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首页 无老师力荐iBT新托福综合写作满分范文

无老师力荐iBT新托福综合写作满分范文.doc

无老师力荐iBT新托福综合写作满分范文

无老师
2010-12-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《无老师力荐iBT新托福综合写作满分范文doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

TPO范文:Thelecturerclaimsthatthenewpolicy,whichallowspeopletoworkfourdaysaweekinsteadoffive,willhavenegativeeffectsforcompaniesaswellassocietyThisclaimisnotinagreementwiththatofthereadingpassage,whichsuggeststhatsuchapolicywillbebeneficialAccordingtothelecture,acompanythatallowsemployeestohavefewerworkinghoursislikelytohiremorepeopletoensurethatitmeetsnormallevelsofproductivityIfthisoccurs,expensesfortrainingandmedicalinsurancewillinevitablyriseThereadingpassage,bycontrast,suggeststhatemployeeswhoenjoymoreleisuretimemakefewermistakesandworkmoreefficiently,leadingtoincreasedprofitsfortheenterpriseThesecondpointofdifferencebetweenthelectureandthereadingpassageconcernstheimpactofthepolicyontheunemploymentrateThelecturerassertsthatforthesakeofsavingmoney,employersmightraisetheirexpectationsofdayemployeesratherthanrecruitmorepeopleConsequently,employeeswhoworkdayswillbeforcedtofinishwhattheydidindayspreviously,andnoadditionaljobswillbecreatedFinally,thelecturerarguesthatunderthenewpolicy,employeeswillexperiencenotonlydecreasedqualityoflife(asshorterworkinghourswilltranslateintolesspay),butalsofewerchancestobepromotedtosupervisorypositionsHowever,thereadingpassagecontendsthatmoreleisurehourscancreateopportunitiestostrengthenfamilytiesandallowemployeestodevelopprivateinterests,makingthemfeelmoresatisfiedwiththeirlivesTPO(ETS满分版)ThelecturertalksaboutresearchconductedbyafirmthatusedthegroupsystemtohandletheirworkHesaysthatthetheorystatedinthepassagewasverydifferentandsomewhatinaccuratewhencomparedtowhathappenedinrealityFirst,somemembersgotfreeridesThatis,somedidn’tworkhardbutgotrecognitionforthesuccessnonthelessThisalsoindicatesthatpeoplewhoworkedhardwerenotgivenrecognitiontheyshouldhavegottenInotherwords,theyweren’tgiventheopportunityto“shine”ThisdirectlycontradictswhatthepassageindicatesSecond,groupswereslowinprogressThepassagesaysthatgroupsaremoreresponsivethanindividualsbecauseofthenumberofpeopleinvolvedandtheiraggregatedresourcesHowever,thespeakertalksabouthowthefirmfoundoutthatgroupswereslowerthanindividualsindecisionmakingGroupsneededmoretimeformeetings,whicharenecessaryproceduresindecisionmakingThiswasanotherplacewhereexperiencecontradictedtheoryThird,influentialpeoplemightemergeandleadthegrouptowardsgloryorfailureIftheinfluentpeoplearegoingintherightdirectiontherewouldbenoproblemButincaseswheretheygointhewrongdirection,thereisnobodythathasenoughinfluencetocounterthedecisionmadeInotherwords,thegroupmightturnintoadictatorship,withtheinfluentialpartyastheleader,andmightbecomelessflexibleinitsthinkingTheymightbecomeonesided,andthusfailtosucceedRatingannotation:Onceyoucanreadpastwhatseemtobetheresultsofpoortyping,thisBenchmarkdoesanexcellentjobofpresentingthepointsaboutthecontributionandrecognitionofgroupmembersaswellasaboutspeedofgroupdecisionsThefinalparagraphcontainsonenoticeableerror(“influent”),whichisthenusedcorrectlytwosentenceslater(“influential”)Overall,thisisasuccessfulresponseandscoredwithin(thoughperhapsnotatthetopof)thelevelTPO(满分范文)Thelecturerevisestheideapresentedinthetext,thatRembrandtwasnottheartistwhopaintedthefamouspainting"PortraitofanElderlyWomaninaWhiteBonnet”Theinconsistencybetweenthewhitecap,whichidentifiesthewomanasaservant,andtheexpensivefurcollarshewearsdissolvesastheProfessorexplainsthatthefurcollarwasapparentlypaintedovertheoriginalpaintingtoincreaseitsworthbydisplayinganaristocraticwomanInaddition,theassumptionthatlightandshadowinthepaintingdonotfittogetherisrefutedbythefactthatintheoriginalpainting,thewomanwearsalightcloththatilluminatedherfaceThusthepresentationoflightandshadowwasindeedveryrealisticandaccurate,asitischaracteristicofRembrandt’spaintingsFinally,themysteryofthepanelconsistingofpatchesgluedtogetherisalsosolvedinthelectureActually,thewoodpanelwaslaterenlargedtomakeitmoregrandandvaluable,buttheoriginalpaintingwaspaintedonasinglepanel,asRembrandtwouldhavedoneitFurthermore,thewoodisofthesametreeusedinotherRembrandtpaintings,likethe"SelfPortraitwithaHat”AllthisinformationpointstoRembrandtasthepainterofthecontroversialpaintingTPO(满分版)TheprofessoractuallycontradictsthestatementsmadeinthepassageSheisoftheviewthatdinosaursarenotendothermsietheywerenotabletokeeptheirbodytemperatureataconstantrateTheprofessorcontradictstheissueofdinosaursbeingendothermsbasedontheavailabilityoffossilsbeingavailableinthepolarregions,shesaythatthepolarregionsinthosedayswerenotascoldastheyaretodayieatleastwarmenoughfordinosaurstoliveDuringharshwintersshesaysthatthereisapossibilityofthedinosaursactuallymigratingtowarmerregionsTheissueoflegpositionandmovementbeingusedasareasontoclassifythedinosaursasendothermsdoesnotpleasetheprofessoreitherShesaysthatdinosaurshadlegsundertheirbodiestosupporttheirhugebodiesiethelegsunderthebodyofthedinosaurwereactuallytosupportthehugeweightofthedinosaurandnottoprovideitwithabodystructurelikeendotherms(whichisactuallysuitedforrunning)TheprofessoracknowledgesthepresenceofhaversiancanalsbutalsopointsoutthatthatthefossilsshowthepresenceofgrowthringsTheseringsoccurduetothethickeningoftheboneThethickeningindicatesthatthedinosaursweren’tactuallygrowingcontinuouslybutwereexperiencingperiodsofrapidgrowthandperiodsofnogrowthinsuccessionThispatternShesaysischaracteristicofnonendothermicanimalsThusitcanbeinferredthattheprofessorchallengesthepassagebygivingreasonsastowhyshethinksthatthedinosaurisnotanendothermTPOTheauthorofthereadingpassageproposesthreetheoriesaslikelyexplanationsoftheprimaryfunctionofChacoCanyonhouses,grantstructuresbuiltintheIthcenturyThelecturer,however,pointstotheinaccuraciesineachofthesetheoriesThelecturerarguesthatthemodestnumberoffireplacesinthesestructuresisincontradictionwiththehugesizeofthesehouses,indicatingthatthesestructurescouldnothavebeenusedforResidentialpurposesTheReading,however,drawscomparisonsbetweentheChacohousesandothersimilarlargeResidentialstructuresinsupportofthe"Residential"theoryThesecondtheory,thatthehouseswereusedforfoodstorage,isalsorejectedbythelecturerHeexplainsthataplacethathadbeenusedforstoringmaizewouldhavemanytracesofscatteredMaize,whichisnotthecaseintheareaoftheChacoCanyonhousesThisprovesthatthe"foodstoragetheory"isunlikelyFinally,regardingthethirdtheory,the"ceremonytheory'',thelecturercontendsthatthepresenceofbrokenpotsclosetothegreathousesdoesnotoffersufficientproofthatthiswasaplaceforceremonialactivitiesHearguesthatthereareothermaterialssuchaspiecesofconstructiontrashfoundalongwiththebrokenpots,whichsuggestthatthesepotswereprobablynotusedforceremonialpurposesbutinsteadwerediscardedbyconstructionworkersuponcompletionofthegreathousesTPOThelectureraddresseseachofthethreecriticismsofcommunalonlineencyclopediasmentionedintheReadingpassageThelectureradmitsthatcommunalonlineencyclopedias,likeanyreferencebook,maycontainerrors,butsheclaimsthattheseerrorscanbecorrectedmuchmoreeasilyandquicklythanthoseprintedinapaperencyclopediaTheReadingpassage,incontrast,pointstotheinaccuracyofinformationinonlineencyclopedias,presentingtheargumentthaterrorsintheseresourcesareduetolackofprofessionalknowledgeamongcontributorsThelecturerthengivestwostrategiesthathavebeenprovenveryeffectiveinprotectingonlineencyclopediasfrommaliciousalterationSheexplainsthatcontentsthatconsistofindisputablefactsarestoredandpresentedinareadonlyformatsothatnobodycanmakechangestothemInaddition,shesays,therearespecialistswhoconstantlymonitorcontentsonlinesothattheycanquicklyremoveasuspiciouschangeonceitisdetectedThelectureralsochallengesthefinalpointinthereadingregardingthenatureoftopicscoveredinonlineencyclopediasShesaysthatbecauseofvirtuallyunlimitedspaceontheInternetthereisnoneedtoworryaboutwhatisimportantenoughforinclusioninanonlineencyclopediaMoreover,thegreatervarietyoftopicsinonlineencyclopediasmoretrulyreflectsthegenuineinterestsofthegeneralpublic,evenifsomeofthesetopicsarelessseriousoracademicthanthoseintraditionalencyclopediasTPOThelectureandthereadingpassagegivecontradictoryopinionsonthetopicofecocertification,aformofaccreditationconferredbyoninternationalagencyinrecognitionofacompany'secofriendlypracticesThepassageexplainsthatitisnotnecessaryforAmericanwoodcompaniestopursueecocertificationwhilethelectureprovidesseveralcounterargumentstothisviewFirst,thelecturerarguesthatthereadingpassageistoogeneralinitsstatementthatAmericanconsumersrejectadvertisingcompletelyHeassertsthatAmericansdonottrustadvertisingclaimsforaproductonlywhentheseclaimsaremadebythecompanythatsellstheproductWhenaclaimismadebyanindependentthirdpartysuchasawoodcertificationcompany,heposits,consumersrespondverypositivelywithstrongacceptanceofthecertifiedproductThelectureralsorefutesthesecondpointinthereadingthatpricesensitiveAmericanconsumersarelikelytochoosecheapwoodproductswithoutcertificationTheprofessorcontendsthatcertifiedwoodisonlyslightly(lessthan)moreexpensivethanuncertifiedwood,andtherefore,heargues,consumerswilltendtoignorethepricedifferenceandchoosetheecofriendlyproductFinally,receivingecocertificationis,accordingtotheprofessor,animportantstrategyusedbyAmericanwoodcompaniestoensurethattheirproductscancompeteagainstecocertifiedwoodproductsimportedintothedomesticmarketfromforeigncountriesAccordingtothereading,however,thisstrategyisunnecessarybecauseAmericanconsumersarelikelytobecontentwithdomesticallymanufacturedproducts,eveniftheyarenotecocertifiedTPOTheReadingpassageraisesseveraldoubtsabouttheaccuracyofthememoirwrittenbytheChevalierdeSeingalt,whereastheprofessordefendsthememoirinthelecturebyclarifyingtheseemingcontradictionsintheChevalier'saccountsTheprofessorarguesthatbecausetheChevalierwasrichinassetsbutpoorincashwhilehewaslivinginSwitzerland,heoccasionallyhadtoborrowfundstopayforexpensiverecreationalactivitiesAccordingtotheprofessor,havinglowamountsofcashisnotthesameasbeingfinanciallypoorThereading,however,holdsthatassomeonewhohadtoborrowlargeamountsofmoneyfromothers,theChevaliermusthavefabricatedstoriesofhiswealthylifeinSwitzerlandMoreover,theprofessorchallengestheskepticismexpressedinthereadingregardingthereliabilityoftheconversationswithvotariesthattheChevalierrecordedinhismemoirSheexplainsthatbecausetheChevalierhadahabitofrecordingeachconversationwithVoltaireimmediatelyaftertheymet,hewasabletorecallthosediscussionsindetailevenyearslaterFinallytheprofessorrejectstheclaiminthereadingthattheChevalierbribedhiswayoutofaprisoninVeniceShesaysthatthepactthatnoneoftheotherprisoners,eventhosewithbetterresources,hadbeenabletodososhowsthatbriberywasunlikelyFurthermore,shepointstoagovernmentpaperthatrecordedtherepairworkdonetotheChevalier'sprisoncell,citingthisasstrongevidencethattheaccountofhisescapefromtheprisonwasindeedaccurateTPOThelecturerpointsoutseveralproblemswiththeuseofhydrogenbasedfuelcellenginesinsupportofherclaimthatsubstitutingthemforinternalcombustionenginesistechnologicallyunfeasible,environmentallyunfriendly,andeconomicallyunviableFirst,thelecturerstatesthatitisimpracticaltoreplaceinternalcombustionengineswithfuelcellenginesbecauseusingthelatterrequireshydrogeninapureliquidform,whichistechnologicallychallengingtobothobtainandstoreHowever,thereadingarguesthatbecausehydrogencanbeextractedfrommanyresourcesincludingwater,fuelcellenginespoweredbythisinfinitesourceofenergyareanextremelyattractivealternativeSecond,thelecturerrefutestheclaiminthereadingthathydrogencellsareenvironmentallyfriendlyShearguesthatalthoughenginesthatusehydrogencellsproducelesspollution,themanufacturingofhydrogencellsgenerateslargeamountsofharmfulbyproductsduetotheburningoffossilfuelsinthepurificationprocessThird,althoughthereadingsuggeststhathydrogenbasedenginesaremorefuelefficientandthuseconomicallycompetitivethaninternalcombustionengines,theprofessorarguesthatsuchanadvantageisunderminedbythefactthatfuelcellenginesareextremelyexpensivetomanufacturebecausetheyrequiretheadditionofplatinum,averyrareandexpensivematerialTPOThelecturerandthereadingpassagesuggesttwocompetingtheories,thepredationtheoryvsthepollutiontheory,toexplainwhytheseaotterpopulationisinrapiddeclineTheprofessorreasonsthattheabsenceofdeadseaotterswashedupthecoastsuggeststhattheirdeclineisnotcausedbyseapollutionbutratherbyseapredatorswhoconsumetheirbodiesafterKillingthemIncontrast,thereadingpassageattributesthedeathofseaotterstopollution,citingevidenceofincreasedsourcesofoceancontaminantswhichleadtogreatervulnerabilitytoinfectionsFurthermore,thelecturerarguesthatorcasarelikelyfactorsinthedisappearanceofseaotters,becausethescarcityofwhales,theirusualprey,hasleftthemwithnootherchoicebuttostarthuntingsmallermammalsliketheottersforfoodThereadingpassage,ontheotherhand,Rulesoutthistheorybasedontheorca'spreyinghabit,andinsteadapprovesofthepollutiontheoryastheonlyexplanationforthedeclineopbothlargeandsmallseamammalsacrosstheentireecosystemFinally,accordingtothelecturer,theunevenpatternofseaotterdeclinecorrespondstothedistributionoftheorcasShearguesthatthepactthattheirpopulationhasdeclinedmostrapidlywhereorcasaremostprevalentfurthervalidatesthepredationtheoryHowever,thereadingpassagearguesthatchangeableenvironmentalfactors,whichleadtodifferentconcentrationsofpollutants,betterexplainsthevaryingpatternofseaotterdeclineTPOThelecturerraisesseveralargumentstocounterthereadingpassage'sstrongcriticismofthepublic'sdeclininginterestinreadingliteratureThelecturerarguesthatliteratureisonlyoneamongmanyformsofreadinggenresfromwhichthepubliccanbenefitintellectuallyThepublicalsobenefitsfromreadingworksofsciencefictionandhistoricalnovels,amongotherreadinggenresTherefore,thereadingiswrongtoclaimthatthepublicissufferinggreatlossesbynotreadingliteratureFurthermore,thelecturerexplainsthatevenifitistruethatthepublicisreadingfewerbooksandwatchingmoretelevisionandfilmsinstead,itdoesnotnecessarilymeanthatcultureisindeclineTelevisionandfilmaresimplymodernformsofculturalexpressionthatarealsointellectuallystimulatinganddirectlyrelevanttocontemporarylifeFinally,thelectureradmitsadeclineinaudienceandsupportofliteratureintoday'ssociety,butsheattributesittotheauthorsthemselves,whohavealienatedthemselvesfromthereadingpublicbyusingoverlycomplexlanguageThereading,however,blamestheloweringstandardsofthepublicforthedeclininginterestinreadinggreatworksofliteratureTPOThereadingpassagesuggeststhatthreepiecesofevidenceprovidesupportthataportraitrecentlycommissionedforsalebyamemberofJaneAusten'sfamilyisofJaneAustenherselfwhenshewasateenagerHowever,thelecturerrejectssuchevidenceandarguesthatthepaintingcouldnotbeaportraitofJaneAustenFirst,thelecturerarguesthattheportraitwasapprovedforpublicationbytheAustenfamilyyearsafterJaneAusten'sdeath,suggestingthatmembersofherextendedfamilymighthavepublishedtheportraitwithouthavingactuallyseenherinpersonThereforethefactthattheportraithadbeenendorsedbyherfamilymembersdoesnotnecessarilyprovethatitisaportraitofJaneAustenSecond,thelecturerarguesthattheresemblancebetweentheportraitandanauthenticsketchoftheadultJaneAustencouldbeexplainedbythehypothesisthattheportraitisofarelativeofJaneAustenwhentherelativewasateenagerFinally,thelecturerarguesthatdespitethestyleofthepainting,whichlinksittotheexactperiodwhenJaneAustenwasateenager,thestamponthebackofthecanvassuggeststhattheportraitwaspaintedatleastyearsafterJaneAusten'sbirth,indicatingthattheportraitwasofsomeoneelsewhowasmucholderthantheteenageJaneAustenTPOThelecturerrejectstheideaspresentedinthereadingpassageabouttheproblemsinvolvedintheboomingbusinessofcommercialfossiltradingInheropinion,thebenefitsofthisnewdevelopmentoutweighitsnegativeconsequencesThelecturerdoesnotagreewiththefirstpointmadeinthereadingthatprivatecollectorskeeptheirfossilcollectionsawayfromthepublicShecontendsthatthecommercialtradingoffossilsactuallymakesthemavailabletoawiderpublic,becauseeveryonewithabudget,suchasprivateschoolsandlibraries,canpurchasethemforstudyandexhibitionThelecturergoesontorefutetheclaiminthereadingthatfossiltradingbusinesspreventsscientistsandpublicmuseumfrombenefitingfromfossilfinds,asthesepartiescannotcompetewithwealthyprivatebuyerstoacquireimportantfossilsforresearchpurposeOnthecontrary,sheargues,scientiststhemselvesarethefirsttoevaluateanyimportantfossilbeforeitcanbesoldinthecommercialmarketataprice,sotheacademiccommunitydoesnotmissanyopportunitytostudyprivatelytradedfossilsAdditionally,thelecturerchallengesthefinaldownsideoffossiltradingmentionedinthereadingThelecturerremindsusthatthedamages,ifany,causedbyprivatecollectorsintheirfieldoperationsaremorethanoffsetbytheefforttheseindividualshavemadetoincreasethenumberoffossilsavailabletothepublicthatwouldotherwiseremainundiscoveredTPOThelecturerandthereadingpassageholdcompletelydifferentviewstowardthepracticeofsalvagelogging,whichistheremovalofdeadtreesfromaforestafterafireorastormFirst,thelecturerstatesthatremovingdeadtreesisnotgoodforthehealthofaforestbecauseitdeprivesitofthenutrientsnece

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