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WIKINOMICS.doc

WIKINOMICS.doc

上传者: 千寻数码印花 2010-12-07 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《WIKINOMICSdoc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含WIKINOMICSHowMassCollaborationChangesEverythingDonTapscottandAnthonyDWilli符等。

WIKINOMICSHowMassCollaborationChangesEverythingDonTapscottandAnthonyDWilliamsCONTENTIntroductionSubtitlesWikinomicsThePerfectStormThePeerPioneersIdeagorasTheProsumersTheNewAlexandriansPlatformsforParticipationTheGlobalPlantFloorTheWikiWorkplaceCollaborativeMindsTheWikinomicsPlaybookAcknowledgmentsNotesIndexINTRODUCTIONThroughouthistorycorporationshaveorganizedthemselvesaccordingtostricthierarchicallinesofauthorityEveryonewasasubordinatetosomeoneelseemployeesversusmanagers,marketersversuscustomers,producersversussupplychainsubcontractors,companiesversusthecommunityTherewasalwayssomeoneorsomecompanyincharge,controllingthings,atthe"top"ofthefoodchainWhilehierarchiesarenotvanishing,profoundchangesinthenatureoftechnology,demographics,andtheglobaleconomyaregivingrisetopowerfulnewmodelsofproductionbasedoncommunity,collaboration,andselforganizationratherthanonhierarchyandcontrolMillionsofmediabuffsnowuseblogs,wikis,chatrooms,andpersonalbroadcastingtoaddtheirvoicestoavociferousstreamofdialogueanddebatecalledthe"blogosphere"Employeesdriveperformancebycollaboratingwithpeersacrossorganizationalboundaries,creatingwhatwecalla"wikiworkplace"Customersbecome"prosumers"bycocreatinggoodsandservicesratherthansimplyconsumingtheendproductSocalledsupplychainsworkmoreeffectivelywhentherisk,reward,andcapabilitytocompletemajorprojectsincludingmassivelycomplexproductslikecars,motorcycles,andairplanesaredistributedacrossplanetarynetworksofpartnerswhoworkaspeersSmartcompaniesareencouraging,ratherthanfighting,theheavinggrowthofmassiveonlinecommunitiesmanyofwhichemergedfromthefringesoftheWebtoattracttensofmillionsofparticipantsovernightEvenardentcompetitorsarecollaboratingonpathbreakingscientificinitiativesthatacceleratediscoveryintheirindustriesIndeed,asagrowingnumberoffirmsseethebenefitsofmasscollaboration,thisnewwayoforganizingwilleventuallydisplacethetraditionalcorporatestructuresastheeconomy'sprimaryengineofwealthcreationAlreadythisneweconomicmodelextendsbeyondsoftware,music,publishing,pharmaceuticals,andotherbellwetherstovirtuallyeverypartoftheglobaleconomyButasthisprocessunravels,manymanagershaveconcludedthatthenewmasscollaborationisfarfrombenignSomecriticslookatsuccessful"opensource"projectssuchasLinuxandWikipedia,forexample,andassumetheyareanattackonthelegitimaterightandneedofcompaniestomakeaprofitOthersseethisnewcornucopiaofparticipationintheeconomyasathreattotheirveryexistence(hasanyoneboughtamusicCDlately)WepaintaverydifferentpicturewiththeevidencewehaveaccumulatedinthisbookYes,thereareexamplesofpainandsufferinginindustriesandfirmsthathavesofarfailedtograsptheneweconomiclogicButtheforthcomingpagesarefilledwithmanytalesofhowordinarypeopleandfirmsarelinkingupinimaginativenewwaystodriveinnovationandsuccessAnumberofthesestoriesrevolvearoundtheexplosivegrowthofphenomenasuchasMySpace,InnoCentive,flickr,SecondLife,YouTube,andtheHumanGenomeProjectTheseorganizationsareharnessingmasscollaborationtocreaterealvalueforparticipantsandhaveenjoyedphenomenalsuccessesasaresultManymaturefirmsarebenefitingfromthisnewbusinessparadigm,andwesharetheirstoriestooCompaniessuchasBoeing,BMW,andProcterGamblehavebeenaroundforthebetterpartofacenturyAndyettheseorganizationsandtheirleadershaveseizedoncollaborationandselforganizationaspowerfulnewleverstocutcosts,innovatefaster,cocreatewithcustomersandpartners,andgenerallydowhateverittakestoushertheirorganizationsintothetwehtyfirstcenturybusinessenvironmentThisbook,too,istheproductofseverallongrunningcollaborationsInthelastfewyearstheNewParadigmteamhasconductedseverallargemulticlientinvestigationstounderstandhowthenewWeb(sometimescalledtheWeb)changesthecorporationandhowcompaniesinnovate,buildrelationships,market,andcompeteA$millionstudyinexaminedtheriseofanincreasinglymobileandpervasiveWebanditsimpactonbusinessmodelsInweraised$milliontostudyWebenabledtransparencyasanewforcetoINTRODUCTIONfosterpowerfulnetworkedbusinessesandtrustIna$millionprogramexploredhownewtechnologyandcollaborativemodelschangebusinessdesignsandcompetitivedynamicsTheconclusionfromallofthisworkisstrikingandenormouslypositiveBillionsofconnectedindividualscannowactivelyparticipateininnovation,wealthcreation,andsocialdevelopmentinwaysweonceonlydreamedofAndwhenthesemassesofpeoplecollaboratetheycollectivelycanadvancethearts,culture,science,education,government,andtheeconomyinsurprisingbutultimatelyprofitablewaysCompaniesthatengagewiththeseexplodingWebenabledcommunitiesarealreadydiscoveringthetruedividendsofcollectivecapabilityandgeniusTosucceed,itwillnotbesufficienttosimplyintensifyexistingmanagementstrategiesLeadersmustthinkdifferentlyabouthowtocompeteandbeprofitable,andembraceanewartandscienceofcollaborationwecallwikinomicsThisismorethanopensource,socialnetworking,socalledcrowdsourcing,smartmobs,crowdwisdom,orotherideasthattouchuponthesubjectRather,wearetalkingaboutdeepchangesinthestructureandmodusoperandiofthecorporationandoureconomy,basedonnewcompetitiveprinciplessuchasopenness,peering,sharing,andactinggloballyTheresultsofthisfoundationalresearchareproprietarytothemembersthatfundedit,includingmorethanonehundredindepthreportsandcountlessexecutivebriefings,seminars,andworkshopsHowever,ourworkwiththesecompaniesinspiredustodevoteweekendsandeveningstowriteabookthatwouldtakethisworktothenextlevelandinspireabroadaudiencetoapplyitsideas,frameworks,andguidelinesWeconductedmorethanonehundredinterviewsanddiscussionswithkeyplayersinthisrevolutionUnlessotherwisefootnoted,allquotesinthisbookcomefromtheseconversationsIntheprocess,we,asauthors,learnedsomethingaboutcollaborationtooWeauthoredthesepagesonseparatecontinents,withDonworkingprimarilyfromToronto,Canada,andAnthonybasedinLondon,EnglandWhenwewerebothworkingonthemanuscriptatthesametimewehookedupwithaSkypeconnection,talking,exchangingmaterial,orbeingsilentasappropriateAttimesitfeltlikewewereinthesameroomWehavealsocollaboratedintenselywithmorethanonehundredleadingthinkersandpractitionersTheirrolesinbringingthisbooktolifearegraciouslyacknowledgedattheendofthebookInoneinterestingtwistwedecidedthatthebestwaytocomeupwithagreatsubtitlewastoholdanopendiscussionontheWebWithintwentyfourhourswehaddozensofgreatsubtitlesuggestionsthebestofwhicharelistedontheSubtitlespageMostnotably,withWikinomicswe'remakingamodestattempttoreinventtheconceptofabookYou'llnotethatthefinalchapter,TheWikinomicsPlaybook,hasonlyfifteenwords:"Joinusinpeerproducingthedefinitiveguidetotwentyfirstcenturystrategyonwwwwikinomicscom"Itisourhopethatthisbookwilltranscenditsphysicalformtobecomealiving,realtime,collaborativedocument,cocreatedbyleadingthinkersAssuch,weviewthebookasacalltoarmstocreateawikinomicscommunityAndwehopethatthebookandcommunitywillbeuniquelyhelpfultocorporatepractitionersandanyonewhowantstoparticipateintheeconomyinnewwaysSUBTITLESBookshaveatitlepageThisisoursubtitlepageInwhatwebelievetobeafirst,we'relistingafewofourfavoritesuggestionsforsubtitlesgleanedfromapubliconlinediscussionheldtheweekofJune,WereceivedmorethanonehundredgreatsuggestionsinthefirstfortyeighthoursToourcollaboratorsyouknowwhoyouareweextendourmostsincerethanksEditThisBook!TheDividendsofCollectiveGeniusWethePeopleBusiness(TheRemix)TheNewWorldofCollaborativeProductionPeerInnovationintheAgeofMySpace,Linux,andWikipediaProfitingfromCollaborativeAnarchyPleaseRegistertoParticipateThePowerofUsCreatingaNewPageinBusinessHistoryUnleashingOurCollectiveGeniusThisBookIsaStubHarnessingthePowerofYourPeers(YourInputNeededHere)*PeerPoweredProfitinLife,Business,andIndividualChoiceThePeerAdvantage:MythorMagicPeerProducingtheFutureWIKINOMICSTheArtandScienceofPeerProductionItwaslateintheafternoon,onatypicallyharshCanadianwinterday,asRobMcEwen,theCEOofGoldcorpInc,stoodattheheadoftheboardroomtableconfrontingaroomfullofseniorgeologistsThenewshewasabouttodeliverwasnotgoodInfactitwasdisastrous,andMcEwenwashavingahardtimeshieldinghisfrustrationThesmallTorontobasedgoldminingfirmwasstruggling,besiegedbystrikes,lingeringdebts,andanexceedinglyhighcostofproduction,whichhadcausedthemtoceaseminingoperationsConditionsinthemarketplacewerehardlyfavorableThegoldmarketwascontracting,andmostanalystsassumedthatthecompany'sfiftyyearoldmineinRedLake,Ontario,wasdyingWithoutevidenceofsubstantialnewgolddeposits,themineseemeddestinedforclosure,andGoldcorpwaslikelytogodownwithitTensionswererunningatfeverpitchMcEwenhadnorealexperienceintheextractiveindustries,letaloneingoldminingNevertheless,asanadventurousyoungmutualfundmanagerhehadgotteninvolvedinatakeoverbattleandemergedasGoldcorpInc'smajorityownerFewpeopleintheroomhadmuchconfidencethatMcEwenwastherightpersontorescuethecompanyButMcEwenjustshruggedoffhiscriticsHeturnedtohisgeologistsandsaid,"We'regoingtofindmoregoldonthisproperly,andwewon'tleavethisroomtonightuntilwehaveaplantofindit"Attheconclusionofthemeetinghehandedhisgeologists$millionforfurtherexplorationandsentthempackingforNorthernOntarioMostofhisstaffthoughthewascrazybuttheycarriedouthisinstructions,drillinginthedeepestandmostremotepartsofthemineAmazingly,afewweekslatertheyarrivedbackatGoldcorpheadquartersbeamingwithprideandbearingaremarkablediscovery:Testdrillingsuggestedrichdepositsofnewgold,asmuchasthirtytimestheamountGoldcorpwascurrentlymining!Thediscoverywassurprising,andcouldhardlyhavebeenbettertimedButafteryearsoffurtherexploration,andtoMcEwen'sdeepfrustration,thecompany'sgeologistsstruggledtoprovideanaccurateestimateofthegold'svalueandexactlocationHedesperatelyneededtoinjecttheurgencyofthemarketintotheglacialprocessesofanoldeconomyindustryIn,withthefuturestilluncertain,McEwentooksometimeoutforpersonaldevelopmentHewoundupatanMITconferenceforyoungpresidentswhencoincidentallythesubjectofLinuxcameupPerchedinthelecturehall,McEwenlistenedintentlytotheremarkablestoryofhowLinusTorvaldsandaloosevolunteerbrigadeofsoftwaredevelopershadassembledtheworldclasscomputeroperatingsystemovertheInternetThelecturerexplainedhowTorvaldsrevealedhiscodetotheworld,allowingthousandsofanonymousprogrammerstovetitandmakecontributionsoftheirownMcEwenhadanepiphanyandsatbackinhischairtocontemplateIfGoldcorpemployeescouldn'tfindtheRedLakegold,maybesomeoneelsecouldAndmaybethekeytofindingthosepeoplewastoopenuptheexplorationprocessinthesamewayTorvalds"opensourced"LinuxMcEwenracedbacktoTorontotopresenttheideatohisheadgeologist"I'dliketotakeallofourgeology,allthedatawehavethatgoesbackto,andputitintoafileandshareitwiththeworld,"hesaid"Thenwe'llasktheworldtotelluswherewe'regoingtofindthenextsixmillionouncesofgold"McEwensawthisasanopportunitytoharnesssomeofthebestmindsintheindustryPerhapsunderstandably,theinhousegeologistswerejustalittleskepticalMiningisanintenselysecretiveindustry,andapartfromthemineralsthemselves,geologicaldataisthemostpreciousandcarefullyguardedresourceIt'sliketheCadburysecretit'sjustnotsomethingcompaniesgoaroundsharingGoldcorpemployeeswonderedwhethertheglobalcommunityofgeologistswouldrespondtoGoldcorp'scallinthesamewaythatsoftwaredevelopersralliedaroundLinusTorvaldsMoreover,theyworriedabouthowthecontestwouldreflectonthemandtheirinabilitytofindtheillusivegolddepositsMcEwenacknowledgesinretrospectthatthestrategywascontroversialandrisky"Wewereattackingafundamentalassumptionyousimplydon'tWIKINOMICSgiveawayproprietarydata,"hesaid"It'ssofundamental,"headds,"thatnoonehadeverquestionedit"Onceagain,McEwenwasdeterminedtosoldieronInMarch,the"GoldcorpChallenge"waslaunchedwithatotalof$,inprizemoneyavailabletoparticipantswiththebestmethodsandestimatesEveryscrapofinformation(somefourhundredmegabytesworth)aboutthe,acrepropertywasrevealedonGoldcorp'sWebsiteNewsofthecontestspreadquicklyaroundtheInternet,asmorethanonethousandvirtualprospectorsfromfiftycountriesgotbusycrunchingthedataWthinweeks,submissionsfromaroundtheworldcamefloodingintoGoldcorpheadquartersAsexpected,geologistsgotinvolvedButentriescamefromsurprisingsources,includinggraduatestudents,consultants,mathematicians,andmilitaryofficers,allseekingapieceoftheaction"Wehadappliedmath,advancedphysics,intelligentsystems,computergraphics,andorganicsolutionstoinorganicproblemsTherewerecapabilitiesIhadneverseenbeforeindieindustry,"saysMcEwen"WhenIsawthecomputergraphicsIalmostfelloutofmychair"ThecontestantshadidentifiedtargetsontheRedLakeproperty,percentofwhichhadnotbeenpreviouslyidentifiedbythecompanyOverpercentofthenewtargetsyieldedsubstantialquantitiesofgoldInfact,sincethechallengewasinitiatedanastoundingeightmillionouncesofgoldhavebeenfoundMcEwenestimatesthecollaborativeprocessshavedtwotothreeyearsofftheirexplorationtimeTodayGoldcorpisreapingthefruitsofitsopensourceapproachtoexplorationNotonlydidthecontestyieldcopiousquantitiesofgold,itcatapultedhisunderperforming$millioncompanyintoa$billionjuggernautwhiletransformingabackwardminingsiteinNorthernOntariointooneofthemostinnovativeandprofitablepropertiesintheindustryNeedlesstosayMcEwenisonehappycamperAsarehisshareholdersOnehundreddollarsinvestedinthecompanyinisworthover$,todayPerhapsthemostlastinglegacyoftheGoldcorpChallengeisthevalidationofaningeniousapproachtoexplorationinwhatremainsaconservativeandhighlysecretiveindustryRobMcEwenbuckedanindustrytrendbysharingthecompany'sproprietarydataandsimultaneouslytransformedalumberingexplorationprocessintoamoderndistributedgolddiscoveryenginethatharnessedsomeofthemosttalentedmindsinthefieldMcEwensawthingsdifferentlyHerealizedtheuniquelyqualifiedmindstomakenewdiscoverieswereprobablyoutsidetheboundariesofhisorganization,andbysharingsomeintellectualpropertyhecouldharnessthepowerofcollectivegeniusandcapabilityIndoingsohestumbledsuccessfullyintothefutureofinnovation,business,andhowwealthandjustabouteverythingelsewillbecreatedWelcometothenewworldofwikinomicswherecollaborationonamassscaleissettochangeeveryinstitutioninsocietyTHENEWWORLDOFWIKINOMICSDuetodeepchangesintechnology,demographics,business,theeconomy,andtheworld,weareenteringanewagewherepeopleparticipateintheeconomylikeneverbeforeThisnewparticipationhasreachedatippingpointwherenewformsofmasscollaborationarechanginghowgoodsandservicesareinvented,produced,marketed,anddistributedonaglobalbasisThischangepresentsfarreachingopportunitiesforeverycompanyandforeverypersonwhogetsconnectedInthepast,collaborationwasmostlysmallscaleItwassomethingthattookplaceamongrelatives,friends,andassociatesinhouseholds,communities,andworkplacesInrelativelyrareinstances,collaborationapproachedmassscale,butthiswasmainlyinshortburstsofpoliticalactionThinkoftheVietnamerawarprotestsor,morerecently,abouttheraucousantiglobalizationralliesinSeattle,Turin,andWashingtonNeverbefore,however,haveindividualshadthepoweroropportunitytolinkupinloosenetworksofpeerstoproducegoodsandservicesinaverytangibleandongoingwayMostpeoplewereconfinedtorelativelylimitedeconomicroles,whetheraspassiveconsumersofmassproducedproductsoremployeestrappeddeepwithinorganizationalbureaucracieswherethebosstoldthemwhattodoEventheirelectedrepresentativesbarelyconcealedtheircontemptforbottomupparticipationindecisionmakingInall,toomanypeoplewerebypassedinthecirculationofknowledge,power,andcapital,andthusparticipatedattheeconomy'smarginsTodaythetablesareturningThegrowingaccessibilityofinformationtechnologiesputsthetoolsrequiredtocollaborate,createvalue,andcomWIKINOMICS*peteateverybody'sfingertipsThisliberatespeopletoparticipateininnovationandwealthcreationwithineverysectoroftheeconomyMillionsofpeoplealreadyjoinforcesinselforganizedcollaborationsthatproducedynamicnewgoodsandservicesthatrivalthoseoftheworld'slargestandbestfinancedenterprisesThisnewmodeofinnovationandvaluecreationiscalled"peerproduction,"orpeeringwhichdescribeswhathappenswhenmassesofpeopleandfirmscollaborateopenlytodriveinnovationandgrowthintheirindustriesSomeexamplesofpeerproductionhaverecentlybecomehouseholdnamesAsofAugust,theonlinenetworkingextravaganzaMySpacehadonehundredmillionusersgrowingahalfamillionaweekwhosepersonalmusings,connections,andprofilesaretheprimaryenginesofvaluecreationonthesiteMySpace,YouTube,Linux,andWikipediatoday'sexemplarsofmasscollaborationarejustthebeginningafewfamiliarcharactersintheopeningpagesofthefirstchapterinalongrunningsagathatwillchangemanyaspectsofhowtheeconomyoperatesIntheforthcomingpagesofthisbookwedescribesevenuniqueformsofpeerproductionthataremakingtheeconomymoredynamicandproductiveAlongthewayweofferengagingstoriesforthecasualreaderandgreatinsightsforthebusinesspersonseekingtoharnessthisnewforceintheirbusinessAgeofParticipationCallthemthe"weaponsofmasscollaboration"NewlowcostcollaborativeinfrastructuresfromfreeInternettelephonytoopensourcesoftwaretoglobaloutsourcingplatformsallowthousandsuponthousandsofindividualsandsmallproducerstococreateproducts,accessmarkets,anddelightcust

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