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首页 Advice for a Young Investigator.pdf

Advice for a Young Investigator.pdf

Advice for a Young Investigator…

Jiye Qian 2010-12-18 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Advice for a Young Investigatorpdf》,可适用于战略管理领域,主题内容包含AdviceforaYoungInvestigatorSantiagoRamónyCajalTranslatedbyNeelySwansonandL符等。

AdviceforaYoungInvestigatorSantiagoRamónyCajalTranslatedbyNeelySwansonandLarryWSwansonABradfordBookTheMITPressCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyThisworkoriginallyappearedinSpanishunderthetitleReglasyConsejossobreInvestigaciónCientifica:LostónicosdelavoluntadThisbookwassetinPalatinobyWellingtonGraphicsandwasprintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRamónyCajal,Santiago,ReglasyconsejossobreinvestigacioncientificaEnglishAdviceforayounginvestigatorSRamónyCajaltranslatedbyNeelySwansonandLarryWSwansonpcm“ABradfordbook”IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)ResearchScientistsITitleQARForewordSantiagoRamónyCajal(–)isoneofthemorefascinatingpersonalitiesinscienceAboveallhewasthemostimportantneuroanatomistsinceAndreasVesalius,theRenaissancefounderofmodernbiologyHowever,Cajalwasalsoathoughtfulandinspiredteacher,hemadeseverallastingcontributionstoSpanishliterature(hisautobiography,apopularbookofaphorisms,andreºectionsonoldage),andhewroteoneoftheearlybooksonthetheoryandpracticeofcolorphotographyFurthermore,hewasanexceptionalartist,perhapsthebestevertodrawthecircuitsofthebrain,whichhecouldneverphotographtohissatisfactionInhisearlythirties,CajalwroteandillustratedtheªrstoriginaltextbookofhistologyinSpain,whichremainedastandardthroughouthislifetimeTheªrstdraftofhisuniquebookofpractical,fatherlyadvicetoyoungpeopleintheearlystagesoftheirresearchcareerswasbegunsoonaftermovingtothechairofhistologyandpathologicalanatomyattheUniversityofMadridaboutadecadelaterwhenhealsowrotetheªrstmajorreviewofhisinvestigationswithCamilloGolgi’ssilverchromatemethod:NewIdeasontheStructureoftheNervousSystem()LSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPviiThissuccinctbookredeªnedhowbraincircuitshadbeendescribedInit,CajalpresentedhistologicalevidencethatthecentralnervoussystemisnotasyncytiumorreticulumofcellsascommonlybelievedatthetimeInstead,itconsistsofindividualneuronsthatusuallyconductinformationinjustonedirectionTheinformationoutputoftheneuronisdownasingleaxonanditsbranchestoterminalboutonsthatendonorneartheinputsideofanotherneuron(itscellbodyanddendrites)Cajalhaddiscoveredthesynapseandwithfundamentalinsightwentontodescribetheorganizationofallthemajorneuralsystemsintermsofchainsofindependentneuronsandtheconceptoffunctionalpolarity(unidirectionalinformationºowincircuits)Hewastheªrsttoexplaininmoderntermstheorganizationofreºexandvoluntarycontrolpathwaystothemotorsystem,andthisconceptualadvancewasthestructuralfoundationofSirCharlesSherrington’smodernphysiologicalexplanationofreºexesandtheircontrolBythetimetheAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorwasªnallypublished,hewasbeginningtosynthesizethevastresearchthatestablishedhisreputationinathreevolumemasterpiece,theHistologyoftheNervousSysteminManandVertebrates(–)SotheAdvicebecameapopularvehicleforCajaltowritedownthethoughtsandanecdoteshewouldgivetostudentsandcolleaguesabouthowtomakeimportantoriginalcontributionsinanybranchofscience,anditwassosuccessfulthatthethirdeditionisstillinprint(inSpanish)PartoftheAdviceisbasedonananalysisofhisownsuccess,whiletherestcomesfromajudiciousselectionofwisdomfromotherplacesandotherpeople’slivesNevertheless,itisobviouslyCajal’sanalysisofhisownscientiªccareerAssuch,itisdeeplyembeddedincontemporarySpanishcultureandinthechildhoodofacountrydoctor’sviiiForewordLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPviiisonHardwork,ambition,patience,humility,seriousness,andpassionforwork,family,andcountrywereamongthetraitsheconsideredessentialButaboveall,mastertechniqueandproduceoriginaldataalltherestwillfollowItisinterestingtocompareCajalthewriterandCajalthescientistAsadistinguishedauthorofadvice,autobiography,andreºectionsonlife,hedisplayedacomplexmixtureoftheromantic,idealist,patriot,andrealistAndasenseofhumorisobviousinhisdelightfulchapterhereondiseasesofthewill,wherestereotypesofeccentricscientistsarediagnosedaccordingtosymptomswehaveallseen,andtheirprognosisdiscussedInstarkcontrast,hisscientiªcpublicationsarealmostruthlesslysystematic,descriptive,anddeductiveHeoncewrotethathisaccountofnervoussystemstructurewasnotbasedontheappearanceofanervecellhereandthere,butontheanalysisofmillionsofneuronsBecauseCajalrevealedsomuchabouthisthoughtsandfeelingsintheAdviceandinhisautobiography,ReºectionsonMyLife,itiseasytoseehisgeniusaswellashisºawsHedealswithmanybroadissuesofmorals,religion,andpatriotismthatareoftenavoided,invariablygeneratecontroversy,andgoinandoutoffashionHowever,itisimportanttobearinmindthathewaswritinginthelatenineteenthcenturytoaspiringresearchersinhisnativeSpain,whichatthetimewasnotoneofthescientiªcallyandpoliticallyelitecountriesofEuropeThus,someofhisadvicemaynowappeardatedorirrelevanttoyoungpeopleinNorthAmericaandEuropewhoenjoyrelativepeace,prosperity,andintellectualsecurityHowever,itmaybecomerelevanttothemsometimeinthefuture,anditstillappliestomanyotherculturesThistranslationisbasedontwosources,thefourtheditionofReglasyConsejossobreInvestigaciónBiológica(lostonicosdelavoluntad)(),andanEnglishtranslationofthesixthForewordixLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPixeditionbyJMaSanchezPerez,whichwaseditedandannotatedbyCBCourvilleasPreceptsandCounselsinScientiªcInvestigationStimulantsoftheSpirit()WehadoriginallythoughtthatitwouldbeworthwhilesimplytoreprinttheSanchezPerezandCourvillework,butªnallydecidedthatthetranslationwastooliteral,andinsomefewcasesinaccurate,fortoday’sstudentsOurgoalhasbeentowriteamodernratherthanliteraltranslation,retainingasmuchºavoroftheoriginalaswecouldThefourtheditionwaspublishedwhenCajalwasoversixty,andwasneversubstantiallyrevisedagainThelaterSpanisheditionshavetwochaptersattheendthatareconcernedprimarilywithconditionsinSpainatthetime,andtheyhavenotbeentranslatedbecauseoftheirlimitedrelevancetodayWethankGracielaSanchezWattsforhelpwithtranslatingcertaindifªcultpassagesLarryWSwansonLosAngeles,February,SelectedReadingAlbarracín,A()SantiagoRamónyCajalolaPasióndeEspaña,withanintroductionbyPLEntralgoBarcelona:LaborAnexcellentcollectionofphotographsandinformationaboutCajalCajal,SRamóny()Lesnouvellesidéessurlastructuredusystèmenerveuxchezl’hommeetchezlesvertébrés,translatedbyLAzoulay,withaprologuebyMDuvalParis:ReinwaldetCieForEnglishtranslationbyNSwansonandLWSwanson,seeNewIdeasontheStructureoftheNervousSysteminManandVertebratesCambridge,MA:TheMITPressCajal,SRamóny()FundamentosRacionalesyCondicionesTéchnicasdelaInvestigaciónBiológicaDiscursoleîdoantelaRealAcademiadeCienciasExactas,FísicasyNaturalesenlarecepcióndelSrDSantiagoRamónyCajaleldíadediciembredeMadrid:LAguadoTheªrstappearanceoftheAdviceinprintThetitleReglasyConsejossobreInvestigaciónBiológicaxForewordLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxwasusedinthesecondedition(Madrid:Fortanet,),and(lostonicosdelavoluntad)wasaddedtothefourthedition(Madrid:Fortanet,)Cajal,SRamóny(,)Histologiedusystèmenerveuxdel’hommeetdesvertébrés,vols,translatedbyLAzoulayParis:MaloineForEnglishtranslationbyNSwansonandLWSwansonseeHistologyoftheNervousSystemofManandVertebrates,volsNewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,Cajal,SRamóny()ReglasyConsejossobreInvestigaciónBiológica(lostonicosdelavoluntad),fourtheditionMadrid:FortanetCajal,SRamóny()PreceptsandCounselsinScientiªcInvestigationStimulantsoftheSpirit,translatedbyJMaSanchezPerez,editedandannotatedbyCBCourvilleMountainView,CA:PaciªcPressPublishingAssociationCajal,SRamóny()RamonyCajal,–,ExpedientesadministrativosdegrandesEspañoses,volsMadrid:MinisteriodeEducacionyCienciaAnincrediblecollectionofCajalmemorabiliaCajal,SRamóny()RecollectionsofMyLife,translatedbyEHCraigiewiththeassistanceofJCanoCambridge,MA:TheMITPressAclassicofscientiªcautobiographyCajal,SRamóny()ReglasyConsejossobreInvestigaciónBiológica(lostonicosdelavoluntad),thirdedition,thirteenthEspasaCalpeprinting,withaprologuebySOchoaMadrid:EspasaCalpeCraigie,EHandWCGibson()TheWorldofRamónyCajal,withSelectionsfromHisNonscientiªcWritingsSpringªeld,IL:CCThomasDeFelipe,J,andEGJones()CajalontheCerebralCortexNewYork:OxfordUniversityPressDeFelipe,J,andEGJones()SantiagoRamónyCajalandmethodsinneurohistologyTrendsinNeurosciences,:–Romero,A()FotograªaAragonesa:RamonyCajalZaragoza:DiputaciónProvincialdeZaragozaAwonderfulcollectionofrarephotographsForewordxiLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxiPrefacetotheSecondEditionPaidforthroughthegenerosityofDrLluriaThisbookletisareproduction,withseveralimprovementsandelaborations,ofmyspeechontheoccasionofbeinginductedintotheAcademiadeCienciasExactas,FísicasyNaturales(atthemeetingonDecember,)Aswithmanyotheracademicspeechesthataremoredeservingofattentionthanours,itremainedforgottenontheshelvesofofªciallibrariesuntilourdearfriendDrLluriagenerouslyreprinteditathisownexpenseasagifttostudentsandothersinterestedinscienceDrLluria(mayGodblesshimwithbeautifulvisions)believedthattheadviceandobservationscontainedinthisworkmay,likethefeelingsassociatedwithintenseresearch,helppromoteinouryouthaloveandenthusiasmforlaboratorystudyHowever,Idon’tknowwhethertheadvice,whichisexpressedwithsuchexaggeratedpassion,willhaveanypositiveeffectonthetrainingofinvestigatorsIsaythisonlybecauseIgotnosuchadvicefromrelativesorteacherswhenformingtherecklessdesiretodevotemyselftothereligionofthelaboratoryAtthetime,Iwasusuallydoingthingsthatdidn’twork,waslost,andmoreLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxiiithanoncewashopelesslydiscouragedaboutmyabilitytopursuelaboratoryscienceHowever,thereweresuccesses,despitemyignoranceoftheliterature(unfortunately,notonlythroughlackofdiligencebutalsothroughlackoffunds)andaninabilitytoªndanyonewhocouldguideme,tohelpmediscoveranatomicalstudiesthatwerealreadypublishedinlanguagesthatIdidn’tknowbutshouldhaveAndthereweresomanytimesforlackofdisciplineandmorethananythingforlivingsofarfromthekindofscientiªcatmospherethatstimulatesandenergizestheyounginvestigatorthatIthoughtaboutabandoningmywork,tiredanddisgusted(asmuchfromtheworkasfrommysadandexhaustingisolation),untilIbegantoseetheªrsttenuousºashesofanewidea!ScientiªcroutineandmentalservitudetoforeignopinionreigneddespoticallyinourschoolswhenI,ahumblephysicianandrecentgraduateofthelecturehallswithnoprestigiousofªcialcredentials,announcedthatIwouldpublishanexperimentalstudyoninºammation(asanyyouthfulstudy,itwaspoorandincomplete,butdemonstratedgoodintentionsandaloveofresearch)OneoftheprofessorsatmybelovedUniversityofZaragoza(andcertainlynotoneoftheworst)wasstupeªed:“WhoisCajaltodarechallengetheworkofscholars!”Atthetime(),thisprofessorwastheuniversitypublicistandoneofitsmostmodernandopenmindedthinkersHowever,hewasdefendingthebelief(which,unfortunately,isstillprofessedbysomanyofourintellectuals,whoaregenuinelyignorantoraresimplyjustifyingtheirownlazinessundertheguiseofexpediency)thatscientiªcdiscoveriesarenotthefruitofmethodicallabor,butinsteadaregiftsfromGodgiftsgenerouslybestowedbyProvidenceonafewpriviledgedsoulsinvariablyxivPrefacetotheSecondEditionLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxivbelongingtothehardestworkingnations,inotherwordsFrance,England,Germany,andItalyTimeshavechangedcompletelyToday,theinvestigatorinSpainnolongerworksinisolationWhilenotlarge,thereisneverthelessagroupofyoungenthusiastswhostayinconstantcommunicationabouttheirideasandfeelingsbecauseoftheirloveforscienceanddesiretocollaborateonthemagnumopusofprogressToday,atlast,thequestionsthatallaªcionadosofscienceaskwhentakingtheªrstuncertainstepsalongthepathofresearchhavelosttheirdesperateinhibitorygrasp:WhocareswhatIdoTowhomwillIconªdethejoythatmysmalldiscoveryhasgivenme,someonewhowillnotsmilesarcasticallyorentertherealmofannoyingcompassionIfItriumph,whowillapplaudAndifIamuncertain,whowillcorrectmeandprovidetheencouragementtogoonUndertheguiseoffriendlycriticism,somereadersofthisdiscoursehavewarnedmethatIplacefartoomuchemphasisonthedisciplineofwillpowerandnotenoughontheexceptionalaptitudesofgreatinvestigatorsIwouldbethelasttodenythatthegreatestscientiªcpioneersbelongedtoanaristocracyofthespiritandwereexceptionallyintelligent,somethingthatweasmodestinvestigatorswillneverattain,nomatterhowmuchweexertourselvesNevertheless,beforemakingthisconcessionwhichisentirelyjustiªedIcontinuetobelievethatthereisalwaysroomforanyonewithaverageintelligenceandaneagernessforrecognitiontoutilizehisenergyandtemptfateLikethelottery,fatedoesn’talwayssmileontherichfromtimetotimeitbringsjoytothehomesofthelowlyInstead,considerthepossibilitythatanymancould,ifheweresoinclined,bethesculptorofhisownbrain,andthateventheleastgiftedmay,PrefacetotheSecondEditionxvLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxvlikethepoorestlandthathasbeenwellcultivatedandfertilized,produceanabundantharvestIcouldbemistaken,butconversationswithillustriousscholarsduringmytravelsabroadleadmetothesincerebeliefthatmostofthemhavenormalintelligence,althoughithasbeenhighlyreªned,andthattheyaredrivenbyanardentlongingforfameButmorethanthat,onoccasionIhavemetrenownedscholarswhoseintelligenceandemotionalqualitiesareinferiortotheverydiscoveriesthatraisedthemfromobscuritydiscoveriesthatweremadethroughtheblindandunexpectedworkingsofchanceTheexampleofCourtoisismorecommonthanmanyrealizeoneingeniouswriterhaspointedoutthatitisunclearwhetherhediscoverediodineoriodinediscoveredhimInanyevent,whatdoesitcosttoprovewhetherornotwehavetheabilitytocreateoriginalscienceIntheend,howcanweknowwhetherthereisagiftofexceptionalaptitudeforscienceamongusifwedon’ttrytocreatetheopportunityforittobeexpressed,undertheinºuenceofªrstratemoralandtechnicaldisciplineAsBalmespointedout,“IfHerculeshadnevertriedtohandleanythingmorethanastick,heneverwouldhavehadtheconªdencetobrandishaheavyclub”Ihopethatthismodestbooklet,whichismeantforstudiousyoungpeople,willservetoincreasetheirloveforlaboratoryworkIalsohopethatitwillrekindletheaspirationsofthosewhobelieveinourintellectualandscientiªcrebirth,whichhavefallensomewhatinthelightofseriousrecentmisfortunes!Madrid,December,xviPrefacetotheSecondEditionLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxviPrefacetotheThirdEditionTheeditiongenerouslypaidforbyDrLluriahasbeenoutofprintformorethanthreeyearsTosatisfyAmericandemand,wewereobligedtoreprintthisbookletintwooftheirscientiªcjournalsWealsograntedthesamelicensetoaSpanishliteraryscientiªccorporationwhenwerealizedthatabandoningthisirrelevantlittlebookwouldbeasinofnegligence,aswellasdisadvantageousWehavenoillusionsaboutthemeritofourdiscourse:ithasmajordefectsfromboththephilosophicalandliterarypointsofviewNevertheless,wehaveundoubtedlymanagedtoenrichandimprovethetext,alongwithcorrectingseveralºaws,byamorethoroughandselectivereadingofthephilosophicalandpedagogicalliterature,andbytheexperiencegainedduringanadditionalªfteenyearsofteachingButmorethananything,thepostscriptwhichwasaddedtotheendofthesecondeditionatDrLluria’srequesthasbeencompletelyrewrittenThiswasawrenchingtaskbecauseananguishedheartcannotcontroltherhythmofitsbeatItwouldhavebeeninopportuneandindiscreetunderthecircumstancestoreprintitnowasitappearedthenLSHORTREGULARLLONGJOB#CAJALAdviceforaYoungInvestigatorFMCHPPxviiHowever,wedecidednottoundertakeadetailededitingofthismodestlittleproductofyouthWhethergoodorbad,everybookhasaspiritualpersonalityThepublicknowsthisanddemandsthattheauthorrespectittheydonotwantitreplacedundertheguiseofimprovementAndthiscouldveryeasilyhappentoday,when,onthethresholdofoldage,weappear(andoccasionallyare)somehowdefectiveItispreciselythisfeaturethatattractsthereader’sattentionandgainshissympathyjustaswithmen,weadmireandrespectbooksfortheirgoodqualitiesbutwecanonlylovethemforcertainfaultsthattheydisplaySo,intheeventthatthisfeelingisnotanillusion,wepreservedessentiallythesameºavorinthisthirdeditionofthetextWemaderelativelyfewalterationsinstyleandaddedonlyaparagraphhereandtheretohelpexplaincertainideasthatwerehighlightedsuperªciallyinthetextInaddition,however,thepresenteditioncontainsseveralnewchapters,includingtheªnalonewhereweoutlinetothebestofourhumbleunderstandingtheworkthattheSpanisheducationalinstitutions

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