技术教程

Photoshop CS4摄影师专业技术教程.pdf

Photoshop CS4摄影师专业技术教程

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2010-12-18 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Photoshop CS4摄影师专业技术教程pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

MartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersFigureThisshowsanextremeexampleofhowaHueSaturationadjustmentcanbeusedtoradicallyaltertheappearanceofaphotographAsyoumovetheHuesliderleftorrightthecolorsintheimagewillbemappedtonewvaluesYougetanindicationofthistransformationbylookingatthetwocolorrampsatthebottomofthedialogThetoponerepresentstheoriginal‘input’colorspectrumandthelowerramprepresentshowthosecolorsaretranslatedasoutputcolorsHueSaturationTheHueSaturationdialogcontrolsarebasedaroundtheHSB(Hue,Saturation,Brightness)colormodel,whichisbasicallyanintuitiveformoftheLabColormodelWhenyouselecttheHueSaturationimageadjustmentyoucanadjusttheimagecolorsgloballyOr,youcanselectivelyapplyanadjustmenttoanarrowerrangeofcolorsThetwocolorspectrumrampsatthebottomoftheHueSaturationdialogboxprovideavisualclueastohowthecolorsarebeingmappedfromonecolortoanotherThehuevaluesarebasedonadegreespectrum,whereredispositionedmidslideratdegreesandalltheothercolorsareassignednumericvaluesinrelationtothisSocyan(thecomplementarycolorofred)canbefoundateither−ordegreesAdjustingtheHueslideronlywillalterthewaycolorsintheimagearemappedtonewcolorvaluesFigureshowsanextremeexampleofhowthecolorsinanormalcolorimagewouldlookiftheyweremappedbyaHueadjustmentonlyAstheHuesliderismovedyouwillnoticehowthelowercolorramppositionslidesleftorright,relativetotheuppercolorrampSaturationadjustmentsareeasyenoughtounderstandPositivevaluesboostsaturation,whilenegativevaluesreducethesaturationOutsidetheMastereditmode,youcanchoosefromoneofsixpresetcolorrangeswithwhichtonarrowthefocusofaHueSaturationadjustmentOnceyouhaveselectedoneofthesecolorrangeoptions,youcanthensampleanewcolorvaluefromtheimagewindow,andthiswillcentertheHueSaturationadjustmentsaroundthesampledcolorSclickintheimageareatoaddtothecolorselectionandOAclicktosubtractcolors(seepage)ColorizemodeWhentheColorizeoptionischecked,thehuecomponentoftheimageisreplacedwithred(Huevaluedegrees),Lightnesswillremainthesameat,andSaturationatYoucouldusethistocolorizeamonochromeimage,butyouwouldbebetteroffusingthePhotoFilteradjustment(seepage)ImageeditingessentialsChapterThispictureshowsaportraitphotographinwhichIwouldliketotargetthepurplebackgroundcolorandmakeitlessintenseOnewaytoapproachthisistogotothetargetcolorgroupmenushownhereandselect‘Magentas’Anotherapproachistomakethetargetmodeoptionactive(circled)andcarryoutanonimageadjustmentbydraggingonthecolorareayouwishtomodify(thiswillalsoselectthetargetcolorgroupfromthemenu)YoucanthendragtotheleftorrighttodecreaseorincreasethesaturationYou’llnoticeIalsousedtheHueandLightnesssliderstofurthermodifytheadjustmentTheMagentascolorgroupcanalsobenarroweddownInthecolorrampatthebottom,thedarkshadedarearepresentstheselectedcolorrangeandthelightershadedarea(definedbytheoutertriangularmarkers)representthefuzzinessdropoffeithersideofthecolorselectionYoucanmodifytherangeandfuzzinessoftheselectionbydraggingthesliderbarsColorselectionshortcutsTheshortcutsforselectingthecolorgroupsinHueSaturationhavechangedUseOAtoselecttheMastergroup,OAtoselecttheRedsandsoonMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersAswellasmanuallydraggingthesliders,youcanalsousetheeyedroppers(circled)toaddorsubtractfromacolorrangeselectionForthisstep,Iselectedthepluseyedropperandclickedontheedgesofhair,toaddthesecolorstotheMagentasselectionandremovethepurplecolorfromthehairHowever,you’llalsonoticethatasthecolorrampselectioniswidened,othercolorswereincludedintheselectionsuchasthelipsandthescarfThisbringsustothefinalstep,whichwastopaintontheadjustmentlayermaskwithblackinordertohidetheHueSaturationmaskandpreventthisadjustmentfromaffectingtheskintonesandthescarfPaintingwithblackrestoredthecolorsintheseregionstohowtheywereoriginallyPhoto:©JeffScheweImageeditingessentialsChapterVibranceTheVibranceadjustmentisavailableasadirectandAdjustmentpaneloption(Figure)andallowsyoutocarryoutCameraRawstyleVibranceandSaturationadjustmentsdirectlyinPhotoshopIfyoureferbacktoChapteryouwillrecallthatVibranceappliesanonlinearstylesaturationadjustmentinwhichthelesssaturatedcolorsreceivethebiggestsaturationboost,whilethosecolorsthatarealreadybrightlysaturatedremainrelativelyprotectedasyouboostthevibranceThenetresultisasaturationcontrolthatallowsyoutomakeanimagelookmorecolorful,butwithouttheattendantriskofclippingthosecolorsthataresaturatedenoughalreadyAsyoucanseeinFigurebelow,VibrancealsopreventsskintonesfrombecomingoversaturatedasyouincreasetheamountsettingAsIsay,theSaturationcontrolmatchesthatfoundinCameraRawItissimilartotheSaturationsliderinHueSaturation,butappliesaslightlygentleradjustmentFigureThisshowsacomparisonbetweenthebeforeversion(left)andtheafterversion(right),inwhichIboostedtheVibrancebyAsyoucansee,thishasmadethepurplecolorsinthebackgroundandonthescarfappearmoresaturated,butthereisamoremodestincreaseinsaturationfortheskintonesFigureTheVibranceAdjustmentpanelMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersColortemperatureColorTemperatureisatermthatlinkstheappearanceofablackbodyobjecttoitsappearanceatspecifictemperatures,measuredindegreesKelvinThinkofapieceofmetalbeingheatedinafurnaceAtfirstitwillglowredbutasitgetshotter,itemitsared,thenyellowandthenawhiteglowIndoortungstenlightinghasalowcolortemperature(amoreorangecolor),whilesunlighthasahighercolortemperatureandemitsabluerlightPhotoFilterblendingThePhotoFiltereffectivelyappliesasolidfillcolorlayerwiththeblendmodesetto‘Color’,althoughyoucanachievedifferentresultsbyusingdifferentlayerblendmodesPhotoFilterOneoftheadvantagesofshootingdigitallyisthatmostdigitalcameraswillrecordawhitebalancereadingatthetimeofcaptureandthisinformationcanbeusedtoautomaticallyprocessanimagethatismoreorlesscolorcorrectedThiscanbedoneeitherincameraorbyusingthe‘AsShot’whitebalancesettinginCameraRawwhenprocessingarawcaptureimageIfyouareshootingwithcolorfilm,theonlywaytocompensateforfluctuationsinthecolortemperatureofthelightingistousetherightfilm(daylightortungstenbalanced)and,ifpossible,usetheappropriatecolorcompensatingfiltersHowever,youcanalsocrudelyadjustthecolorbalanceinPhotoshopbyusingthePhotoFilteradjustment,whichisavailableintheImage➯AdjustmentsmenuorasanAdjustmentpaneloptionThePhotoFilteroffersapresetrangeoffiltercolors,butifyouclickontheColorbuttonyoucanselectanycoloryoulike(afterclickingonthecolorswatch)andadjusttheDensitytomodifythefilter’sstrengthFigureshowsacreativeapplicationforthePhotoFilteradjustmentFigureTheoriginalversion(left)hadastrongorangecastTomodifythisphotograph,IaddedaPhotoFilteradjustmentButinsteadofselectingafilterfromtheFilterpresetslistIclickedontheColorswatchoption(whichopenedtheColorPickerdialog)andselectedadeepbluecolortofiltertheimagewithImageeditingessentialsChapterMultipleadjustmentlayersWhenyouaddmultipleadjustmentlayersyoucanpreviewhowtheimagewilllookusingvariouscombinationsofadjustmentlayersandreadjustthesettingsasmanytimesasyouwantbeforeapplyingthempermanentlytothephotoForexample,youmightwanttousemultipleadjustmentlayerstoapplydifferentcoloringtreatmentstoapictureInsteadofproducingthreeversionsofanimage,allyouneedtodoisaddthreeadjustmentlayers,eachusingadifferentcoloringadjustment,andswitchtheadjustmentlayervisibilityonorofftoaccesseachofthecolorvariations(SavingLayerCompscanhelphere)Whileitispossibletokeepaddingmoreadjustmentlayerstoanimage,youshouldtrytoavoidanyunnecessaryduplicationofthelayersItiswrongtoassumethatwhentheimageisflattenedthecumulativeadjustmentswillsomehowmergetobecomeasingleimageadjustmentWhenyoumergedownaseriesofadjustmentlayers,Photoshopwillapplythemsequentially,thesameasifyouhadmadeaseriesofnormalimageadjustmentsSothemainthingtowatchoutforisanydoublingupoftheadjustmentlayersIfyoufindyouhaveaCurvesadjustmentlayeraboveaLevelsadjustmentlayer,itwouldbebettertotryandcombinetheLevelsadjustmentwithintheCurvesadjustmentinsteadOfcourse,whenyouusemaskedadjustmentlayerstoadjustspecificareasofapictureyoucaneasilyendupwithlotsofadjustmentlayersOnepotentialdrawbackofthisisthatitmayslowdownthescreenpreviewtimesThisslownessisnotaRAMmemoryissue,buttodowiththeextracalculationsthatarerequiredtoredrawthepixelsonthescreenIfyouthinkthisishappeningthentryswitchingoffsomeoftheadjustmentlayerswhileyouareeditingthephotographTosummarize,thechiefadvantagesofadjustmentlayersare:theabilitytodeferimageadjustmentprocessing,andtheabilitytoeditthelayersandmakeselectiveimageadjustmentsFigureThisshowsanexampleofhowadjustmentscanbegroupedtogetherandasinglemaskappliedtothecombinedgroupoflayersGroupedadjustmentsIfyouplaceyourimageadjustmentlayersinsidealayergroupyoucanusethelayergroupvisibilitytoturnmultipleimageadjustmentsonoroffatonce(seeFigure)YoucanalsoaddalayermasktoalayergroupandusethistohideorshowalltheadjustmentsinagroupFigureThisshowsanexampleofhowRepeatedadjustmentswarningItisimportanttostressherethatthepixeldatainanimagecaneasilybecomedegradedthroughrepeatedimageadjustmentsPixeldatainformationwillprogressivelybecomelostthroughsuccessiveadjustmentsasthepixelvaluesareroundedoffThisisonereasonwhyitisbettertouseadjustmentlayers,becauseyoucankeeprevisingtheseadjustmentswithoutdamagingthephotographuntilyoufinallydecidetoflattentheimageMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersAdjustmentlayermasksAlthoughtherearedodgeandburntoolsinPhotoshop,whichhavebeenimprovedinPhotoshopCS,theyarenotreallysuitedfordodgingandburningbroadareasinaphotographIfyouwanttododgeorburnaphotograph,suchasdarkenaskyorlightensomeone’sface,thenthebestwaytodothisistouseamaskedadjustmentlayerThisisnottosaythatthedodgeandburntoolsservenouseEventhoughtheyhavebeenimprovedinCS,theyarejustnotidealforthistypeofphotographicretouchingWorkingwithadjustmentlayersisbyfarthebestwaytoshadeorlightenportionsofanimage,becauseyouhavethefreedomtoreeditanadjustmentlayertomaketheadjustmentlighterordarkerAdjustmentlayershaveanactivelayermask,whichmeansthatwheneveranadjustmentlayerisactive,youcanpaintorfillusingblacktoselectivelyhideanadjustmenteffect,andpaintorfillwithwhitetorevealagainPlusyoucanalsokeepeditingtheadjustmentlayermask(paintingwithblackorwhite)untilyouarehappywiththequalityofthemask(seeFigure)MaskspanelcontrolsTheMaskspanel(Figure)isalsonewtoPhotoshopCSandcanbeusedtorefinethemaskormasksassociatedwithalayerLayermaskingisatopicI’llbediscussingmorefullyinChapterbut,becauseitisrelevanttomaskingadjustmentlayers,IthoughtitbesttobrieflyintroducetheMaskspanelfeaturesherefirstAdjustmentlayersareaddedtothelayerstackwithapixelmaskattached,sothedefaultmodefortheMaskspanelwillshowthePixelmaskmodeoptionsIfyouclickontheVectormaskmodebuttonnexttoit,youcanaddandeditavectorlayermask(seeSteponpage)YoucantellwhichmodeisactivebecauseitwillsayPixelMaskorVectormaskatthetopofthepanelandtherelevantmodebuttonwillhaveastrokedborderTheDensityslidercanbeusedtoadjustthedensityofthemaskIfyouapplyablackmaskthiswillnormallyFigureThisshowsanexampleofadarkeningadjustmentlayerappliedtoanimage,butwithablacktowhitegradientappliedtothelayermasktofadeouttheadjustmentfromthemiddleoftheimagedownwardsoew(MTCwmminigureThisshowsanexampleofa‘Stalkers’byTheWrongSizePhotograph:©EricRichmondImageeditingessentialsChapterFigureTheMaskspanelcontrolsFigureTheRefineEdgedialog(seeChapterformoreinformationonusingRefineEdge)hidealltheblackmaskedcontentsonalayer,butifyoureducetheDensity,thislightenstheblackmaskcolorandthereforeallowsyoutosoftenthecontrastofthemaskSo,whenDensityissetto,theblackmaskcolorswillonlyapplyaopacitymaskandthelightermaskcolorswillbeproportionallyreducedTheFeatherslidercanbeusedtosoftenthemaskedgesuptoapixelradiusBeneaththisthoughistheMaskEdgebuttonwhichwillopentheRefineEdgedialog(Figure),whereyou’llfindyouhaveevengreatercontroloverthemaskedgesandsoftnessTheColorRangebuttonallowsyoutomakeselectionsbasedoncolorsthatareintheimageyouareeditingThismeansthatyoucanselectcolorstoaddorsubtractfromaColorRangeselectionandseetheresultsapplieddirectlyasamaskBeneaththatistheInvertbuttonforreversingamaskingeffectandatthebottomofthepanelareoptionsforconvertingamasktoaselection,deletingthemaskandapplyingittothelayer,enablingdisablingthemaskandaDeletebuttontoremovethemaskFeathersliderConvertmasktoaselectionApplymasktolayerEnabledisablemaskDensitysliderMaskpreviewVectormaskmodeMaskspaneloptionsRefinemaskedgesMakeaColorRangeselectionInvertthemaskDeletemaskPixelmaskmodeVRMIDMEMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersYoucanaddavignetteinPhotoshopbyaddingadarkeningLevels(orCurves)adjustment,makinganellipticalselectionandfillingthepixelmaskwithblackIfyougototheMaskspanelyoucanincreasetheFeatheramounttomakethehardmaskedgesofterMaskspaneleditingImageeditingessentialsChapterButlet’ssayIwantedtosoftenthetransitionbetweenthemaskedandunmaskedareasBydecreasingtheDensityonecanmaketheblackareasofthemasklighterandtherebyrevealmoreoftheadjustmenteffectinthecenteroftheimageThistechniqueisnotjustlimitedtopixelmasksThislaststepshowshowIcouldhavestartedwithasubtractiveellipticalpenpathshape,appliedthisasaVectormaskandusedtheexactsameMaskspanelsettingstosoftenthemaskedgeMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersColorRangeadjustmentlayermaskingInthisexampleIwantedtodemonstratehowtousetheMaskspanelcontrolsinconjunctionwithanimageadjustmenttomodifytheimageshownhere,sothatIcouldsimultaneouslycontroltheadjustmenteffectandtheadjustmentmaskingTostartwith,IaddedanewHueSaturationadjustmentlayerIthenwenttotheMaskspanelandclickedontheColorRangebutton,whichopenedtheColorRangedialogshownhereWiththeLocalizedColorClustersoptionchecked,Iusedthepluseyedroppertooltoaddcolorsamplestotheselection,samplingthebluesinthecentralareaofthephotographwhileavoidingthewallsIthenadjustedtheFuzzinessandRange,tillIwashappywiththewaytheselectionlooked,andclickedOKtotheColorRangeselectionImageeditingessentialsChapterIthenwenttotheMaskspanelandfeatheredtheselection,addingapixelfeatherYoucanseeapreviewofthemaskinboththesmallMaskspanelpreviewaswellasintheLayerspanelAllIneededtodonowwastoadjusttheHueSaturationslidersintheAdjustmentspanelForthisstepIdecidedtomakesomeofthebluecolorsmoregreenandreducethecolorsaturationslightlyThemainthingtolearnfromthisparticularexampleisthatyoucanswitchbackandforthbetweentheAdjustmentspanelandtheMaskspaneltoreedittheadjustmenteffectandmaskingWhenyoucombinetheeaseofadjustmenteditingwiththepowerofthenewMaskspanelandColorRangeselections,PhotoshopCShasthepotentialtoallowyoutomakeselectionsandmodifyimageslikeneverbeforePhotograph:©EricRichmondMartinEveningAdobePhotoshopCSforPhotographersBlendmodeadjustmentsYoucanlighten,darkenoraddcontrasttoanimagebyaddinganadjustmentlayerabovetheBackgroundlayer(oratthetopofthelayerstack)andsimplychangetheblendmodetoScreen,MultiplyorOverlayYoudon’tneedtoapplyaspecificimageadjustment,justaddaneutraladjustmentlayer(anywilldo)andselectoneoftheabovelayerblendingmodesTheScreenmodecanbeusedtolightenanimage,MultiplytodarkenandOverlaytoaddmorecontrastYoucouldachievethesametypeofresultbyduplicatingtheBackgroundlayerandchangingtheblendmodeoftheduplicatelayer,butthisisactuallyquiteunnecessaryandyou’llendupwithanimagethatistwicethefilesize,whereasaddinganadjustmentlayerwillnormallyincreasethefilesizebyjustafewkilobytesBlendmodesareineffectashorthandforapplyingdifferent,setvalueCurvesadjustmentsForexample,thelateBruceFraserdevisedasemiautomatedworkflowinwhichherecordedseparatePhotoshopactionstoapplyaScreen,MultiplyofOverlayneutraladjustmentlayerandfilledthelayermaskwithblackAllhehadtodothenwasselectapaintbrushorgradienttooltopaintonthelayermaskandrevealtheadjustmenteffectFigureHereisthefirstoftwoexamplesshowinghowyoucanuseblendmodestoadjustanimageInthisexampleIdraggedtheBackgroundlayerdowntotheNewLayerpanelbuttontomakeaduplicatelayerandchangedthelayerblendingmodefromNormaltoMultiplyWhentheimagewassaved,thefilesizedoubledtoMBdlwSfismBYa(bnntuFigureHereisthefirstoftwoexamplesThisshowsaphotographprocessedusingthedefaultCameraRawsettingsFigureInthisexampleIaddedanewLevelsadjustmentlayer,butdidn’tapplyanychangestotheLevelssettingsIthenchangedtheadjustmentlay

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