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首页 AMA The Seven Stages of Effective Survey Researc…

AMA The Seven Stages of Effective Survey Research.doc

AMA The Seven Stages of Effecti…

wayne
2010-11-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《AMA The Seven Stages of Effective Survey Researchdoc》,可适用于财会领域

TheSevenStagesofEffectiveSurveyResearchTheSevenStagesofEffectiveSurveyResearchHYPERLINK"http:wwwmarketingpowercomliveauthorphpSessionID=fdfcbItemID=TutorialTargetingCode=bpmktgresearch"INCLUDEPICTURE"http:wwwmarketingpowercomuploadSPSSphotogif"*MERGEFORMATINETByDanMeirDanMeirisProductManagerforSurveyandMarketResearchforSPSSIncHehasmorethanyearsofexperienceinsurveyandmarketresearchPriortojoiningSPSSInc,MeirhasheldkeyanalystpositionsforUnitedAirlinesandAccenture,andearnedhisMBAinmarketingfromtheUniversityofTexasIntroductionOrganizationstodayrelyonsurveyresearchtolearnmuchneededbusinessintelligenceSurveyscanhelpyouunderstandcustomerpreferencesaboutaparticularproduct,gaugeemployeesatisfaction,identifymarketopportunitiesandmuchmoreSurveyresearchismuchmorethansimplyaskingsomeoneafewquestionsIt’samultiplestepprocesswithaclearlydefinedprotocolateachstepInordertogetreliableresultsfromyoursurveyresearch,youmustbeabletoplanthesurveyresearchproject,collectdata,accessandmanagethedataeasily,aswellasreportrelevantresultsAndforyoursurveyresearchprojecttobeasuccess,youneedtoshareyourresultswiththedecisionmakerswhocanactuponthemAreasthatbenefitfromsurveyresearch​ Satisfactionmeasurements​ Customeremployeeprofilecensus​ Customerretention​ Complainttracking​ Productfeaturesdesired​ Medicalerrors​ Patientoutcomes​ Viewerreadershipinterests​ Assessprogrameffectiveness​ CustomeracquisitionPopularquestionsthatsurveyresearchattemptstoanswer​ Whatismostimportanttocustomers,employeesorpatients​ Whatdopeoplewantorneedintermsofprograms,productsorservices​ Whoisourcustomer​ Doconsumersclusterintogroups​ Howcanwecompeteinthemarketmosteffectively​ Areweprovidingvaluetoourmembersorcustomers​ Whatareasneedimprovement​ Whatdrivessatisfactionorsalesforcustomers​ Howcanweimproveourprograms,materials,productsorservices​ Whatarethebrand’sperceivedstrengthsorweaknesses​ WhereshouldresourcesbedirectedThesevenstagesofsurveyresearchSurveyresearchcanbedividedintosevenstepsInordertobesuccessful,surveyresearchneedstobeimplementedwellateverystepProblemsatanystepcanleadtoincorrectresults​ Step:Planningandsurveydesign​ Step:Datacollection​ Step:Dataaccess​ Step:Datapreparationandmanagement​ Step:Dataanalysis​ Step:Reporting​ Step:DeploymentSurveyPlanningDesignStep:SurveyPlanningDesignDefineyoursurveyobjectivesandgoalsBeforeyougetstarted,youneedtodetermineyourgoals,budgetandresources–intermsofbothmoneyandexpertiseNosurveyprojectshouldmoveveryfarforwardwithoutaclearstatementofthepurposeandgoalsofthesurveyTheexactgoalsmaybemodifiedasthesurveyplanningproceedsForexample,ifthebudgetisreduced,lessinformationmaybecollected,sonoteverygoalcanbemetAlwayswriteoutexplicitandspecificgoalssoyoucanrefertothemandsharethemwithyourorganizationTheobjectivesshouldbeasclearaspossibleAgoalsuchas"WewanttounderstandwhycustomersofABCBankaresatisfied"istoovagueInstead,youneedtothinkabouttheparticularissuesthatyouwishtoexploreandmeasureForabank,theseissuesmightbesatisfactionwithservice,interestratesoffered,competitiveoffers,hoursofoperation,etcOnceyouhaveclearobjectives,youcanbegintoformulateyourquestionsmoreeasilyOutlineyourresearchThenextstepistodevelopaplantoimplementyourmissionBepreparedtoknowwhichstatisticsyou'llneedtorunforyouranalysis,alongwithwhatinitialrelationshipsandpatternsyouexpecttofindEstablishaprojectbudgetMappinganactionplanhelpsyoujustifyyourstudyandbudgetItalsohelpsyoudeterminethescopeandsizeofyoursurveyBeforebeginningastudy,manyorganizationsmustproveresearchhasaviablechanceofproducingresultsBesuretoask:• Howmuchwillthesurveycost• HowlongwillittaketocompletethesurveyandproduceresultsTypically,themajorcostsofasurveyaredatacollectionanddataentrySomemethods,suchasemailorWebbasedsurveyscanhaveasmallercostsperreturnedquestionnairePlanyourscheduleForyourfirstfewsurveys,assumeitwilltakelongerthanyouexpectIfyou’recreatinganewsurveyfromscratch,allowyourselfextratimetocompletetheprocessFornewsurveyprojectswithmailsurveys,itoftentakesmonthsfromstarttofinishYoucanreducethetotaltimedramaticallyifyouareusingexistingquestionnairesandelectronicmethodsofdatacollectionDon'tshortchangethetimeneededforquestionnairedevelopment,pretestingandanalysisAlso,besurethatyoudon'tshortchangethereportingendoftheprocess,whichisoftenrushedTrytoanticipatewhattablesandgraphicsshouldbeconstructedtogetajumpstartonthetasksDefinethepopulationYouneedtoconsiderthepeoplethatarefocusofyourstudy,yourpopulation,beforeyoucandevelopquestionsandformatyoursurveySomethingstoconsiderareyourpopulation'sage,educationandattentionspanForexample,ayoungchildmaynotunderstandcomplexquestionsOr,olderrespondentsmaynotunderstandnewphrasesorjargonOtherrespondentsmaybeunableorunwillingtodevotemuchtimetoasurveyEstimatetherequiredsamplesizeIfthesamplesizeistoosmall,yourisknotfindinganysignificantresultsandwillhavetostartoverOntheotherhand,ifthesamplesizeistoobig,youwillhavewastedmoneybecauseasmallersamplesizewouldbesufficientYoucanusesoftwaretodetermineareliablesamplesizeforyourprojectSelectamethodofdatacollectionAsyouplanasurvey,youneedtodeterminewhichmethod–ormethods–youshouldusetocollectdatafromrespondentsSomeoptionsincludebytelephone,bymailedquestionnaire,byfacetofaceinterview,byemail,overtheInternetorotherelectronicmethodsSometimes,ittakesacombinationofmethodstogetthebestresultsThemethodyouusedependsonfactorssuchas:​ onthetypeofpopulationtobesurveyed​ themethodyouusetogetarepresentativesample​ thetypeofquestionstobeaskedanddatacollected​ amountoffundsandpersonnelavailableDeterminehowyouwillusetheresultsOnepartoftheplanningstageisthinkingabouthowyouwillusetheresultsSomethingstoconsiderinclude:​ thetypeofanalysisyouhopetodo​ whatreportsyouwillwrite​ howtheinformationwillbeusedYourobjectivewhencreatingsurveyquestionsistokeepthesurveyasbriefaspossiblewhilestillgatheringallpertinentinformationWritethequestionsThekeytoasuccessfulsurveydesignistoensurethatyourquestionsareconciseandeasytounderstandThisway,youwillgetvalid,reliableandrelevantinformationUsewellwritten,testedpreexistingquestionsasmuchaspossible,especiallyfromsurveysdoneinyourspecificindustryortopicareaYoucanfindwellwrittenquestionsinquestionlibrariesSomesoftwareprogramshavequestionlibrariesbuiltin,whichcanhelpguideyouthroughprofessionallywrittenquestionsHowever,noquestionisusableineverysituation–soyouhavetoexaminethequestionsforyourparticularsurveyresearchPretestingquestionsisthebestmethodtodeterminewhetheraquestioniscorrectforyourownsurveyAndifyouaregoingtowritingquestionsonyourown,youmightconsidertakingatrainingcoursetolearnprovenmethodsforquestionwritingDesignthequestionnaireApoorlyformattedsurveycandeterpeoplefromrespondingtoyoursurveyItcanalsogiveskewedresultsTherearetwokeygoalstokeepinmindwhendesigningaquestionnaire:minimizingmeasurementerrorandreducingnonresponseYourquestionnaireshouldbeconstructedsothat:​ respondentsaremotivatedtocompleteit ​ thequestionsareallreadcorrectlyandthoroughly​ respondentsunderstandhowtorespondtoeachquestionsorhowtoskipwithclearinstructionsthroughoutthedocument​ returningthequestionnaireisaneasyandstraightforwardtaskPretestthequestionnaireApretestisaformalreviewofaquestionnaireandtheassociateddatacollectionmethodologyItisusedtodiscoverpotentialproblemsandmakeimprovements,soyougetthebestpossibleresultsTypically,nomorethanrespondentsareneededforapretestThepretestpopulationshouldbesimilarincharacteristicstothepopulationofyouractualsurveyByconductingapretest,youcan:​ findproblematicquestionsandgettheopportunitytorewritethem​ estimatethecostofdatacollection​ estimatetheresponserate–andthusthenecessarysamplesize​ estimatethedistributionofkeyvariables​ determinetheeffectivenessofinterviewersDataCollectionOrganizationStep:DatacollectionInorderforthisstepinthesurveyresearchprocesstobeasuccess,youneedtocollectclean,unbiasedanduptodatedatainanefficientmannerMethodsofdatacollectionThereisnobestmethodofdatacollectionForexample,surveysbymailhaverelativelylowcostsbuttypicallylowresponserateswithoutconsiderableeffortsatfollowupSurveysbyemailmayhaveevenlowercost,butcan'tbeusedforgeneralpopulation,becauseyoucan'tassumethateveryonehasaccesstoemailElectronicmethods,ingeneral,cancollectdatamorerapidlyFacetofaceinterviewsareoftenprohibitivelyexpensivebutthelengthiestquestionnairescanbeusedwiththismethodFailurefromnonresponseManysurveysfailtocollectdatafromanappreciablefractionofthosecontactedThisproblemiscalled"nonresponse"Nonresponse,byitself,shouldnotbeacauseforconcernButwhennonrespondentsdifferfromrespondentsinrelevantways,youhavetoaccountforthebiasSoftwarecanhelpyouanalyzemissingdatapatternsandaccountforthesenonresponsevariablesIfyoufindthatrespondentsaresystematicallydifferentthanthenonrespondents,youcanweightyourresultssothatthesamplematchesknownpopulationvaluesThen,youcandrawconclusionsmorecarefullyduetomissingresponsesFailurefromitemnonresponseAnotherproblemyoumightencounterinthedatacollectionstageis"itemnonresponse"Thisiswhenpeoplewhodorespond,somewillfailtoanswerindividualitemsThiscanbeavoidedcompletelythroughelectronicsurveysYoucanusesoftwarethatcreatesrulesthatwon'tallowtherespondenttocontinueiftheydon'tansweraquestion Step:DataaccessTheobjectiveofthedataaccessstageistoreadthedataintoanalyticalsoftwareforfurtherprocessingDatacancomefromavarietyofsources,includingmanuallyenteredpapersurveysandonlinesurveysThisstagecanbeveryeasy,ifthesoftwarethatyouwereusingfordataentryiscompatiblewithyouranalysissoftwareIfyourprogramsaren'tcompatible,youmighthavetorekeyinyourdata,whichincreasesthechancesfordataentryerrorsOneadvantageofhavingcompatiblesoftwarewouldbetotaketheguessworkoutofimportingandparsinglongtextfilesintoyouranalysisprogram  Step:DatapreparationandmanagementThegoalofthedatapreparationandmanagementstageistogetthedatareadyforanalysisWhenexamininganewdataset,performdataverificationandcleaning,whichhelpsensureyouranalyticalresultsareaccurateForexample,ifyouhavegenderdatainwhich""isformaleand""isforfemale,yourdatashouldn’thave""asaresponseUsingdatacollectionsoftwareduringthisstepcanhelpyousavetimebystreamliningtheprocessIfyourrespondentsareenteringintheirowndatathroughelectronicsurveys,youcansetuprulesthatonlyacceptapprovedresponses,suchas""or""Orifyourdataisbeingenteredmanually,softwarecandetectandfixdiscrepanciesIfyoudon'thaveawayofverifyingandcleaningyourdata,youruntheriskofanalyzingbaddata–andgettingbadresultsSettingupthe"codebook"Duringthedatapreparationandmanagementstep,you'llalsowanttosetup"codebook"information,whichisanyvariabledefinitioninformationThisincludesvariablenames,variableformatsanddescriptivevariablelabels(datasuchasgenderorincomelevel)andvaluelabels(numbersassignedtodata,suchas""isformale,""isforfemale)Thisinformationisstoredinthedata"dictionary"SettingupmultipleitemindicesandscalesYou'llalsowanttosetupmultipleitemindicesandscales(multiplevariablesthathaveexactlythesameanswerset) Thisismakingsurethatsimilarquestions,suchasratingseveraldifferentfeaturesofaproduct,havethesameratingsscaleinthedataset Thesemultipleindicescanbecombinedintoasingle,multipleitemindexforprojectssuchascustomersurveysInthissameexample,bymakingsurethescalesofaquestionaskingforratingsofproductfeaturesarethesameforallfeatures,theratingsofthefeaturescannowbedirectlycomparedtoeachotherThisprovidesamorereliablemeasurementofinterestthanasinglequestioncanOthergoalsofthedatapreparationandmanagementstepinclude:​ TransformingyourdataThishelpsyougetyourdatainastructureandformneededforanalysis​ FillinginmissingdataByreplacingmissingdatavalueswithestimates,youensurebettersummarystatisticsAnalysisReportingStep:DataanalysisDataanalysisletsyouextractusefulinformationfromyourcollecteddatasoyoucanmakeinformeddecisionsEverypieceofyouracquireddatahasintrinsicvalueThekeyisextractingthisvalueYouareabletobetterunderstandyouraudience,whetherit'scustomers,employeesorprospects,byanalyzingthemostintimatedetailsDifferentstatisticalproceduresareappropriateforvariablesdependingonwhatyouwanttolearnandthelevelofmeasurementofthevariableWhetheryouarerunningbasicanalysissuchasfrequenciesormoresophisticatedanalysis,specialsoftwarecanhelpyougetthemostvaluefromyourdataWhenchoosingananalyticalpackage,lookforonethathasabreadthofanalyticsanda"statisticscoach"ifyouwantguidancethroughtheanalyticalprocessDuringdataanalysis,youshouldkeeptrackoftheanalysesyourunWhenperformingcomplexanalyses,keeparecordoftheproceduresyouperformorthewayyoucreatednewvariablesThisrecordwillhelpyoureconstructyouranalysesifanyquestionsarisewhenyouwriteyourreportDescriptivedataanalysisBeforerunningdatathroughpredictivemodels,youfirstneedtounderstandthedatayou'regoingtoprocessThisisdescriptivedataanalysisItletsyouseewhat'sgoingon,basedonyourcurrentdataForexample,youcanlearnwhatisthesatisfactionlevelofyouraveragecustomerIndescriptivedataanalysis,youwanttounderstandyourdatabyaskingquestionssuchas"What’sthedistributionofmydata"or,"Whatdoestheaveragepersoninmysurveyscore"ThedataanalysisstagecanbetimeintensiveWhenchoosingananalyticalsoftwarepackage,youwantasolutionthatallowstoyoutoperformcompleteanalysis,butalsotheabilitytodigdeepintodata–quicklyThegoalsofdescriptivedataanalysisareto:​ Summarizeyourdata​ GetanaccuratedescriptionofthevariablesofinterestInferentialdataanalysisManyorganizationsaredoingdescriptiveanalysistolearnaboutthepastYoucantakethisanalysistothenextstepbylearningaboutthefutureInferentialdataanalysishelpsyoupredictfutureoutcomessuchascustomersmostlikelytobesatisfiedoremployeesmostlikelytoleaveyourorganizationIfyou'redoingdescriptiveanalysisbutnotinferentialdataanalysis,you'vedonethehardestpartofsurveyresearch–withouttakingfulladvantageofyourdataTodoinferentialdataanalysis,youneedtobuildapredictionmodel(suchasaregressionmodel)fortheoutcomeyou'retryingtopredict,suchascustomersatisfactionThemodelwillshowwhichpredictorsareimportantandwillweighthepredictorsbylevelofimportanceForexample,ifyouaretryingtopredictcustomersatisfaction,youcandeterminetheimportanceoffactorssuchaslengthoftimeapersonhasbeenacustomer,theimpactofvariouspromotions,geographiclocationandmore Step:ReportingOnceyouhaveanalyzedyourdata,youneedtoreporttheresultsThegoalofthereportingstageistocreateeasytounderstandresultsfromyourdataanalysisfordecisionmakerswhocanquicklyunderstandandactuponyourinformationIt'simportanttodisplayresultsthathighlighttheinformationyouwanttoemphasizeIfyouraudiencedoesn'tunderstandthepoint,thenyourthoroughanalysisiswasted  Onewaytopresentinformationconciselyistocreatetablesthatdelivertheanalysisforspecificgroups(populations)ofinterestReportscanbegeneratedasMicrosoftWorddocuments,presentations,tablesorthroughtheWebonyourorganization'sintranetTohelpyourendusersmakethemostoftheresults–andtakelessofyoursurveyresearcher'stime–usesoftwarethatletsyoucreateinteractive,customizablereportsThisway,eachpersoncaneasilyinteractwiththeresults CompletingtheSurveyStep:DeploymentWhendeployingyourresults,youputtheresultsinthehandsofpeoplewhocanusethemtomakeadifferenceThishelpsyouincreasethereturnonyouranalyticinvestmentYourreportsaremosteffectivewhenyoutailorthemforyourtargetaudienceAsareminder,thegoalofsurveyresearchisbetterdecisionmakingDon'tdotheresearchifyouarenotgoingtodeployortakeactionontheresultsTakeactionontheresultsLetyouraudienceinteractwiththereportsReportingsoftwareletsyouandothersviewgraphsandchartsalongwiththeabilitytointeractwithtablesItgiveseachviewertheabilitytopivotrows,columnsandlayersanddrilldowntoseeresultsinmeaningfulwaysThissavestime,becauseyouwon'thavetocreateanewreporteachtimesomeonewantsadifferentviewoftheinformationNow,eachpersoncancreatetheviewtheywantontheirown,allowingthemtodrawconclusions,andtakeactiononthisinformationreceivedShareinformationeasilyWiththerightsoftwaretools,youcaneasilyshareinformationyou'vegleanedfromyoursurveyresearchwithcustomers,partnersandthepublicovertheInternetWiththissoftware,otherscaneasilyviewyourreportsusingastandardWebbrowser

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AMA The Seven Stages of Effective Survey Research

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