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首页 Poetics by Aristotle

Poetics by Aristotle.pdf

Poetics by Aristotle

云游天下一叶小舟
2010-12-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Poetics by Aristotlepdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

THEPOETICSOFARISTOTLEATRANSLATIONBYSHBUTCHERTranscriber'sAnnotationsandConventions:thetranslatorleftintactsomeGreekwordstoillustrateaspecificpointoftheoriginaldiscourseInthistranscription,inordertoretaintheaccuracyofthistext,thosewordsarerenderedbyspellingouteachGreekletterindividually,suchas{alphabetagammadelta}Thereadercandistinguishthesewordsbytheenclosingbraces{}Wheremultiplewordsoccurtogether,theyareseparatedbythe""symbolforclarityReaderswhodonotspeakorreadtheGreeklanguagewillusuallyneithergainnorloseunderstandingbyskippingoverthesepassagesThosewhounderstandGreek,however,maygainadeeperinsighttotheoriginalmeaninganddistinctionsexpressedbyAristotleAnalysisofContentsI'Imitation'thecommonprincipleoftheArtsofPoetryIITheObjectsofImitationIIITheMannerofImitation第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网IVTheOriginandDevelopmentofPoetryVDefinitionoftheLudicrous,andabriefsketchoftheriseofComedyVIDefinitionofTragedyVIIThePlotmustbeaWholeVIIIThePlotmustbeaUnityIX(Plotcontinued)DramaticUnityX(Plotcontinued)DefinitionsofSimpleandComplexPlotsXI(Plotcontinued)ReversaloftheSituation,Recognition,andTragicordisastrousIncidentdefinedandexplainedXIIThe'quantitativeparts'ofTragedydefinedXIII(Plotcontinued)WhatconstitutesTragicActionXIV(Plotcontinued)ThetragicemotionsofpityandfearshouldspringoutofthePlotitselfXVTheelementofCharacterinTragedyXVI(Plotcontinued)Recognition:itsvariouskinds,withexamplesXVIIPracticalrulesfortheTragicPoetXVIIIFurtherrulesfortheTragicPoetXIXThought,ortheIntellectualelement,andDictioninTragedyXXDiction,orLanguageingeneralXXIPoeticDictionXXII(PoeticDictioncontinued)HowPoetrycombineselevationoflanguagewithperspicuityXXIIIEpicPoetryXXIV(EpicPoetrycontinued)FurtherpointsofagreementwithTragedyXXVCriticalObjectionsbroughtagainstPoetry,andtheprinciplesonwhichtheyaretobeansweredXXVIAgeneralestimateofthecomparativeworthofEpicPoetryandTragedyARISTOTLE'SPOETICSIIproposetotreatofPoetryinitselfandofitsvariouskinds,notingtheessentialqualityofeachtoinquireintothestructureoftheplotasrequisitetoagoodpoemintothenumberandnatureofthepartsofwhichapoemiscomposedandsimilarlyintowhateverelsefallswithinthesameinquiryFollowing,then,theorderofnature,letusbeginwiththeprincipleswhichcomefirstEpicpoetryandTragedy,ComedyalsoandDithyrambic:poetry,andthemusicofthefluteandofthelyreinmostoftheirforms,areallintheirgeneralconceptionmodesofimitationTheydiffer,however,fromone:anotherinthreerespects,themedium,theobjects,themannerormodeofimitation,beingineachcasedistinctForastherearepersonswho,byconsciousartormerehabit,imitateandrepresentvariousobjectsthroughthemediumofcolourandform,oragainbythevoicesointheartsabovementioned,takenasawhole,theimitationisproducedbyrhythm,language,or'harmony,'eithersinglyorcombined第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网Thusinthemusicofthefluteandofthelyre,'harmony'andrhythmaloneareemployedalsoinotherarts,suchasthatoftheshepherd'spipe,whichareessentiallysimilartotheseIndancing,rhythmaloneisusedwithout'harmony'forevendancingimitatescharacter,emotion,andaction,byrhythmicalmovementThereisanotherartwhichimitatesbymeansoflanguagealone,andthateitherinproseorversewhich,verse,again,mayeithercombinedifferentmetresorconsistofbutonekindbutthishashithertobeenwithoutanameForthereisnocommontermwecouldapplytothemimesofSophronandXenarchusandtheSocraticdialoguesontheonehandand,ontheother,topoeticimitationsiniambic,elegiac,oranysimilarmetrePeopledo,indeed,addtheword'maker'or'poet'tothenameofthemetre,andspeakofelegiacpoets,orepic(thatis,hexameter)poets,asifitwerenottheimitationthatmakesthepoet,buttheversethatentitlesthemallindiscriminatelytothenameEvenwhenatreatiseonmedicineornaturalscienceisbroughtoutinverse,thenameofpoetisbycustomgiventotheauthorandyetHomerandEmpedocleshavenothingincommonbutthemetre,sothatitwouldberighttocalltheonepoet,theotherphysicistratherthanpoetOnthesameprinciple,evenifawriterinhispoeticimitationweretocombineallmetres,asChaeremondidinhisCentaur,whichisamedleycomposedofmetresofallkinds,weshouldbringhimtoounderthegeneraltermpoetSomuchthenforthesedistinctionsThereare,again,someartswhichemployallthemeansabovementioned,namely,rhythm,tune,andmetreSuchareDithyrambicandNomicpoetry,andalsoTragedyandComedybutbetweenthemthedifferenceis,thatinthefirsttwocasesthesemeansareallemployedincombination,inthelatter,nowonemeansisemployed,nowanotherSuch,then,arethedifferencesoftheartswithrespecttothemediumofimitationIISincetheobjectsofimitationaremeninaction,andthesemenmustbeeitherofahigheroralowertype(formoralcharactermainlyanswerstothesedivisions,goodnessandbadnessbeingthedistinguishingmarksofmoraldifferences),itfollowsthatwemustrepresentmeneitherasbetterthaninreallife,orasworse,orastheyareItisthesameinpaintingPolygnotusdepictedmenasnoblerthantheyare,Pausonaslessnoble,DionysiusdrewthemtruetolifeNowitisevidentthateachofthemodesofimitationabovementionedwillexhibitthesedifferences,andbecomeadistinctkindinimitatingobjectsthatarethusdistinctSuchdiversitiesmaybefoundevenindancing,:fluteplaying,andlyreplayingSoagaininlanguage,whetherproseorverseunaccompaniedbymusicHomer,forexample,makesmenbetterthantheyareCleophonastheyareHegemontheThasian,theinventorofparodies,andNicochares,theauthoroftheDeiliad,worsethantheyareThesamethingholdsgoodofDithyrambsandNomesheretooonemayportraydifferenttypes,asTimotheusandPhiloxenusdifferedinrepresentingtheirCyclopesThesamedistinctionmarksoffTragedyfromComedyforComedyaimsatrepresentingmenasworse,TragedyasbetterthaninactuallifeIIIThereisstillathirddifferencethemannerinwhicheachoftheseobjectsmaybeimitatedForthemediumbeingthesame,andtheobjectsthesame,thepoetmayimitatebynarrationinwhichcasehecaneithertakeanotherpersonalityasHomerdoes,orspeakinhisownperson,unchangedorhemaypresentallhischaractersaslivingandmovingbeforeus第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网These,then,aswesaidatthebeginning,arethethreedifferenceswhichdistinguishartisticimitation,themedium,theobjects,andthemannerSothatfromonepointofview,SophoclesisanimitatorofthesamekindasHomerforbothimitatehighertypesofcharacterfromanotherpointofview,ofthesamekindasAristophanesforbothimitatepersonsactinganddoingHence,somesay,thenameof'drama'isgiventosuchpoems,asrepresentingactionForthesamereasontheDoriansclaimtheinventionbothofTragedyandComedyTheclaimtoComedyisputforwardbytheMegarians,notonlybythoseofGreeceproper,whoallegethatitoriginatedundertheirdemocracy,butalsobytheMegariansofSicily,forthepoetEpicharmus,whoismuchearlierthanChionidesandMagnes,belongedtothatcountryTragedytooisclaimedbycertainDoriansofthePeloponneseIneachcasetheyappealtotheevidenceoflanguageTheoutlyingvillages,theysay,arebythemcalled{kappaomegamualphaiota},bytheAthenians{deltaetamuiota}:andtheyassumethatComediansweresonamednotfrom{kappaomegamu'alphazetaepsiloniotanu},'torevel,'butbecausetheywanderedfromvillagetovillage(kappaalphataualphakappaomegamualphasigma),beingexcludedcontemptuouslyfromthecityTheyaddalsothattheDorianwordfor'doing'is{deltarhoalphanu},andtheAthenian,{pirhoalphatautauepsiloniotanu}ThismaysufficeastothenumberandnatureofthevariousmodesofimitationIVPoetryingeneralseemstohavesprungfromtwocauses,eachofthemlyingdeepinournatureFirst,theinstinctofimitationisimplantedinmanfromchildhood,onedifferencebetweenhimandotheranimalsbeingthatheisthemostimitativeoflivingcreatures,andthroughimitationlearnshisearliestlessonsandnolessuniversalisthepleasurefeltinthingsimitatedWehaveevidenceofthisinthefactsofexperienceObjectswhichinthemselvesweviewwithpain,wedelighttocontemplatewhenreproducedwithminutefidelity:suchastheformsofthemostignobleanimalsandofdeadbodiesThecauseofthisagainis,thattolearngivestheliveliestpleasure,notonlytophilosophersbuttomeningeneralwhosecapacity,however,oflearningismorelimitedThusthereasonwhymenenjoyseeingalikenessis,thatincontemplatingittheyfindthemselveslearningorinferring,andsayingperhaps,'Ah,thatishe'Forifyouhappennottohaveseentheoriginal,thepleasurewillbeduenottotheimitationassuch,buttotheexecution,thecolouring,orsomesuchothercauseImitation,then,isoneinstinctofournatureNext,thereistheinstinctfor'harmony'andrhythm,metresbeingmanifestlysectionsofrhythmPersons,therefore,startingwiththisnaturalgiftdevelopedbydegreestheirspecialaptitudes,tilltheirrudeimprovisationsgavebirthtoPoetryPoetrynowdivergedintwodirections,accordingtotheindividualcharacterofthewritersThegraverspiritsimitatednobleactions,andtheactionsofgoodmenThemoretrivialsortimitatedtheactionsofmeanerpersons,atfirstcomposingsatires,astheformerdidhymnstothegodsandthepraisesoffamousmenApoemofthesatiricalkindcannotindeedbeputdowntoanyauthorearlierthanHomerthoughmanysuchwritersprobablytherewereButfromHomeronward,instancescanbecited,hisownMargites,forexample,andothersimilarcompositionsTheappropriatemetrewasalsohereintroducedhencethemeasureisstillcalledtheiambicorlampooningmeasure,beingthatinwhichpeoplelampoonedoneanotherThustheolderpoetsweredistinguishedaswritersofheroicoroflampooningverseAs,intheseriousstyle,Homerispreeminentamongpoets,forhealonecombineddramaticformwithexcellenceofimitation,sohetoofirstlaiddownthemainlinesofComedy,bydramatisingtheludicrousinsteadofwritingpersonalsatireHisMargitesbearsthesamerelationtoComedythattheIliadandOdysseydoto第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网TragedyButwhenTragedyandComedycametolight,thetwoclassesofpoetsstillfollowedtheirnaturalbent:thelampoonersbecamewritersofComedy,andtheEpicpoetsweresucceededbyTragedians,sincethedramawasalargerandhigherformofartWhetherTragedyhasasyetperfecteditspropertypesornotandwhetheritistobejudgedinitself,orinrelationalsototheaudience,thisraisesanotherquestionBethatasitmay,TragedyasalsoComedywasatfirstmereimprovisationTheoneoriginatedwiththeauthorsoftheDithyramb,theotherwiththoseofthephallicsongs,whicharestillinuseinmanyofourcitiesTragedyadvancedbyslowdegreeseachnewelementthatshoweditselfwasinturndevelopedHavingpassedthroughmanychanges,itfounditsnaturalform,andthereitstoppedAeschylusfirstintroducedasecondactorhediminishedtheimportanceoftheChorus,andassignedtheleadingparttothedialogueSophoclesraisedthenumberofactorstothree,andaddedscenepaintingMoreover,itwasnottilllatethattheshortplotwasdiscardedforoneofgreatercompass,andthegrotesquedictionoftheearliersatyricformforthestatelymannerofTragedyTheiambicmeasurethenreplacedthetrochaictetrameter,whichwasoriginallyemployedwhenthepoetrywasoftheSatyricorder,andhadgreateraffinitieswithdancingOncedialoguehadcomein,NatureherselfdiscoveredtheappropriatemeasureFortheiambicis,ofallmeasures,themostcolloquial:weseeitinthefactthatconversationalspeechrunsintoiambiclinesmorefrequentlythanintoanyotherkindofverserarelyintohexameters,andonlywhenwedropthecolloquialintonationTheadditionstothenumberof'episodes'oracts,andtheotheraccessoriesofwhichtraditiontells,mustbetakenasalreadydescribedfortodiscussthemindetailwould,doubtless,bealargeundertakingVComedyis,aswehavesaid,animitationofcharactersofalowertype,not,however,inthefullsenseofthewordbad,theLudicrousbeingmerelyasubdivisionoftheuglyItconsistsinsomedefectoruglinesswhichisnotpainfulordestructiveTotakeanobviousexample,thecomicmaskisuglyanddistorted,butdoesnotimplypainThesuccessivechangesthroughwhichTragedypassed,andtheauthorsofthesechanges,arewellknown,whereasComedyhashadnohistory,becauseitwasnotatfirsttreatedseriouslyItwaslatebeforetheArchongrantedacomicchorustoapoettheperformersweretillthenvoluntaryComedyhadalreadytakendefiniteshapewhencomicpoets,distinctivelysocalled,areheardofWhofurnisheditwithmasks,orprologues,orincreasedthenumberofactors,theseandothersimilardetailsremainunknownAsfortheplot,itcameoriginallyfromSicilybutofAthenianwritersCrateswasthefirstwho,abandoningthe'iambic'orlampooningform,generalisedhisthemesandplotsEpicpoetryagreeswithTragedyinsofarasitisanimitationinverseofcharactersofahighertypeTheydiffer,inthatEpicpoetryadmitsbutonekindofmetre,andisnarrativeinformTheydiffer,again,intheirlength:forTragedyendeavours,asfaraspossible,toconfineitselftoasinglerevolutionofthesun,orbutslightlytoexceedthislimitwhereastheEpicactionhasnolimitsoftimeThis,then,isasecondpointofdifferencethoughatfirstthesamefreedomwasadmittedinTragedyasinEpicpoetryOftheirconstituentpartssomearecommontoboth,somepeculiartoTragedy,whoever,therefore,knowswhatisgoodorbadTragedy,knowsalsoaboutEpicpoetryAlltheelementsofanEpicpoemarefoundinTragedy,buttheelementsofaTragedyarenotallfoundintheEpicpoem第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网VIOfthepoetrywhichimitatesinhexameterverse,andofComedy,wewillspeakhereafterLetusnowdiscussTragedy,resumingitsformaldefinition,asresultingfromwhathasbeenalreadysaidTragedy,then,isanimitationofanactionthatisserious,complete,andofacertainmagnitudeinlanguageembellishedwitheachkindofartisticornament,theseveralkindsbeingfoundinseparatepartsoftheplayintheformofaction,notofnarrativethroughpityandfeareffectingtheproperpurgationoftheseemotionsBy'languageembellished,'Imeanlanguageintowhichrhythm,'harmony,'andsongenterBy'theseveralkindsinseparateparts,'Imean,thatsomepartsarerenderedthroughthemediumofversealone,othersagainwiththeaidofsongNowastragicimitationimpliespersonsacting,itnecessarilyfollows,inthefirstplace,thatSpectacularequipmentwillbeapartofTragedyNext,SongandDiction,forthesearethemediumofimitationBy'Diction'Imeanthemeremetricalarrangementofthewords:asfor'Song,'itisatermwhosesenseeveryoneunderstandsAgain,Tragedyistheimitationofanactionandanactionimpliespersonalagents,whonecessarilypossesscertaindistinctivequalitiesbothofcharacterandthoughtforitisbythesethatwequalifyactionsthemselves,andthesethoughtandcharacterarethetwonaturalcausesfromwhichactionsspring,andonactionsagainallsuccessorfailuredependsHence,thePlotistheimitationoftheaction:forbyplotIheremeanthearrangementoftheincidentsByCharacterImeanthatinvirtueofwhichweascribecertainqualitiestotheagentsThoughtisrequiredwhereverastatementisproved,or,itmaybe,ageneraltruthenunciatedEveryTragedy,therefore,musthavesixparts,whichpartsdetermineitsqualitynamely,Plot,Character,Diction,Thought,Spectacle,SongTwoofthepartsconstitutethemediumofimitation,onethemanner,andthreetheobjectsofimitationAndthesecompletethelistTheseelementshavebeenemployed,wemaysay,bythepoetstoamaninfact,everyplaycontainsSpectacularelementsaswellasCharacter,Plot,Diction,Song,andThoughtButmostimportantofallisthestructureoftheincidentsForTragedyisanimitation,notofmen,butofanactionandoflife,andlifeconsistsinaction,anditsendisamodeofaction,notaqualityNowcharacterdeterminesmen'squalities,butitisbytheiractionsthattheyarehappyorthereverseDramaticaction,therefore,isnotwithaviewtotherepresentationofcharacter:charactercomesinassubsidiarytotheactionsHencetheincidentsandtheplotaretheendofatragedyandtheendisthechiefthingofallAgain,withoutactiontherecannotbeatragedytheremaybewithoutcharacterThetragediesofmostofourmodernpoetsfailintherenderingofcharacterandofpoetsingeneralthisisoftentrueItisthesameinpaintingandhereliesthedifferencebetweenZeuxisandPolygnotusPolygnotusdelineatescharacterwell:thestyleofZeuxisisdevoidofethicalqualityAgain,ifyoustringtogetherasetofspeechesexpressiveofcharacter,andwellfinishedinpointofdictionandthought,youwillnotproducetheessentialtragiceffectnearlysowellaswithaplaywhich,howeverdeficientintheserespects,yethasaplotandartisticallyconstructedincidentsBesideswhich,themostpowerfulelementsofemotional:interestinTragedyPeripeteiaorReversaloftheSituation,andRecognitionscenesarepartsoftheplotAfurtherproofis,thatnovicesintheartattaintofinish:ofdictionandprecisionofportraiturebeforetheycanconstructtheplotItisthesamewithalmostalltheearlypoetsThePlot,then,isthefirstprinciple,and,asitwere,thesoulofatragedy:CharacterholdsthesecondplaceAsimilarfactisseeninpaintingThemostbeautifulcolours,laidonconfusedly,willnotgiveasmuchpleasureasthechalkoutlineofaportraitThusTragedyistheimitationofanaction,andoftheagentsmainlywithaviewtotheaction第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网ThirdinorderisThought,thatis,thefacultyofsayingwhatispossibleandpertinentingivencircumstancesInthecaseoforatory,thisisthefunctionofthePoliticalartandoftheartofrhetoric:andsoindeedtheolderpoetsmaketheircharactersspeakthelanguageofci

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Poetics by Aristotle

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