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International Trade.pdf

International Trade

Justin和Jane 2010-12-07 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《International Tradepdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含InternationaltradeGlobalCompetitivenessIndex():competitivenessisanimportan符等。

InternationaltradeGlobalCompetitivenessIndex():competitivenessisanimportantdeterminantforthewellbeingofstatesinaninternationaltradeenvironmentWorldmapoftheGlobalCompetitivenessIndexEachcolorrepresentonequartileoftherankednationsGreennationsscorehigher,rednationslowerGreynationsarenotrankedInternationaltradeusesavarietyofcurrencies,themostimportantofwhichareheldasforeignreservesbygovernmentsandcentralbanksHerethepercentageofglobalcummulativereservesheldforeachcurrencybetweenandareshown:theUSdollaristhemostsoughtaftercurrency,withtheEuroinstrongdemandaswellInternationaltradeisexchangeofcapital,goods,andservicesacrossinternationalbordersorterritoriesInmostcountries,itrepresentsasignificantshareofgrossdomesticproduct(GDP)Whileinternationaltradehasbeenpresentthroughoutmuchofhistory(seeSilkRoad,AmberRoad),itseconomic,social,andpoliticalimportancehasbeenontheriseinrecentcenturiesIndustrialization,advancedtransportation,globalization,multinationalcorporations,andoutsourcingareallhavingamajorimpactontheinternationaltradesystemIncreasinginternationaltradeiscrucialtothecontinuanceofglobalizationWithoutinternationaltrade,nationswouldbelimitedtothegoodsandservicesproducedwithintheirownbordersInternationaltradeisinprinciplenotdifferentfromdomestictradeasthemotivationandthebehaviorofpartiesinvolvedinatradedonotchangefundamentallyregardlessofwhethertradeisacrossaborderornotThemaindifferenceisthatinternationaltradeistypicallymorecostlythandomestictradeThereasonisthatabordertypicallyimposesadditionalcostssuchastariffs,timecostsduetoborderdelaysandcostsassociatedwithcountrydifferencessuchaslanguage,thelegalsystemorcultureAnotherdifferencebetweendomesticandinternationaltradeisthatfactorsofproductionsuchascapitalandlabouraretypicallymoremobilewithinacountrythanacrosscountriesThusinternationaltradeismostlyrestrictedtotradeingoodsandservices,andonlytoalesserextenttotradeincapital,labororotherfactorsofproductionThentradeingoodsandservicescanserveasasubstitutefortradeinfactorsofproductionInsteadofimportingafactorofproduction,acountrycanimportgoodsthatmakeintensiveuseofthefactorofproductionandarethusembodyingtherespectivefactorAnexampleistheimportoflaborintensivegoodsbytheUnitedStatesfromChinaInsteadofimportingChineselabortheUnitedStatesisimportinggoodsfromChinathatwereproducedwithChineselaborInternationaltradeisalsoabranchofeconomics,which,togetherwithinternationalfinance,formsthelargerbranchofinternationaleconomicsAncientsilkroadtraderoutesacrossEurasiaModelsSeveraldifferentmodelshavebeenproposedtopredictpatternsoftradeandtoanalyzetheeffectsoftradepoliciessuchastariffsRicardianmodelThePanamaCanalisimportantforinternationalseatradebetweentheAtlanticOceanandthePacificOceanTheRicardianmodelfocusesoncomparativeadvantage,perhapsthemostimportantconceptininternationaltradetheoryInaRicardianmodel,countriesspecializeinproducingwhattheyproducebestUnlikeothermodels,theRicardianframeworkpredictsthatcountrieswillfullyspecializeinsteadofproducingabroadarrayofgoodsAlso,theRicardianmodeldoesnotdirectlyconsiderfactorendowments,suchastherelativeamountsoflaborandcapitalwithinacountryThemainmeritofRicardianmodelisthatitassumestechnologydifferencesbetweencountriesTechnologygapiseasilyincludedintheRicardianandRicardoSraffamodel(SeetheRicardiantheory(moderndeveopment))TheRicardianmodelmakesthefollowingassumptions:Laboristheonlyprimaryinputtoproduction(laborisconsideredtobetheultimatesourceofvalue)ConstantMarginalProductofLabor(MPL)(Laborproductivityisconstant,constantreturnstoscale,andsimpletechnology)LimitedamountoflaborintheeconomyLaborisperfectlymobileamongsectorsbutnotinternationallyPerfectcompetition(pricetakers)TheRicardianmodelmeasuresintheshortrun,thereforetechnologydiffersinternationallyThissupportsthefactthatcountriesfollowtheircomparativeadvantageandallowsforspecializationForthemoderndevelopmentofRicardianmodel,seethesubsectionbelow:RicardiantheoryofinternationaltradeHeckscherOhlinmodelIntheearlysaninternationaltradetheorycalledfactorproportionstheoryemergedbytwoSwedisheconomists,EliHeckscherandBertilOhlinThistheoryisalsocalledtheHeckscherOhlintheoryTheHeckscherOhlintheorystressesthatcountriesshouldproduceandexportgoodsthatrequireresources(factors)thatareabundantandimportgoodsthatrequireresourcesinshortsupplyThistheorydiffersfromthetheoriesofcomparativeadvantageandabsoluteadvantagesincethosetheoriesfocusontheproductivityoftheproductionprocessforaparticulargoodOnthecontrary,theHeckscherOhlintheorystatesthatacountryshouldspecializeproductionandexportusingthefactorsthataremostabundant,andthusthecheapestNottoproduce,asearliertheoriesstated,thegoodsitproducesmostefficientlyTheHeckscherOhlinmodelwasproducedasanalternativetotheRicardianmodelofbasiccomparativeadvantageDespiteitsgreatercomplexityitdidnotprovemuchmoreaccurateinitspredictionsHoweverfromatheoreticalpointofviewitdidprovideanelegantsolutionbyincorporatingtheneoclassicalpricemechanismintointernationaltradetheoryThetheoryarguesthatthepatternofinternationaltradeisdeterminedbydifferencesinfactorendowmentsItpredictsthatcountrieswillexportthosegoodsthatmakeintensiveuseoflocallyabundantfactorsandwillimportgoodsthatmakeintensiveuseoffactorsthatarelocallyscarceEmpiricalproblemswiththeHOmodel,knownastheLeontiefparadox,wereexposedinempiricaltestsbyWassilyLeontiefwhofoundthattheUnitedStatestendedtoexportlaborintensivegoodsdespitehavingacapitalabundanceTheHOmodelmakesthefollowingcoreassumptions:LaborandcapitalflowfreelybetweensectorsTheproductionofshoesislaborintensiveandtheproductionofcomputersiscapitalintensiveTheamountoflaborandcapitalintwocountriesdiffer(differenceinendowments)FreetradeTechnologyisthesameacrosscountries(longterm)TastesarethesameTheproblemwiththeHOtheoryisthatitexcludesthetradeofcapitalgoods(includingmaterialsandfuels)IntheHOtheory,laborandcapitalarefixedentitiesendowedtoeachcountryInamoderneconomy,capitalgoodsaretradedinternationallyGainsfromtradeofintermediategoodsareconsiderable,asitwasemphasizedbySamuelson()RealityandApplicabilityoftheHeckscherOhlinModelTheHeckscherOhlintheoryispreferredtotheRicardotheorybymanyeconomists,becauseitmakesfewersimplifyingassumptionsIn,WassilyLeontiefpublishedastudy,wherehetestedthevalidityoftheHeckscherOhlintheoryThestudyshowedthattheUSwasmoreabundantincapitalcomparedtoothercountries,thereforetheUSwouldexportcapitalintensivegoodsandimportlabourintensivegoodsLeontieffoundoutthattheUS'sexportwaslesscapitalintensivethanimportAftertheappearanceofLeontief'sparadox,manyresearcherstriedtosavetheHeckscherOhlintheory,eitherbynewmethodsofmeasurement,oreitherbynewinterpretationsLeameremphasizedthatLeontiefdidnotinterpretHOtheoryproperlyandclaimedthatwitharightinterpretationparadoxdidnotoccurBrecherandChoudrifoundthat,ifLeamerwasright,theAmericanworkersconsumptionperheadshouldbelowerthantheworkersworldaverageconsumptionManyothertrialsfollowedbutmostofthemfailedManyfamoustextbookwriters,includingKrugmanandObstfeldandBowen,HollanderandViane,arenegativeaboutthevalidityofHOmodelAfterexaminingthelonghistoryofempiricalresearch,Bowen,HollanderandVianeconcluded:"RecenttestsofthefactorabundancetheoryHOtheoryanditsdevelopedformintomanycommodityandmanyfactorcasethatdirectlyexaminetheHOVequationsalsoindicatetherejectionofthetheory":HeckscherOhlintheoryisnotwelladaptedtotheanalyzeSouthNorthtradeproblemsTheassumptionsofHOarelessrealisticwithrespecttoNSthanNN(orSS)tradeIncomedifferencesbetweenNorthandSouthistheonethatthirdworldcaresmostThefactorpriceequalizationaconsequenceofHOtheoryhasnotshownmuchsignofrealizationHOmodelassumesidenticalproductionfunctionsbetweencountriesThisishighlyunrealisticTechnologicalgapbetweendevelopedanddevelopingcountriesisthemainconcernofthepoorcountriesSpecificfactorsmodelInthismodel,labormobilitybetweenindustriesispossiblewhilecapitalisimmobilebetweenindustriesintheshortrunThus,thismodelcanbeinterpretedasa'shortrun'versionoftheHeckscherOhlinmodelThespecificfactorsnamereferstothegiventhatintheshortrun,specificfactorsofproductionsuchasphysicalcapitalarenoteasilytransferablebetweenindustriesThetheorysuggeststhatifthereisanincreaseinthepriceofagood,theownersofthefactorofproductionspecifictothatgoodwillprofitinrealtermsAdditionally,ownersofopposingspecificfactorsofproduction(ielaborandcapital)arelikelytohaveopposingagendaswhenlobbyingforcontrolsoverimmigrationoflaborConversely,bothownersofcapitalandlaborprofitinrealtermsfromanincreaseinthecapitalendowmentThismodelisidealforparticularindustriesThismodelisidealforunderstandingincomedistributionbutawkwardfordiscussingthepatternoftradeNewTradeTheoryNewTradeTheorytriestoexplainempiricalelementsoftradethatcomparativeadvantagebasedmodelsabovehavedifficultywithTheseincludethefactthatmosttradeisbetweencountrieswithsimilarfactorendowmentandproductivitylevels,andthelargeamountofmultinationalproduction(ieforeigndirectinvestment)whichexistsNewTradetheoriesareoftenbasedonassumptionslikemonopolisticcompetitionandincreasingreturnstoscaleOneresultofthesetheoriesisthehomemarketeffect,whichassertsthat,ifanindustrytendstoclusterinonelocationbecauseofreturnstoscaleandifthatindustryhashightransportationcosts,theindustrywillbelocatedinthecountrywithmostofitsdemandtominimizeGravitymodelTheGravitymodeloftradepresentsamoreempiricalanalysisoftradingpatternsratherthanthemoretheoreticalmodelsdiscussedaboveThegravitymodel,initsbasicform,predictstradebasedonthedistancebetweencountriesandtheinteractionofthecountries'economicsizesThemodelmimicstheNewtonianlawofgravitywhichalsoconsidersdistanceandphysicalsizebetweentwoobjectsThemodelhasbeenproventobeempiricallystrongthrougheconometricanalysisOtherfactorssuchasincomelevel,diplomaticrelationshipsbetweencountriesRicardiantheoryofinternationaltrade(moderndevelopment)TheRicardiantheoryofcomparativeadvantagebecameabasicconstituentofneoclassicaltradetheoryAnyundergraduatecourseintradetheoryincludesexpansionsofRicardo'sexampleoffournumbersinforformofatwocommodity,twocountrymodelThismodelwasexpandedtomanycountryandmanycommoditycasesMajorgeneralresultswereobtainedbythebeginningof'sbyMcKenzieandJones,includinghisfamousformulaItisatheoremaboutthepossibletradepatternforNcountryNcommodittycasesLetaijbethelaborinputcoefficentforacountryiandfortheindustryj(orfortheproductionofgoodj)Ifatradepatternicountryspecialisesiniindustry,thentheproductaaaNNisstrictlysmallerthananypermutationproductsoftheformaσ()aσ()aNσ(N)foranyperumutationσexcepttheidentitypermuationwhichtransformsiontoiContemporarytheoriesRicardo'sideawasevenexpandedtothecaseofcontinuumofgoodsbyDornbusch,Fischer,andSamuelsonThisformulationisemployedforexamplebyMatsuyamaandothersThesetheoriesusesthespecialpropertywhichisapplicableonlyforthetwocountrycaseNeoRicardiantradetheoryInspiredbyPieroSraffa,anewstrandoftradetheoryemergedandwasnamedneoRicardiantradetheoryThemaincontributorsincludeIanSteedman()andStanleyMetcalfe()Theyhavecriticizedneoclassicalinternationaltradetheory,namelytheHeckscherOhlinmodelonthebasisthatthenotionofcapitalasprimaryfactorhasnomethodofmeasuringitbeforethedeterminationofprofitrate(thustrappedinalogicalviciouscircle)ThiswasasecondroundoftheCambridgecapitalcontroversy,thistimeinthefieldofinternationaltradeThemeritofneoRicardiantradetheoryisthatinputgoodsareexplicitlyincludedtotheanalyticalframeworkThisisinaccordancewithSraffa'sideathatanycommodityisaproductmadebymeansofcommoditiesThelimitoftheirtheoryisthattheanalysisislimitedtosmallcountrycasesTradedintermediategoodsRicardiantradetheoryordinarilyassumesthatthelaboristheuniqueinputThisisagreatdeficiencyastradetheory,fortheintermediategoodsoccupythemajorpartoftheworldinternationaltradeYeatsfoundthatofworldtradeinmanufacturingisintermediateinputsBardhanandJafeefoundthatintermediateinputsoccupytointheimportstotheUSforyearsand,whereasthepercentageofintrafirmtradegrewfromintoinMcKenzieandJonesemphasizedthenecessitytoexpandtheRicardiantheorytothecasesoftradedinputsInafamouscommentMcKenzie(,p)pointedthat"Amoment'sconsiderationwillconvinceonethatLancashirewouldbeunlikelytoproducecottonclothifthecottonhadtobegrowninEngland"PaulSamuelsoncoinedatermSraffabonustonamethegainsfromtradeofinputsRicardoSraffatradetheoryJohnChipmanobservedinhissurveythatMcKenziestumbleduponthequestionsofintermediateproductsanddiscoveredthat"introductionoftradeinintermediateproductnecessitatesafundamentalalterationinclassicalanalysis"IttookmayyearsuntilrecentlyYShiozawasucceededtoremovethisdeficiencyTheRicardiantradetheorywasnowconstructedinaformtoincludeintermediateinputtradeforthemostgeneralcaseofmanycountriesandmanygoodsThisnewtheoryiscalledRicardoSraffatradetheoryItisemphasizedthattheRicardiantradetheorynowprovidesageneraltheorywhichincludestradeofintermediatessuchasfuel,machinetools,machinerypartsandprocessedmaterialsThetradedintermediategoodsarethenusedasinputsofproductionsintheimportingcountryCapitalgoodsarenothingotherthaninputstotheproductionsThus,intheRicardoSraffatradetheory,capitalgoodsmovesfreelyfromcountrytocountryLaboristheuniquefactorofproductionthatremainsimmobileinthecountryofitsoriginInablogpostofApril,,GregoryMankiwcomparedRicardiantheoryandHeckscherOhlintheoryandstoodbytheRicardiansideMankiwarguedthatRicardiantheoryismorerealisticthantheHeckscherOhlintheoryasthelatterassumesthatcapitaldoesnotmovefromcountrytocountryMankiw'sargumentcontainsalogicalslip,forthetraditionalRicardiantradetheorydoesnotadmitanyinputsShiozawa'sresultsavesMankiwfromhisslipTheneoclassicalHeckscherOhlinSamuelsontheoryonlyassumesproductionfactorsandfinishedgoodsItcontainsnoconceptofintermediategoodsTherefore,itistheRicardoSraffatradetheorythatprovidestheoreticalbasesforthetopicssuchasoutsourcing,fragmentationandintrafirmtradeToptradingnationsRankCountryExportsImportsDateofinformationEuropeanUnion(ExtraEU)$,,,,UnitedStates$,,,,estPeople'sRepublicofChina$,,,,estGermany$,,,,estJapan$,,,,estFrance$,,,estUnitedKingdom$,,,estToptradedcommodities(exports)RankCommodityValueinUS$(')DateofinformationMineralfuels,oils,distillationproducts,etc$,,,Electrical,electronicequipment$,,,Machinery,nuclearreactors,boilers,etc$,,,Vehiclesotherthanrailway,tramway$,,Pharmaceuticalproducts$,,Optical,photo,technical,medical,etcapparatus$,,Plasticsandarticlesthereof$,,Pearls,preciousstones,metals,coins,etc$,,Organicchemicals$,,Ironandsteel$,,Netherlands$,,,estItaly$,,,estHongKong$,,,estSouthKorea$,,,estBelgium$,,,estCanada$,,,estSpain$,,,estRussia$,,,estMexico$,,,estSingapore$,,,estIndia$,,,estTaiwan(RepublicofChina)$,,,estSwitzerland$,,,estAustralia$,,,estUnitedArabEmirates$,,,estRegulationofinternationaltradeCurrentmembersoftheWorldTradeOrganisationTraditionallytradewasregulatedthroughbilateraltreatiesbetweentwonationsForcenturiesunderthebeliefinmercantilismmostnationshadhightariffsandmanyrestrictionsoninternationaltradeInthethcentury,especiallyintheUnitedKingdom,abeliefinfreetradebecameparamountThisbeliefbecamethedominantthinkingamongwesternnationssincethenIntheyearssincetheSecondWorldWar,controversialmultilateraltreatiesliketheGeneralAgreementonTariffsandTrade(GATT)andWorldTradeOrganizationhaveattemptedtopromotefreetradewhilecreatingagloballyregulatedtradestructureThesetradeagreementshaveoftenresultedindiscontentandprotestwithclaimsofunfairtradethatisnotbeneficialtodevelopingcountriesFreetradeisusuallymoststronglysupportedbythemosteconomicallypowerfulnations,thoughtheyoftenengageinselectiveprotectionismforthoseindustrieswhicharestrategicallyimportantsuchastheprotectivetariffsappliedtoagriculturebytheUnitedStatesandEuropeTheNetherlandsandtheUnitedKingdomwerebothstrongadvocatesoffreetradewhentheywereeconom

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