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首页 四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密.doc

四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密.doc

四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密.doc

上传者: miracle115 2010-11-09 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密doc》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密阅读理解是是大学英语四六级考试的重点。新四级题型把阅读理解分成了快速阅读和仔细阅读两个部分。其中快速阅读对阅读速度有了更符等。

四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密阅读理解是是大学英语四六级考试的重点。新四级题型把阅读理解分成了快速阅读和仔细阅读两个部分。其中快速阅读对阅读速度有了更高的要求而对阅读理解的深度和层次要求相对较低。仔细阅读虽然所占比例有所降低但仍然是考察的重点所在。仔细阅读虽说要求较高但我们在深入研究历届四级阅读理解真题后发现仔细阅读的考查内容有一定的内在规律可循。仔细阅读的问题设置可以概括地分成以下四种:文章主旨题判断推理题事实细节题词义推测题。下面我们将分别讲解各类题型的解题技巧。一.文章主旨题主旨是文章灵魂是作者要传达给我们的思想观点或者是作者要向我们说明的问题。主旨题要测试的是我们对全文或者文章其中某一段的中心思想的理解要求我们在充分理解文章的基础上做出分析和判断对文章的主旨进行概括。主旨题是仔细阅读必不可少的题型往往出现在文章的第一道题或者最后一道题。主旨题常见的提问方式有:Themain(principal)ideaofthispassageisWhat’sthemainidea(topic,subject)ofthispassageThispassagecenters(focus)onThispassagemainly(primarily)discussesTheauthor’spurposeinwritingthispassageisThebesttitleofthispassageisWhichofthefollowingstatementsbestexpressesthemainideaofthepassageWhichofthefollowingsentencesbestsummarizestheauthor’smainpoint在做主旨题时我们要注意以下几点:第一注意段首段尾。一般来说文章的第一段首句或末段尾句往往是文章中心思想的体现处有时段首或段尾的话就是该文章的中心思想。第二特别关注结论性或者转折性的语言。这些表达方式有:therefore,asaresult,thus,so,moreover,furthermore,what’smore,mostimportantofall,but,however,rather,yet等等。第三在选择正确答案的过程中尽量要避免选择过于绝对的选项。例如:选项中包含有all,completely,only,almost,absolutely,definitely等。通常正确的答案有一定的概括性和结论性过于细节的选项往往不是正确答案而过于笼统的选项则往往缺乏准确性或者过于片面需要我们在选择时注意。例一:ThepassageismainlyaboutAthebenefitsofmanageablestressBhowtoavoidstressfulsituationChowtocopewithstresseffectivelyDtheeffectsofstresshormonesonmemory原文“Humansshouldnottrytoavoidstressanymorethantheywouldshunfood,loveorexercise”saidDrHansSelye,thefirstphysiciantodocumenttheeffectsofstressonthebodyWhilehere’snoquestionthatcontinuousstressisharmful,severalstudiessuggestthatchallengingsituationsinwhichyou’reabletorisetotheoccasioncanbegoodforyou…【解析】选A。这是非常典型的主旨判断型题目。文章的首段就点明了主题给出了答案。作者在这里提出了一个全新的观点:承受一定的压力可以改善人的记忆能力对人有益。例二:Whatistheauthor’spurposeinwritingthisarticleATojustifythestudyoftheBostonUniversityMedicalCenterBTostresstheimportanceofmaintainingproperweightCTosupportthestatementmadebyYorkOnnenDToshowthemosteffectivewaytoloseweight原文:ExerciseisoneofthefewfactorswithapositiveroleinlongtermmaintenanceofbodyweightUnfortunately,thatmessagehasnotgottenthroughtotheaverageAmerican,whowouldrathertryswitchingto“light”beerandlowcaloriebreadthanincreasephysicalexertionTheCentersforDiseaseControl,forexample,foundthatlessthanonefourthofoverweightadultswhoweretryingtoshedpoundssaidtheywerecombiningexercisewiththeirdiet【解析】选D。文章开篇就明确提出主题Exerciseisoneofthefewfactorswithapositiveroleinlongtermmaintenanceofbodyweight接下来文章的内容都是围绕着这一中心思想来展开论述。选项AC过于细节而选项B理解有误。专题训练ExerciseOneThefoodweeatseemstohaveprofoundeffectsonourhealthAlthoughsciencehasmadeenormousstepsinmakingfoodmorefittoeat,ithas,atthesametime,mademanyfoodsunfittoeatSomeresearchhasshownthatperhapseightypercentofallhumanillnessesarerelatedtodietandfortypercentofcancerisrelatedtothedietaswell,especiallycancerofthecolon(结肠)DifferentculturesaremorelikelytocausecertaindifferentillnessesbecauseofthefoodthatischaracteristicintheseculturesThatfoodisrelatedtoillnessisnotanewdiscoveryIn,aboutyearsago,governmentresearchersrealizedthatnitrates(硝酸盐),commonlyusedtopreservecolorinmeats,andotherfoodadditives,causedcancerYet,thesecarcinogenic(致癌物的)additivesremaininourfood,anditbecomesmoredifficultallthetimetoknowwhichthingsonthepackaginglabelsofprocessedfoodarehelpfulorharmfulTheadditiveswhichweeatarenotallsodirectFarmersoftengivepenicillintobeefandlivinganimals,andbecauseofthis,penicillinhasbeenfoundinthemilkoftreatedcowSometimessimilardrugsaregiventoanimalsnotformedicalpurposes,butforfinancialreasonsThefarmersaresimplytryingtofattentheanimalsinordertoobtainahigherpriceonthemarketAlthoughtheFoodandDrugAdministration(FDA)hastriedrepeatedlytocontroltheseprocedures,thepracticescontinueQ:WhatisthebestpossibletitleofthepassageADrugBCancerCFoodDHealthExerciseTwoBelieveitornot,opticalillusioncancuthighwaycrashesJapanisacaseinpointIthasreducedautomobilecrashesonsomeroadsbynearlypercentusingasimpleopticalillusionBentstripes,calledchevrons,paintedontheroadsmakedriversthinkthattheyaredrivingfasterthantheyreallyare,andthusdriversslowdownNowtheAmericanAutomobileAssociationFoundationforTrafficSafetyinWashingtonDCisplanningtorepeatJapan’ssuccessStartingnextyear,thefoundationwillpaintchevronsandotherpatternsofstripesonselectedroadsaroundthecountrytotesthowwellthepatternsreducehighwaycrashesExcessivespeedplaysamajorroleinasmuchasonefifthofallfataltrafficaccidents,accordingtothefoundationTohelpreducethoseaccidents,thefoundationwillconductitstestsinareaswherespeedrelatedhazardsarethegreatest―curves,exitslopes,trafficcircles,andbridgesSomestudiessuggestthatstraight,horizontalbarspaintedacrossroadscaninitiallycuttheaveragespeedofdriversinhalfHowever,trafficoftenreturnstofullspeedwithinmonthsasdriversbecomeusedtoseeingthepaintedbarsChevrons,scientistssay,notonlygivedriverstheimpressionthattheyaredrivingfasterthantheyreallyarebutalsomakealaneappeartobenarrowerTheresultisalongerlastingreductioninhighwayspeedandthenumberoftrafficaccidentsQ:Thepassagemainlydiscusses  A)anewwayofhighwayspeedcontrol  B)anewpatternforpaintinghighways  C)anewapproachtotrainingdrivers  D)anewtypeofopticalillusionExerciseThreeMostpeoplewouldagreethat,althoughourageexceedsallpreviousagesinknowledge,therehasbeennocorrespondingincreaseinwisdomButagreementceasesassoonasweattempttodefine“wisdom”andconsidermeansofpromotingitThereareseveralfactorsthatcontributetowisdomOftheseIshouldputfirstasenseofproportion:thecapacitytotakeaccountofalltheimportantfactorsinaproblemandtoattachtoeachitsdueweightThishasbecomemoredifficultthanitusedtobeowingtotheextentandcomplexityofthespecialknowledgerequiredofvariouskindsoftechniciansSuppose,forexample,thatyouareengagedinresearchinscientificmedicineTheworkisdifficultandislikelytoabsorbthewholeofyourmindYouhavenotimetoconsidertheeffectwhichyourdiscoveriesorinventionsmayhaveoutsidethefieldofmedicineYousucceed(letussay)asmodernmedicinehassucceeded,inenormouslyloweringtheinfantdeathrate,notonlyinEuropeandAmerica,butalsoinAsiaandAfricaThishastheentirelyunintendedresultofmakingthefoodsupplyinadequateandloweringthestandardoflifeinthepartsoftheworldthathavethegreatestpopulationsTotakeanevenmoredramaticexample,whichisineverybody’smindatthepresenttimeyoustudythemakeupoftheatomfromadisinterested(无私的)desireforknowledge,andbychanceplaceinthehandsofapowerfulmadmanthemeansofdestroyingthehumanraceTherefore,witheveryincreaseofknowledgeandskill,wisdombecomesmorenecessary,foreverysuchincreaseaugments(增强)ourcapacityforrealizingourpurposes,andthereforeaugmentsourcapacityforevil,ifourpurposesareunwiseQ:WhatisthemainideaofthepassageA)ItisunwisetoplacetheresultsofscientificresearchinthehandsofapowerfulmadmanB)Themoreknowledgeonehas,thewiseronebecomesC)AnyincreaseofknowledgecouldleadtodisastrousresultswithouttheguidanceofwisdomD)Wisdomincreasesinproportiontoone’sage二.判断推理题判断推理题是仔细阅读中难度较大的题型。它要求我们对文章中的内容及作者的思路做出合理的判断和推理也就是要运用逻辑推理能力推论出蕴含在文章中却没有明说的事实及暗示的含义。由于暗示的内容和含义是作者想说而未说的因此推理判断题的答案往往不能从文章中直接找到而要根据据已知的信息来推理。判断推理题常见的提问方式有:Thewriter(author,passage)implies(suggests)thatItcanbeinferredformthepassagethatWhichofthefollowingcanbeconcludedfromthispassageWhatdoestheauthorconcludeaboutThepassageisintendedtoThefirstparagraphofthispassageistoHowdoestheauthorseemtofeelaboutthisissue判断推理在解题时我们要注意以下几点:第一掌握判断推理题题干中常用的标志性词如suggest,imply,indicate,conclude,infer等等。第二做题时应该先看题目对文章中所涉及的内容做到心里有数再带着问题在原文中逐条核查答案。第三回答这一类型的题目应该以文章中已经提供的信息和事实为推论的依据领悟作者的言外之意进行符合逻辑的推断。例三:Whatdidtheauthorsayaboutherownwritingexperience?AShewasconstantlyunderpressureofwritingmoreBMostofherstorieshadbeenrejectedbypublishersCShedidnotquiteliveuptoherreputationasawriterDHerwaytosuccesswasfullofpainsandfrustrations原文AsawriterIknowaboutwinningcontests,andaboutlosingthemIknowwhatitisliketoworkhardonastoryonlytoreceivearejectionslipfromthepublisherIalsoknowthepressureoftryingtoliveuptoareputationcreatedbypreviousvictoriesWhatifshedoesn’twinthecontestagainThat’sthestrangethingaboutbeingaparentSomanyofourownpastscarsanddashedhopescansurface【解析】选D。这是非常典型的推理判断型题目。这篇文章讲述了一个作家母亲指导女儿写作的故事通过作者的亲身经历向人们揭示出当今社会的子女教育问题。作者首先回顾了自身写作历程的艰辛。回答这个题目需要我们进行归纳总结。选项ABC都过于片面D为正确答案。例四:Whydoesn’ttheauthorwanttotalkaboutbeingawomanscientistagainA)ShefeelsunhappyworkinginmaledominatedfieldsB)SheisfedupwiththeissueofgenderdiscriminationC)SheisnotgoodattellingstoriesofthekindD)Shefindsspaceresearchmoreimportant原文Idon’teverwanttotalkaboutbeingawomanscientistagainTherewasatimeinmylifewhenpeopleaskedconstantlyforstoriesaboutwhatisliketoworkinafielddominatedbymenIwasneververygoodattellingthosestoriesbecausetruthfullyIneverfoundtheminterestingWhatIdofindinterestingistheoriginoftheuniverse,theshapeofspacetimeandthenatureofblackholes…theissuestartedtobothermeMyeveryachievementjobs,researchpapers,awardswasviewedthroughthelensofgender(性别)politicsSoweremyfailuresSometimes,whenIwaspushedintoanargumentonleftbrainversusrightbrain,ornatureversusnurture(培育),Iwouldinstantlyfightfiercelyonmybehalfandallwomankind【解析】选B。这里需要我们推断为什么作者不再想谈论作为一个女科学家的感受。作者指出人们不断地询问她在一个男性占支配地位的领域中工作是怎样的这样的问题本身就充满了对女性的否定和歧视。她感兴趣的是科学本身而不是这些无聊的歧视性问题。专题训练ExerciseFourTheAmericanRevolutionwasnotarevolutioninthesenseofaradicalortotalchangeItwasnotasuddenandviolentoverturningofthepoliticalandsocialframework,suchaslateroccurredinFranceandRussia,whenbothwerealreadyindependentnationsSignificantchangeswereusheredin,buttheywerenotbreathtakingWhathappenedwasacceleratedevolutionratherthanoutrightrevolutionDuringtheconflictitselfpeoplewentonworkingandpraying,marryingandplayingMostofthemwerenotseriouslydisturbedbytheactualfighting,andmanyofthemoreisolatedcommunitiesscarcelyknewthatawarwasonAmerica’sWarofIndependenceheraldedthebirthofthreemodernnationsOnewasCanada,whichreceiveditsfirstlargeinfluxofEnglishspeakingpopulationfromthethousandsofloyalistswhofledtherefromtheUnitedStatesAnotherwasAustralia,whichbecameapenalcolonynowthatAmericawasnolongeravailableforprisonersanddebtorsThethirdnewcomer―theUnitedStates―baseditselfsquarelyonrepublicanprinciplesYeteventhepoliticaloverturnwasnotsorevolutionaryasonemightsupposeInsomestates,notablyConnecticutandRhodeIsland,thewarlargelyratifiedacolonialselfrulealreadyexistingBritishofficials,everywhereousted,werereplacedbyahomegrowngoverningclass,whichpromptlysoughtalocalsubstituteforkingandParliamentQ:Inthefirstparagraph,whatdoestheauthorsuggestabouttheFrenchandRussiarevolutionATheywereexplosiveandabruptBTheywereineffectiveCTheyinvolvedonlythosepeoplelivinginurbanareasDTheyledtothereleaseofallpoliticalprisonersQItcanbeinferredfromthepassagethattheloyalistswhoescapedtoCanadacontributetothebirthofmodernARussiaBFrenchCUnitedStatesDCanadaQWhatwilltheparagraphfollowingthepassagemostprobablydiscussAThetransportofprisonerstoAustraliaBThecreationofnowstategovernmentsCEventslendinguptotheAmericanRevolutionDHowCanadaandtheUnitedStatesbecamefriendsExerciseFiveToproducetheupheavalintheUnitedStatesthatchangedandmodernizedthedomainofhighereducationfromthemid’stothemid–’s,threeprimarycausesinteractedTheemergenceofahalfdozenleadersineducationprovidedthepersonalforcethatwasneededMoreover,anoutcryforafresher,morepractical,andmoreadvancedkindofinstructionaroseamongthealumniandfriendsofnearlyalloftheoldcollegesandgrewintoamovementthatoverrodeallconservativeoppositionTheaggressive“YoungYale”movementappeared,demandingpartialalumnicontrol,amoreliberalspirit,andabroadercourseofstudyThegraduatesofHarvardCollegesimultaneouslyralliedtorelievethecollege’spovertyanddemandnewenterpriseEducationwaspushingtowardhigherstandardsintheEastbythrowingoffchurchleadershipeverywhere,andintheWestbyfindingawiderrangeofstudiesandanewsenseofpublicdutyTheoldstyleclassicaleducationreceiveditsmostcrushingblowinthecitadelofHarvardCollege,whereDrCharlesEliot,ayoungcaptainofthirtyfive,sonofaformertreasurerofHarvard,ledtheprogressiveforcesFiverevolutionaryadvancesweremadeduringthefirstyearofDrEliot’sadministrationTheyweretheelevationandamplificationofentrancerequirements,theenlargementofthecurriculumandthedevelopmentoftheelectivesystem,therecognitionofgraduatestudyintheliberalarts,theraisingofprofessionaltraininginlaw,medicine,andengineeringtoapostgraduatelevel,andthefosteringofgreatermaturityinstudentlifeStandardsofadmissionweresharplyadvancedinandBytheappointmentofadeantotakechargeofstudentaffairs,andawisehandlingofdiscipline,theundergraduateswereledtoregardthemselvesmoreasyounggentlemenandlessasyounganimalsOnenewcourseofstudyafteranotherwasopenedup―science,music,thehistoryofthefinearts,advancedSpanish,politicaleconomy,physics,classicalphilology,andinternationallawQAccordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingcanbeinferredaboutHarvardCollegebeforeprogressivechangesoccurredAAdmissionstandardswerelowerBStudentswereyoungerCClassesendedearlierDCoursesweremorepracticalQFromthepassageitcanbeconcludedthatwhichofthefollowingwasacharacteristicoftheclassicalcourseofstudyAMoststudentsmajoredineducationBStudentswerelimitedintheirchoiceofcoursesCStudentshadtopassfivelevelsofstudyDCoursesweresodifficultthatmoststudentsfailedKeys:ExerciseOne【解析】选C。这是一道典型的主旨题。全文只有一个段落我们首先要做的是找出段落的主题句。文章中第一句就指出“Thefoodweeatseemstohaveprofoundeffectsonourhealth”这正是本文的主题句全文也都围绕food这一主题展开论述它对人类健康的影响。ExerciseTwo【解析】选A。本文为说明文作者着重探讨了各种曲线和图案在交通方面的作用。略读全文之后读者了解到本文主要介绍了人字形线能够使开车的人产生视觉上的错觉:感觉车速比实际要快从而降低车速达到减少交通事故的目的。ExerciseThree【解析】选C。根据文章的最终结论(即最后一段)可以推断本文的中心思想为:知识的增长还需要智慧的引导否则会造成灾难性的后果。ExerciseFour【解析】选A。文章的第一段第二句“Itwasnotasuddenandviolentoverturningofthepoliticalandsocialframework,suchaslateroccurredinFranceandRussia,whenbothwerealreadyindependentnations”同后来发生在法国和俄国的革命不同美国革命并没有给其社会带来剧烈的变化。从这里我们可以判断法国和俄国的革命对它们国家的社会带来了剧烈的变化。只有爆炸性的突然性的革命才能给社会带来急剧的变化所以A正确。【解析】选D。题目问我们亲英分子(loyalists)逃往加拿大为哪个现代国家的产生做出了贡献。文章第二段的第一句有“America'sWarofIndependenceheraldedthebirthofthreemodernnations”由此根据选项只能选D。【解析】选B。本题要求我们推测短文之后可能讨论的内容。文章结尾段陈述的是革命带来的政治变化但不剧烈在有些州战争前就已经实行了殖民地自主统治革命只是使殖民地自主统治合法化。结尾段讨论革命带来社会、政治上的变化仅仅是开头显然还有很多其它形式的变革。所以下面段落中最有可能讨论的是其它形式的、使其成为一个新的国家的变革。ExerciseFive【解析】选A。文章第二段详细说明了哈佛改革后的情况由此可以推断改革前的情况要比改革后的情况落后。另外文章还清楚地指出改革后哈佛的入学标准提高了很多因此A项正确。【解析】选B。本题要求根据文章的内容推断出传统课程的特点。文章第二段指出改革后哈佛大学建立了选修课制度显然传统课程与改革后的课程特点相反由此可以确定在改革前的传统课程中学生选课受到限制因此选B。四六级冲刺备考之仔细阅读解密(二)期数:版数:点击数:更新时间:::(接上篇)三.事实细节题题事实细节题在仔细阅读中所占的比例最大。事实细节题主要是对文章中的具体细节进行考察涉及的范围很广如事情发生的时间地点人物目的结果经过发展等等。事实细节题的解题关键在于从文中找出相关信息。事实细节题的测试方法主要有两类:直接细节题即这类细节基本上从原文中可以直接得出答案(原文中的措辞与题目的措辞往往有些不同)因此相对要简单些。另外一类是间接事实细节题。即在原文中不能很明显地找到答案而需要做一些判断。不管属于哪一类型细心研读原文都是获取答案的重要方法。事实细节题常见的提问方式有以下三种:问句式这类形式顾名思义是以提问的形式提出问题通常以Wh特殊疑问词或者How开头问题主要涉及时间、人物、地点、原因、定义和数字等等。例如:)Whatcauses)Howmany)Whydoestheauthormention)Whereinthispassagedoestheauthormention…在解答这一类型题目时我们可以采用“对号入座”的方法也就是带着问题找答案。建议大家采用下面的步骤:第一先看文章后提出的问题然后带着问题去阅读文章做到有的放矢。第二在原文中找到相关的信息后我们把原文中的信息放到问题中与给出的选项进行比对从而找出正确答案。不完整的陈述句形式这种类型以不完整的陈述句形式出现要求我们从四个选项中选出一个正确答案将题干补充完整。选择的项目涉及人物、时间、地点、事物、数字、目的、原因等等。例如:Theauthor(orthepassage)statesthatAccordingtotheauthor(orthepassage),Dueto,theauthorbelieve…这类题目的答案与原文在字面上往往差异很大有时还需要我们找出与上下文在逻辑上的联系。因此回答这类题目时,准确理解原文意思是关键。在做题时要尽可能先记住所有问题以及选项的大意然后带着问题通读全文然后再次分析问题找出答案。排除式问题这类题目要求我们根据文章中事实的陈述来判断题目给出选项的正确与否。通常在所给的四个选项中有一个是正确的(或错误的)。例如:)Whichofthefollowingstatementsis(not)true(orcorrect))Allthefollowingstatementsaretrueexcept)Theauthorstatesalloftheitemslistedexcept)Whichofthefollowingisnotaresultof这类题目一般可以直接在文章中找到答案。在做这类题目时我们要首先仔细阅读题后的选项在原文中找到题目所问的相关信息后将选项的内容与原文比对从而排除不同的内容。真题再现Q:WhatisthemoststrikingfeatureoftheUniversityofPhoenixA)AllitscoursesareofferedonlineB)ItsonlinecoursesareofthebestqualityC)ItboaststhelargestnumberofstudentsoncampusD)Anyonetakingitsonlinecoursesissuretogetadegree原文Byalmostanymeasure,thereisaboominInternetbasedinstructionInjustafewyears,percentofAmericanuniversitieshavebegunofferingsomeformofdistancelearning(DL),andamongthelargerschools,it’sclosetopercentIfyoudoubtthepopularityofthetrend,youprobablyhaven’theardoftheUniversityofPhoenixItgrantsdegreesentirelyonthebasisofonlineinstructionItenrolls,students,astatisticusedtosupportitsclaimtobethelargestprivateuniversityinthecountry【解析】选A。这是典型的事实细节题关键词为theUniversityofPhoenix。根据题干中的关键词我们定位到文章的第一段。前两句为铺垫第四句中的it指的是theUniversityofPhoenix被作者作为最有力的证据来表明以网络为基础的教育正处在一个繁荣发展的时期。因此theUniversityofPhoenix最为striking的特征就是该学校完全以网络教育为且主授予学位。专题训练ExerciseSixCriticismofresearchlaysasignificantfoundationforfutureinvestigativework,butwhenstudentsbegintheirownprojects,theyarelikelytofindthatthestandardsofvalidityinfieldworkareconsiderablymorerigorous(严格的,严厉的)thanthestandardsformostlibraryresearchWhenstudentsarefacedwiththeconcreteproblemofproofbyfielddemonstration,theyusuallydiscoverthatmanyoftheimportantrelationshipstheymayhavecriticizedotherresearcherforfailingtodemonstrateareveryelusive(难以理解的)indeedTheywillfind,iftheysubmitanoutlineorquestionnairetotheirclassmatesforcriticism,thatotherstudentsmakecommentssimilartosometheythemselvesmayhavemadeindiscussingpreviouslypublishedresearchForexamplestudentresearchersarelikelytobeginwithageneralquestionbutfindthemselvesforcedtonarrowitsfocusTheymaylearnthatquestionswhosemeaningsseemperfectlybiased(有偏见

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