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首页 Animal_Farm_(Bloom’s_Modern_Critical_Interpretat…

Animal_Farm_(Bloom’s_Modern_Critical_Interpretations).pdf

Animal_Farm_(Bloom’s_Modern_Cri…

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简介:本文档为《Animal_Farm_(Bloom’s_Modern_Critical_Interpretations)pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

Bloom’sModernCriticalInterpretationsTheAdventuresofHuckleberryFinnTheAgeofInnocenceAlice’sAdventuresinWonderlandAllQuietontheWesternFrontAnimalFarmTheBalladoftheSadCaféBelovedBeowulfBlackBoyTheBluestEyeTheCanterburyTalesCatonaHotTinRoofCatchTheCatcherintheRyeTheChroniclesofNarniaTheColorPurpleCrimeandPunishmentTheCrucibleDarknessatNoonDeathofaSalesmanTheDeathofArtemioCruzDonQuixoteEmerson’sEssaysEmmaFahrenheitAFarewelltoArmsFrankensteinTheGlassMenagerieTheGrapesofWrathGreatExpectationsTheGreatGatsbyGulliver’sTravelsHamletTheHandmaid’sTaleHeartofDarknessIKnowWhytheCagedBirdSingsTheIliadInvisibleManJaneEyreTheJoyLuckClubJuliusCaesarTheJungleLongDay’sJourneyintoNightLordoftheFliesTheLordoftheRingsLoveintheTimeofCholeraTheManWithoutQualitiesTheMetamorphosisMissLonelyheartsMobyDickMyÁntoniaNativeSonNightTheOdysseyOedipusRexTheOldManandtheSeaOntheRoadOneFlewovertheCuckoo’sNestOneHundredYearsofSolitudePersuasionPortnoy’sComplaintPrideandPrejudiceRagtimeTheRedBadgeofCourageRomeoandJulietTheRubáiyátofOmarKhayyámTheScarletLetterASeparatePeaceSilasMarnerSlaughterhouseFiveSongofSolomonTheSoundandtheFuryTheStrangerAStreetcarNamedDesireSulaTheTaleofGenjiATaleofTwoCities“TheTellTaleHeart”andOtherStoriesTheirEyesWereWatchingGodThingsFallApartToKillaMockingbirdUlyssesWaitingforGodotTheWasteLandWutheringHeightsYoungGoodmanBrownBloom’sModernCriticalInterpretationsGeorgeOrwell’sAnimalFarmNewEditionEditedandwithanintroductionbyHaroldBloomSterlingProfessoroftheHumanitiesYaleUniversityBloom’sModernCriticalInterpretations:AnimalFarmNewEditionCopyright©byInfobasePublishingIntroduction©byHaroldBloomAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystems,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherFormoreinformationcontact:Bloom’sLiteraryCriticismAnimprintofInfobasePublishingWeststStreetNewYorkNYLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGeorgeOrwell’sAnimalfarmeditedandwithanintroductionbyHaroldBloomNewedpcm(Bloom’smoderncriticalinterpretations)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(acidfreepaper)Orwell,George,–AnimalfarmPoliticalfiction,EnglishHistoryandcriticismSatire,EnglishHistoryandcriticismDystopiasinliteratureIBloom,HaroldIITitleIIISeriesPRRA'dcBloom’sLiteraryCriticismbooksareavailableatspecialdiscountswhenpurchasedinbulkquantitiesforbusinesses,associations,institutions,orsalespromotionsPleasecallourSpecialSalesDepartmentinNewYorkat()or()YoucanfindBloom’sLiteraryCriticismontheWorldWideWebathttp:wwwchelseahousecomContributingeditor:PamelaLoosCoverdesignedbyTakeshiTakahashiPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaIBTIBTThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperAlllinksandWebaddresseswerecheckedandverifiedtobecorrectatthetimeofpublicationBecauseofthedynamicnatureoftheWeb,someaddressesandlinksmayhavechangedsincepublicationandmaynolongerbevalidContentsEditor’sNoteviiIntroductionHaroldBloomPoliticalFictionandPatriarchalFantasyDaphnePataiAnimalFarm:AnAllegoryofRevolutionValerieMeyersLanguageasThemeinAnimalFarmSamirElbarbaryRevolutiononAnimalFarm:Orwell’sNeglectedCommentaryVCLetemendiaAnimalFarmRogerFowlerOrwell,Tolstoy,andAnimalFarmRobertPearceContentsviAnAbsenceofPampering:TheBetrayaloftheRebellionandtheEndofDecencyinAnimalFarmAnthonyStewartGeorgeOrwell’sDystopias:FromAnimalFarmtoNineteenEightyFourPeterEdgerlyFirchowChronologyContributorsBibliographyAcknowledgmentsIndexviiMyintroductiongrantsthatAnimalFarmremainsrelevant,becausethedangersofacomputerizedsocietycarryonfromOrwell’shorrorofStalinistterror,eventhoughIfindthebooklessthananaestheticachievement,sinceabeastfableneedsapsychologicalclaritythatislackinghereDaphnePataioffersafeministcritiqueofAnimalFarmthatdoesnotpersuademe,butthenIamseventynineandresistanttoideologues,asinfactOrwellwasValerieMeyerssensiblyunravelstheallegoricalthreadofthebeastfable,whileSamirElbarbaryfollowsOrwellinhisconcernforlanguagemystificationinpoliticsOrwell’scontinuedbeliefinademocraticsocialismisarguedbyVCLetemendia,thoughImyselfreadAnimalFarmasdespairingofallpoliticsRogerFowlerinterpretsAnimalFarmasanallegoryofthefalsificationofhistorybypolitics,afterwhichRogerPearcedemonstratesTolstoy’sinfluenceonthebookThefableisseenasaparableoftheselfdestructionofhumandecencybyAnthonyStewart,whilePeterEdgerlyFirchowtracesthetransitionfromAnimalFarmtoNineteenEightyFourEditor’sNoteOnecriticremarkedofGeorgeOrwellthathewrotesympatheticallyabouthumanbeingsonlywhenhepresentedthemasanimalsThetruthofthiscanbetestedbycomparingAnimalFarmtoNineteenEightyFourNapoleon(Stalin)ispreferabletothetorturerO’Brien,perhapsbecauseevenawhipwieldingboarismoretoleratedbyOrwellthanasadistichumanPoorBoxer,themartyredworkhorse,iscertainlymorelovablethanWinstonSmith,andMollietheflirtatiousmareismorecharmingthanpoorJuliaOrwell’sdislikeofpeopleresemblesthatofamuchgreatermoralsatirist,JonathanSwift:Eachlovedindividualpersons,whiledespisingmankindinthemassWhatevertheaestheticflawsofAnimalFarm,itseemstomeabetterbookthanNineteenEightyFour,primarilybecauseitallowsusafewanimalswithwhomwecanidentifyEvenBenjamin,theilltemperedolddonkey,silentandcynical,andincapableoflaughing,stillbecomessomewhatdeartous,largelybecauseofhisdevotiontotheheroicBoxerI’mnotcertainthatIdon’tpreferSnowball(Trotsky)toanyoneatallinNineteenEightyFour,becauseatleastheisvivaciousandinventiveThegreatCanadiancriticNorthropFryeobservedthatAnimalFarmadaptsfromSwift’sATaleofaTubtheclassicalformulaofmuchliterarysatire:“thecorruptionofprinciplebyexpediency,”orthefallofUtopiaUnlikeSwift,however,asFryeagainnotes,OrwellisnotconcernedwithmotivationThereaderisnotencouragedtoask:WhatdoestheinscrutableNapoleonStalinwantOrwell’spointmaybethatabsolutepowerisdesiredbytyrantssimplyforitsownsake,butAnimalFarmhardlymakesthatveryclearThebeastfableisafascinatinggenre,butitdemandsacertainpsychologicalclarHAROLDBLOOMIntroductionHaroldBloomity,whetherinChaucerorinThurber,andAnimalFarmmostlyevadespsychologicalcategoriesOrwellessentiallywasaliberalmoralist,grimlypreoccupiedwithpreservingafewoldfashionedvirtueswhilefearingthatthetechnologicalfuturewouldonlyenhancehumandepravityAnimalFarm,likeNineteenEightyFour,retainsitsrelevancebecauseweareenteringintoacomputerizedworldwhereapostOrwellian“virtualreality”couldbeusedasyetanotherbetrayalofindividuallibertyPartoftheresidualstrengthofAnimalFarmisthatwecanimagineaversionofitinearlytwentyfirstcenturyAmericainwhichallthe“animals”willbecompelledtolivesomevariantuponatheocratic“ContractwiththeAmericanFamily”Perhapsthemottoofthattheocracywillbe:“Allanimalsareholy,butsomeanimalsareholierthanothers”FromTheOrwellMystique:AStudyinMaleIdeology,pp–,–©byDaphnePataiInhisessay“Marrakech,”Orwellelaboratesontheperceptionthatcametohim,duringhisstayinMorocco,that“Allpeoplewhoworkwiththeirhandsarepartlyinvisible”Describingthefileof“veryoldwomen,”eachbentbeneathaloadoffirewood,whopassedbyhishouseeveryafternoonforseveralweeks,hecomments:“IcannottrulysaythatIhadseenthemFirewoodwaspassingthatwashowIsawit”(CEJL,:)Onedayhehappenedtobewalkingbehindthefirewoodandfinallynoticed“thehumanbeingunderneathit”awomanBycontrast,hewrites,hisawarenessofthemistreatmentofanimalswasimmediate:“IhadnotbeenfiveminutesonMoroccansoilbeforeInoticedtheoverloadingofthedonkeysandwasinfuriatedbyit”OrwellthendescribesthesmallMoroccandonkey,afaithfulandwillingworker,intheanthropomorphictermshewaslatertouseforBoxer,theimmenseandhardworkingcarthorseinAnimalFarm,andconcludes:“Afteradozenyearsofdevotedwork,itsuddenlydropsdead,whereuponitsmastertipsitintotheditchandthevillagedogshavetornitsgutsoutbeforeitiscold”(:)Inafascinatingexampleofhistendencytogeneralizefrompersonalreactions,Orwellstates:“Thiskindofthingmakesone’sbloodboil,whereasonthewholetheplightofthehumanbeingsdoesnotIamnotcommenting,merelypointingtoafactPeoplewithbrownskinsarenextdoortoinvisibleAnyonecanbesorryforthedonkeyDAPHNEPATAIPoliticalFictionandPatriarchalFantasyDaphnePataiwithitsgalledback,butitisgenerallyowingtosomekindofaccidentifoneevennoticestheoldwomanunderherloadofsticks”(:)Thewoman,Orwellhadearlierexplained,“acceptedherstatusasanoldwoman,thatistosayasabeastofburden”(:)Rebellionisnotapossibilityforher,anymorethanfortheNegrosoldiers(veryvisibletoOrwell,however)describedlaterinthesameessayasunawareoftheirpotentialpowerOrwellexplainedthegenesisofAnimalFarminaprefacetotheUkrainianeditionofthebookForadecadehehad“beenconvincedthatthedestructionoftheSovietmythwasessentialifwewantedarevivaloftheSocialistmovement”OnmyreturnfromSpainIthoughtofexposingtheSovietmythinastorythatcouldbeeasilyunderstoodbyalmostanyoneandwhichcouldbeeasilytranslatedintootherlanguagesHowevertheactualdetailsofthestorydidnotcometomeforsometimeuntiloneday(Iwasthenlivinginasmallvillage)Isawalittleboy,perhapstenyearsold,drivingahugecarthorsealonganarrowpath,whippingitwheneverittriedtoturnItstruckmethatifonlysuchanimalsbecameawareoftheirstrengthweshouldhavenopoweroverthem,andthatmenexploitanimalsinmuchthesamewayastherichexploittheproletariatIproceededtoanalyseMarx’stheoryfromtheanimals’pointofviewTothemitwasclearthattheconceptofaclassstrugglebetweenhumanswaspureillusion,sincewheneveritwasnecessarytoexploitanimals,allhumansunitedagainstthem:thetruestruggleisbetweenanimalsandhumansFromthispointofdeparture,itwasnotdifficulttoelaboratethestoryCEJL,:–InMorocco,OrwellperceivedthecruellaborofdonkeysmorereadilythanthatofbrownskinnedwomenThoughheabstractshimselffromhisdescriptionandattributeshisreactiontoallpeople(“merelypointingtoafact”),thisisacharacteristicperceptionforOrwellWeseeitduplicatedinhisaccountofhowhecametowriteAnimalFarmForwhenOrwellwasreadytothinkintermsofexploitationthattranscendseconomicclass,heblindlyleapedfromclasstospecieswithoutpausingtoconsiderthequestionofgenderItwasapparentlyeasierforOrwelltoidentifywiththeanimalkingdom,exploitedatthehandsof“humans,”thantonotethatburiedinclassandracedivisionsinthehumanworldlaytheissueofgenderoppressionTheanimals’perspectiveadoptedbyOrwellasthestartingpointforhisfableleadshimtoaconclusionthattheclassstruggleamonghumansPoliticalFictionandPatriarchalFantasyis“pureillusion”whichisitselfanillusionAlthoughhumanshavebeenunitedintheirexploitationofanimals,thisdoesnotmeanthattheyareunitedinallotherrespectsTherecanexistbothaclassstruggleandageneralexploitationofanimalsOnlythisgrosssimplification,however,enabledOrwelltowriteAnimalFarminfact,thechoiceofallegoryallowedOrwelltoturnhispenchantforgeneralization,oneofhisfundamentalweaknessesasawriter,intoastrength,for,asGayCliffordpointsout,“allegoryinvitesitsreaderstoseetheparticularnarrativeasbeingalsoaseriesofgeneralizedstatements,anddemandsthatconceptsbeidentifiedsimultaneouslyintheirfictionalandideologicalroles”CliffordgoesontostatethatbothAnimalFarmandNineteenEightyFour,likeothermodernallegories,“requireasingleactoftranslation(fictiontohistoryforexample)andthencanbereadasstraightnarrativeswhosemoralsignificanceisobviousIndeed,withoutthatclearlydelimitedactoftranslationtheylosehalftheirforce”Allegory,likemyth,presupposesanaudiencethatwillrespondincertainwaysThisisonereason,NorthropFryehasobserved,thatcriticsdislikeallegory,foritrestrictsthefreedomoftheircommentarybyprescribingitsdirectionInClifford’swords:“Theideathatthereareasmanywaysofreadingaworkofliteratureastherearereadersisanathematoallegory”ThisobservationisborneoutbyOrwell’sanxiousconcernthatAnimalFarmberead“correctly”Afterthemanuscript’srejectionbyDialPressinNewYorkin,onthegroundsthat“itwasimpossibletosellanimalstoriesintheUSA,”Orwellwas“notsurewhetheronecancountontheAmericanpublicgraspingwhatitisabout,”asheexplainedinalettertohisagent(CEJL,:)andheevensuggestedthat“itmightbeworthindicatingonthedustjacketoftheAmericaneditionwhatthebookisabout”(:)OrwellneednothaveworriedWhenpublishedintheUnitedStatesin,AnimalFarmwastheBookoftheMonthClubmainselection,andanunprecedentedspecialletterwassentbytheclub’spresidenttoitsmembersurgingthemtochooseAnimalFarmratherthananalternativetitleItsoldoverhalfamillioncopies(:)intheclubeditionaloneFarfromnotbeingunderstood,itwasimmediatelyputtoworkasanantiCommunisttextandtothisdayistaughtinAmericanschools,apparentlyforthispurposePatriarchPigs,MaternalMares,andOtherAnimalsThepsychologicalappealoftheanimalfableiseasytounderstand:Byprojectinghumanconflictsontoanimalcharacters,readerscanavoidfeelingthreatenedoroverwhelmedbytherealworldproblemstheyencounterinthissimplifiedandinmanyrespectscharmingformNeithertheauthornorthereaders,however,aremagicallyfreedfromtheirownprejudicesbythisdisplacementOnthecontrary,afablesuchasAnimalFarmreliesDaphnePataiconsiderablyuponengagingthereader’spreconceivedideasTheauthor’sparticularconcernscanbemoreclearlysetinreliefagainstabackgroundoffamiliarandnonchallengingelementsInhisfable,Orwellevokesnotonlyoursympathyforcertainanimalsbutalsoourpossibledistasteforpigs,fearofbarkingandbitingdogs,andaweatthesizeandstrengthofhorsesButevenintheearlystagesofhisstoryhedoesnotmerelyportraytheanimalsasunitedintheiranimalnessagainstthespeciesHomosapiensnor,asthestorydevelops,doeshesimplyelicit“anti”feelingsforthepigsand“pro”feelingsfortheotheranimalswithoutfurtherdistinctionsTobeeffective,ananimalfablemustmaintainadelicatebalancebetweentheevocationoftheanimals’humancharacteristicsandtheirrecognizableanimaltraitsThereadermustusebothperspectives,thehumanandtheanimal,simultaneously,iftheallegoryisnottobecomeludicrousOrwellprovidesapoignantlyhumorousexampleofthisindescribinghowtheanimalswentthroughthefarmhouseaftertherevolution:“Somehamshanginginthekitchenweretakenoutforburial”()EvenSnowball’swritingdownoftheSevenCommandmentsofAnimalismisendearing:“Itwasveryneatlywritten,andexceptthat‘friend’waswritten‘freind’andoneofthe‘S’s’wasthewrongwayround,thespellingwascorrectallthewaythrough”()Descriptionssuchasthisoccuratmanypointsinthetext,andtheiremotionalappealclearlycomesfromthechildlikequalityofthedetailsAtthisstageoftheproceedingsthereaderseesnothingsinisterinthepigs’newfoundliteracyAgainandagainOrwellattributeschildliketastesandhabitstotheanimals,theirloveofsingingtheiranthem,“BeastsofEngland,”manytimesover,forexampleThisfeaturealsoexplainswhythebookcanbereadwithpleasurebychildren,whonodoubtidentifymoreintenselythanadultswiththeanimalsandtheirlackoftotalcommandofadulthumanskillsAtthesametime,theflattenedcharacterizationssuitableforanimalallegoryneutralizesomeofOrwell’sspecialdifficultiesasawriteroffictionHehasatlastfoundaframeworkinwhichauthenticrelationshipsbetweencharactersandinsightintohumanbeingsordinaryrequirementsofthenovelaresimplynotimportantOrwell’sanimalchallengetoMarxismpresupposesaunityamongtheanimals(asamongthehumans)thatispurelyimaginaryKatharineBurdekin,inanextraordinaryfeministnovelentitledProudMan,publishedinunderthepseudonym“MurrayConstantine,”depictsBritishsocietyfromthevantagepointofanevolvedselffertilizing“person”whoreferstotherestofusas“subhumans”Burdekin’snarratorstatesthematterinplainlanguage:“Aprivilegeofclassdividesasubhumansocietyhorizontally,whileaprivilegeofsexdividesitvertically”Burdekinalsodiscussestheproblemoffailedrevolutions(whichwaslatertopreoccupyOrwell)andlabelsthemPoliticalFictionandPatriarchalFantasy“reversalsofprivilege”Sherelatesthesetothehumanpreoccupationwiththeideaofimportance,exacerbatedinmalesduetotheirbiologicallimitations“wombenvy,”inshortInAnimalFarm,however,OrwelldoesnotaddresstheverticaldivisionofsocietybysexonwhichpatriarchyrestsOfcourse,weknowthathisaimwastosatirize“dictatorshipingeneral”andtheRussianRevolutioninparticularbutdisplacinghispoliticalmessageontoanimalsdidnotallowOrwellanavenueofescapefromthemessybusinessofthegenderhierarchyOnthecontrary,itiscarefullyreproducedinAnimalFarmAlthoughAnimalFarmismentionedinscoresofstudiesofOrwell,nocritichasthoughtitworthacommentthatthepigswhobetraytherevolution,likethepigwhostartsit,arenotjustpigsbutboars,thatis,uncastratedmalepigskeptforbreedingpurposesOldMajor,the“prizeMiddleWhiteboar”()whohascalle

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