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首页 Microeconomics-A Modern Approach

Microeconomics-A Modern Approach.pdf

Microeconomics-A Modern Approach

wayne008
2010-11-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Microeconomics-A Modern Approachpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

MICROECONOMICSAMODERNAPPROACHFIRSTEDITIONANDREWSCHOTTERNEWYORKUNIVERSITYMicroeconomics:AModernApproachAndrewSchotterVPEditorialDirector:JackWCalhounEditorinChief:AlexvonRosenbergSrAcquisitionsEditor:SteveScobleDevelopmentalEditor:KatieYanosExecutiveMarketingManager:BrianJoynerSrContentProjectManager:ColleenAFarmerTechnologyProjectManager:DeepakKumarManufacturingCoordinator:SandeeMilewskiProductionTechnologyAnalyst:EmilyGrossProductionService:NewgenSrArtDirector:MichelleKunklerCoverandInternalDesigner:JenniferLambertJenDesignCoverImage:©GettyImagesPrinter:EdwardsBrothersPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica©SouthWestern,apartofCengageLearningALLRIGHTSRESERVEDNopartofthisworkcoveredbythecopyrighthereinmaybereproduced,transmitted,storedorusedinanyformorbyanymeansgraphic,electronic,ormechanical,includingbutnotlimitedtophotocopying,recording,scanning,digitizing,taping,Webdistribution,informationnetworks,orinformationstorageandretrievalsystems,exceptaspermittedunderSectionoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherLibraryofCongressControlNumber:StudentEditionISBN:StudentEditionISBN:XStudentEditionPackageISBN:StudentEditionPackageISBN:SouthWesternCengageLearningNatorpBoulevardMason,OHUSACengageLearningproductsarerepresentedinCanadabyNelsonEducation,LtdForyourcourseandlearningsolutions,visitacademiccengagecomPurchaseanyofourproductsatyourlocalcollegestoreoratourpreferredonlinestorewwwichapterscomForproductinformationandtechnologyassistance,contactusatCengageLearningAcademicResourceCenter,Forpermissiontousematerialfromthistextorproduct,submitallrequestsonlineatwwwcengagecompermissionsFurtherpermissionsquestionscanbeemailedtopermissionrequestcengagecomToAnneBriefContentsPrefacexviiiAbouttheAuthorxxvSectionIntroductionChapterEconomicsandInsititutions:AShiftofEmphasisSectionPreferences,Utilities,Demands,andUncertaintyChapterConsumersandTheirPreferencesChapterUtilitiesIndifferenceCurvesChapterDemandandBehaviorinMarketsChapterSomeApplicationsofConsumerDemand,andWelfareAnalysisChapterUncertaintyandtheEmergenceofInsuranceChapterUncertaintyApplicationsandCriticismsSectionProductionandCostChapterTheDiscoveryofProductionandItsTechnologyChapterCostandChoiceChapterCostCurvesSectionDecisionTheory–StaticandDynamicDecisionsChapterGameTheoryandtheToolsofStrategicBusinessAnalysisChapterDecisionMakingOverTimeChapterTheInternalOrganizaionoftheFirmSectionMarketsandMarketStructuresChapterPerfectlyCompetitveMarkets:ShortRunAnalysisChapterCompetitiveMarketsintheLongRunChapterMarketInsitutionsandAuctionsChapterTheAgeofEntrepreneurship:MonopolyChapterNaturalMonopolyandtheEconomicsofRegulationChapterTheWorldofOligopoly:PreliminariestoSuccessfulEntryChapterMarketEntryandtheEmergenceofPerfectCompetitionSectionWelfare,Exchange,andGeneralEquilibriumChapterTheProblemofExchangeChapterGeneralEquilibriumandtheOriginsoftheFreeMarketandInterventionistIdeologiesSectionBreakdownsandMarketFailureChapterMoralHazardandAdverseSelection:InformationalMarketFailuresChapterExternalities:TheFreeMarket–InterventionistBattleContinuesivSectionInputMarketsandtheOriginsofClassStruggleChapterPublicGoods,theConsequencesofStrategicVotingBehavior,andtheRoleofGovernmentChapterInputMarketsandtheOriginsofClassConflictAnswerstoSelectedExercisesandProblemsGlossaryIndexBriefContentsvContentsPrefacexviiiAbouttheAuthorxxvSECTIONINTRODUCTIONECONOMICSANDINSTITUTIONS:ASHIFTOFEMPHASISMicroeconomicsandInstitutionsInstitutionalArrangements:PreordainedorArbitraryMicroeconomics:AToolforUnderstandingInstitutionsConventionalMicroeconomicsTheProblemofAllocatingResourcesAllocationStrategiesTheEffectofInstitutionsontheAllocationProcessEconomicInstitutionsDefinedTheEmphasisofThisBookEconomicModelsMathematicalModelsAnalogiesasModelsTestingTheoriesEconomicsasanExperimentalScienceTheModelUsedinThisBookandanOutlineoftheChaptersSection:Preferences,Utilities,Demands,andUncertaintySection:ProductionandCostsSection:DecisionTheoryStaticandDynamicDecisionsSection:MarketsandMarketStructuresSection:Welfare,Exchange,andGeneralEquilibriumSection:BreakdownsandMarketFailureSection:InputMarketsandtheOriginsofClassStruggleThreeFundamentalInstitutionsTheStatePropertyRightsEconomicConsultingFirmsConclusionSECTIONPREFERENCES,UTILITIES,DEMANDS,ANDUNCERTAINTYCONSUMERSANDTHEIRPREFERENCESTheConsumptionPossibilitySetAPrimitiveStateofNature:PeopleandGoodsTheConvexityPropertyofConsumptionPossibilitySetsviRationalityBinaryRelationshipsamongGoodsTheEconomicallyFeasibleSetTimeConstraintsIncomeorBudgetConstraintsRationalityandChoiceTheNeedforUtilityFunctionsTheContinuityAssumptionTheExistenceofContinuousUtilityFunctionsAdditiveandMultiplicativeUtilityFunctionsCardinalandOrdinalUtilityPsychologicalAssumptionsPsychologicalAssumption:SelfishnessPsychologicalAssumption:NonsatiationPsychologicalAssumption:ConvexityofPreferencesConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsUTILITIESINDIFFERENCECURVESIndifferenceCurvesIndifferenceCurvesDerivedandDefinedTheShapeofIndifferenceCurvesTheMarginalRateofSubstitutionIndifferenceCurvesandTastesOptimalConsumptionBundlesCharacteristicsofOptimalBundlesRevealedPreferenceConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsDEMANDANDBEHAVIORINMARKETSIndividualMaximizationandImpersonalMarketsTheProblemofConsumerChoiceIncomeExpansionPathsInferiorandSuperiorGoodsHomotheticPreferencesandtheCharacteristicsofGoodsPriceConsumptionPathsChangingRelativePricesDerivingthePriceConsumptionPathDemandCurvesDemandandUtilityFunctionsNonconvexPreferencesandDemandNonstrictlyConvexPreferencesandDemandContentsviiIncomeandSubstitutionEffectsTheIncomeEffectTheSubstitutionEffectTheIncomeandSubstitutionEffectsCombinedNormalGoodsandDownwardSlopingDemandCurvesGiffenGoodsandUpwardSlopingDemandCurvesCompensatedandUncompensatedDemandCurvesDerivingCompensatedDemandFunctionsTheRelationshipofCompensatedandUncompensatedDemandFunctionsInferiorandSuperiorGoodsandCompensatedandUncompensatedDemandCurvesConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheDemandCurveExercisesandProblemsSOMEAPPLICATIONSOFCONSUMERDEMAND,ANDWELFAREANALYSISApplication:WorkandLeisureApplication:CrimeandPunishmentIncomeandCrimeChangesintheDishonestWageTheParadoxofCrimePreventionMeasuringthePriceSensitivityofDemandPriceElasticityDemandCurvesTheSlutskyEquationPropertiesofDemandFunctionsDemandProperty:PriceandIncomeMultiplicationDemandProperty:OrdinalUtilityDemandProperty:BudgetExhaustionFromIndividualDemandtoMarketDemandExpenditureFunctionsConsumerSurplusApproximateVersusExactMeasuresofConsumerSurplus:CompensatedVersusUncompensatedDemandMeasuresofConsumerGainChangesinConsumerSurplusPriceCompensatingVariationPriceCompensatingVariationsandExpenditureFunctionsConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheExpenditureFunctionAppendixB:PriceCompensatingVariationsExercisesandProblemsviiiContentsUNCERTAINTYANDTHEEMERGENCEOFINSURANCEUncertaintyandtheNeedforInsuranceRepresentingUncertaintybyProbabilityDistributionsPropertiesofDistributionTheMeanandVarianceofaRandomVariableDecisionMakingunderConditionsofUncertainty:MaximizingExpectedUtilityWhyNotMaximizeExpectedMonetaryReturnsMaximizingExpectedUtility:CardinalUtilityOrdinalandCardinalUtilityUtilityFunctionsandAttitudestowardRiskRiskNeutralityRiskAversionRiskPreferenceTheDesiretoBuyInsurance:RiskAversionConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsUNCERTAINTYAPPLICATIONSANDCRITICISMSTheCreationofInsuranceandInsuranceMarketsRiskPooling:TheGrowthofInsuranceCompaniesHowCouldExpectedUtilityBewrongViolationofProbabilityRulesWhyUsetheExpectedUtilityTheoryConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsSECTIONPRODUCTIONANDCOSTTHEDISCOVERYOFPRODUCTIONANDITSTECHNOLOGYDiscoveringProductionTheDiscoveryofProductionandtheRiseofanEntrepreneurMeasuringOpportunityCost,Investment,andProfitsTheProductionFunctionandTechnologyTheMarginalRateofTechnicalSubstitutionDescribingTechnologiesReturnstoScaleElasticityofSubstitutionTimeConstraintsTheImmediateRun,theShortRun,andtheLongRunTheRelationshipBetweenTimeConstraintsandtheProductionFunctionConclusionSummaryContentsixAppendixA:TheProductionFunctionExercisesandProblemsCOSTANDCHOICEHowCostsAreRelatedtoOutputTheRelationshipBetweenCostFunctionsandProductionFunctions:ProductionFunctionswithFixedProportionsTheOptimalCombinationofInputswithSubstitutionPossibilitiesTheOptimalCombinationofInputsintheLongRun:IsocostCurvesandIsoquantsTheOptimalCombinationofInputsintheShortRunSpecialTechnologiesandTheirCostFunctionsTheLeontiefTechnologyTheCobbDouglasTechnologyConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheCostFunctionExercisesandProblemsCOSTCURVESShortRunandLongRunCostFunctionsFixedandVariableCostsShortRunCostConceptsLongRunCostConceptsConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsSECTIONDECISIONTHEORY–STATICANDDYNAMICDECISIONSGAMETHEORYANDTHETOOLSOFSTRATEGICBUSINESSANALYSISGamesofStrategyDefinedUsingGameTreestoDescribeGamesGamesofPerfectandImperfectInformation:WhatPlayersKnowWhenTheyMakeTheirChoicesDescribingGamesinTheirNormalFormEquilibriaforGamesNashEquilibriaDominantStrategyEquilibriaSolvingGamesbyEliminationofDominatedStrategiesSolvingGamesbytheIteratedEliminationofDominatedStrategiesGameswithManyEquilibriaCredibleThreatsSubgamePerfect(CredibleThreat)EquilibriaBackwardInductionandSubgamePerfectionxContentsRationalityandEquityTheTraditionalViewConclusionSummaryAppendixA:GamesofIncompleteInformationAppendixB:RepeatedGamesExercisesandProblemsDECISIONMAKINGOVERTIMEDiscountingtheFutureTimeConsistencySearchingfortheLowestPrice:WhyWealthyPeopleRefusetoShopforBargainsIntergenerationalGiving:AStrangeInheritanceProblemSearchingforWagesConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsTHEINTERNALORGANIZATIONOFTHEFIRMTheDecisiontoStartaFirmMotivatingWorkerstoWork:TheMoralHazardProblemSolutionstotheMoralHazardProblemofWorkersNotWorkingAPlanCombiningtheEfficiencyWageandMonitoringARevenueSharingPlanAForcingContractPlanAPlanInvolvingEconomicTournamentsDesigningtheOptimalContractPrincipalAgentProblemsWritingContractsWhenActionsAreObservableWritingContractsWhenActionsAreUnobservableAffirmativeActionandDiscriminationintheWorkplaceConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsSECTIONMARKETSANDMARKETSTRUCTURESPERFECTLYCOMPETITIVEMARKETS:SHORTRUNANALYSISCompetitiveMarketsintheShortRunTheQuantityDecisionofaCompetitiveFirmintheShortRunTheSupplyFunctionofaCompetitiveFirmintheShortRunTheMarketSupplyCurvePriceDeterminationandtheDefinitionofaShortRunEquilibriuminaCompetitiveMarketPolicyAnalysisintheShortRun:ComparativeStaticAnalysisContentsxiConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsCOMPETITIVEMARKETSINTHELONGRUNTheLongRunEquilibriumforIdenticalFirmsTheLongRunEquilibriumforHeterogeneousFirmsDynamicChangesinMarketEquilibria:ConstantCost,IncreasingCost,andDecreasingCostIndustriesConstantCostIndustriesIncreasingCostandDecreasingCostIndustries:PecuniaryExternalitiesWhyAreLongRunCompetitiveEquilibriaSoGoodWelfareProposition:ConsumerandProducerSurplusAreMaximizedWelfareProposition:PriceIsSetatMarginalCostWelfareProposition:GoodsAreProducedattheLowestPossibleCostandintheMostEfficientMannerConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TwoWelfarePropositionsExercisesandProblemsMARKETINSTITUTIONSANDAUCTIONSTheDoubleOralAuctionandOneSidedOralAuctionMarketInstitutionsOtherAuctionInstitutionsPrivateValueAuctionsCommonValueAuctionsandtheWinner’sCurseConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsTHEAGEOFENTREPRENEURSHIP:MONOPOLYCosts,Demand,andProfitsPricingandQuantityDecisionsArbitrageandPricingPricingandElasticityMarginalRevenueOptimalPriceandQuantityResultsTheProfitMaximizingQuantityTheProfitMaximizingPriceTheSociallyOptimalPricePricingandProfitsTwoPartTariffsandNonuniformPricingCriticismsoftheTwoPartTariffSystemPriceDiscriminationxiiContentsConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheMonopolyProblemAppendixB:PriceDiscriminationExercisesandProblemsNATURALMONOPOLYANDTHEECONOMICSOFREGULATIONTheCostsofMarketEntryNaturalMonopolySustainableMonopolyTheInertiaShoppingRuleTheNeedforRegulationMonopolyandtheDeadweightLossAverageCostPricingTheTheoryofContestableMarketsRateofReturnandPriceCapRegulationRateofReturnRegulationPriceCapRegulationOtherRegulatoryIssuesRegulatingMultiproductMonopoliesTheRamseyPricingRuleConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheAllocationofCommonCosts:CrossSubsidizationAppendixB:FranchiseMonopolyExercisesandProblemsTHEWORLDOFOLIGOPOLY:PRELIMINARIESTOSUCCESSFULENTRYProductioninaNonnaturalMonopolySituationTheCournotTheoryofDuopolyandOligopolyReactionFunctionsAnAlternativeDerivationofReactionFunctionsDerivingaCournotEquilibriumStableandUnstableCournotDuopoliesUsingGameTheorytoReinterprettheCournotEquilibriumCriticismsoftheCournotTheory:TheStackelbergDuopolyModelAnAsymmetricModelTheStackelbergEquilibriumTheWelfarePropertiesofDuopolisticMarketsCriticismsoftheCournotTheory:TheBertrandDuopolyModelTheBertrandEquilibriumProvingtheBertrandPropositionContentsxiiiCollusiveDuopolyMakingCartelsStable:TheKinkedDemandCurveConjectureTheEdgeworthModelConclusionSummaryAppendixA:NashEquilibriuminDuopolyAppendixB:ImplicitCollusionandRepeatedGamesExercisesandProblemsMARKETENTRYANDTHEEMERGENCEOFPERFECTCOMPETITIONTheNeedforEntryPreventionStrategiesLimitPricingintheBain,Modigliani,SylosLabiniModelBlockadingMarketEntryImpedingMarketEntryCriticismsoftheBain,Modigliani,SylosLabiniModel:SubgamePerfectionUsingGameTheorytoAnalyzetheBain,Modigliani,SylosLabiniModelTheLackofaSubgamePerfectEquilibriumEntryPrevention,Overinvestment,andtheDixitSpenceModelPerfectCompetitionastheLimitofSuccessfulEntryWhenEntryPreventionFailsTheEffectsofSuccessfulEntryonPriceandOutputTheCharacteristicsofPerfectlyCompetitiveMarketsConclusionSummaryAppendixExercisesandProblemsSECTIONWELFARE,EXCHANGE,ANDGENERALEQUILIBRIUMTHEPROBLEMOFEXCHANGEHarvestingandGathering:TheNeedforTradeConstructingtheEdgeworthBoxandFindingFeasibleTradesFindingEquilibriumTradesBlockingTradesAnEfficient,orParetoOptimal,AllocationAGrowingPopulationandtheCoreAnEconomywithFourAgentsAnEconomywithManyAgentsConclusionSummaryAppendixA:TheShrinkingoftheCoreAppendixB:ParetoOptimaandtheContractCurveAppendixC:CompetitiveEquilibriumandParetoOptimalityExercisesandProblemsxivContentsGENERALEQUILIBRIUMANDTHEORIGINSOFTHEFREEMARKETANDINTERVENTIONISTIDEOLOGIESTheFreeMarketArgumentEfficiencyinConsumptionEfficiencyinProductionConsistencyofProductionandConsumptionPerfectlyCompetitiveMarketsSatisfytheConditionsforParetoEfficiencyTheTwoFundamentalTheoremsofWelfareEconomicsConsumerandProducerSurplusataParetoOptimalEquilibriumTheInterventionistArgumentABasisforIntervention:RawlsianJusticeAFreeMarketRebuttaltoRawls:Nozick’sProcessJusticeEquitableIncomeDistribution:Varian’sEnvyFreeJusticeInstitutionalFailure:AnotherInterventionistArgumentConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsSECTIONBREAKDOWNSANDMARKETFAILUREMORALHAZARDANDADVERSESELECTION:INFORMATIONALMARKETFAILURESMoralHazardintheInsuranceIndustryMarketFailureDuetoMoralHazardMarketSolutionstotheMoralHazardProblem:CoInsuranceandDeductiblesAdverseSelectionMarketFailureDuetoAdverseSelectionintheInsuranceIndustryMarketSolutionstotheAdverseSelectionProblem:MarketSignalingAdverseSelectioninEmployment:TheInstitutionofTippingMoralHazardandAdverseSelection:ExpertOpinionintheCarRepairBusinessDeterminingtheEquilibriumoftheCarRepairMarketIsThisaCaseforGovernmentInterventionAFreeMarketRebuttaltothePitchikSchotterRecommendationConclusionSummaryExercisesandProblemsEXTERNALITIES:THEFREEMARKET–INTERVENTIONISTBATTLECONTINUESTheExternalityProblemDescribedTheEffectsofanExternalityonOutputAnotherLookattheConditionsforaParetoOptimalOutcomeAnExternalityCausesMarketFailureContentsxvInterventionistSolutionstotheExternalityProblemPigouvianTaxesStandardsandChargesMarketablePollutionPermitsANoninterventionistSolutiontotheExternalityProblem:TheCoasianSolutionConclusionSummaryAppendix:ExcessProductionUnderExternalitiesExercisesandProblemsSECTIONINPUTMARKETSANDTHEORIGINSOFCLASSSTRUGGLEPUBLICGOODS,THECONSEQUENCESOFSTRATEGICVOTINGBEHAVIOR,ANDTHEROLEOFGOVERNMENTPublicGoodsandtheFreeRiderProblemDefinedTheFreeRiderProblemTheParetoOptimalConditionsforanEconomywithPublicGoodsTheLindahlSolutiontothePublicGoodsProbl

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