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首页 复件 Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goods.ppt

复件 Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goods.ppt

复件 Chap+2+International+Sales+o…

上传者: lhxy88688 2010-11-06 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《复件 Chap+2+International+Sales+of__+Goodsppt》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含InternationalSalesofGoods国际货物买卖法InternationalSalesofGoods国际货物买卖法cataloguec符等。

InternationalSalesofGoods国际货物买卖法InternationalSalesofGoods国际货物买卖法cataloguecatalogueVocabularyContent:topicQuestionsVocabularyVocabularyUCC:abbrUniformCommercialCode美国统一商法典ratification:confirmationapproval批准追认ratificationofcontract合同的追认ratificationoftreaty条约的批准CISG:abbrtheUnitedNationsConventiononContractsforSalesofGoods()联合国国际货物销售合同公约UNCITRAL:abbrtheUnitedNationsCommissiononInternationalTradeLaw联合国国际贸易法委员会LDC:abbrLessDevelopedCountry最不发达国家UNIDROIT:abbrtheInternationalInstitutefortheUnificationofPrivateLaw国际统一私法协会(因为实在罗马成立也称为罗马统一私法协会)http:wwwunidroitorgOAS:abbrtheOrganizationofAmericanStates美洲国家组织http:wwwoasorgNMEs:abbrNonmarketEconomies非市场经济国家Writing:termincludesprinting,lithography,photographyandothermodesofrepresentationorreproductionofwordsinavariableform书面文件Offer:aproposal,writtenororal,togiveordosomethingItmaybeexpressorimpliedfromconduct要约Delivery:thevoluntaryandformaltransferofpossessionunderCISG,relatingtotransferofpossessionorcontrolofthegoods交付deliveryofgoods交付货物deliveryonarrival货到交付deliveryatdischargingport卸货港交付deliveryofoffender引渡罪犯EXW:abbrExWorks工厂交货(指定地点)FCA:abbrFreeCarrier货交承运人(可用于各种运输方式)FOB:abbrFreeOnBoard船上交货(指定装运港)CFR:abbrCostandFreight成本加运费(指定目的港)CIF:abbrCost,InsuranceandFreight成本、保险费加运费(指定目的港)CPT:abbrCarriagePaidTo运费付至(指定目的地)CIP:abbrCarriageandInsurancePaidTo运费保险费付至(指定目的地)DAF:abbrDeliveredatFrontier边境交货(指定地点)DES:abbrDeliveredExShip目的港船上交货(指定目的港)DEQ:abbrDeliveredExQuay目的港码头交货(关税已付)DDU:abbrDeliveredDutyUnpaid未完税交货(指定目的地)DDP:abbrDeliveredDutyPaid完税后交货(指定目的地)UETA:abbrtheUniformElectronicTransactionsAct(美国)统一电子交易法UCITA:abbrtheUniformComputerInformationTransactionsAct(美国)统一计算机信息交易法BillofLading:documentusedinforeigntrade,signedbytheshipowner,masterorotheragent,statingthatgoodshavebeenshippedonanamedship,andsettingoutthetermsonwhichtheyhavebeendeliveredtoandreceivedbytheshipowner提单SEADOCS:abbr以公司的名称命名的方案该方案被认为是国际上为促进可转让提单的电子传输的首次努力it’saprojectnamedafteracompany,thepurposeoftheprojectistopromotetheuseofnegotiableelectronicbillofladingCMI:abbrtheComiteMaritimeInternational国际商事委员会(非政府组织)SWIFT:abbrSocietyforWorldwideInterbankFinancialTelecommunication环球银行间金融通信协会BOLERO:abbrruleofelectronicbillofladingIncoterms:InternationalChamberofCommerceTerms国际贸易术语解释通则forge:tomake,alterorimitate(asawriting)falselywithintenttodefraud伪造forgesignature伪造签名Misdelivery:deliveryofthegoodstothewrongpersonunderaBL错误交货Content:topicsContent:topicsTopicTheCISGTopicTheCISGTheunitedNationsConventiononContractsfortheInternationalSaleofGoods((hereafterCISG)governsthesaleofgoodsbetweenparitiesintheUSandpartiesinoversixtyothercountries,unlesstheparitiestothesalecontracthaveexpressly“optout”oftheConvention公约适用于美国及其他超过个国家间当事人间的国际货物买卖除非买卖合同当事人明确表示排除公约的适用。CISGenteredintoforceonJanuary,,thirteenmonthsaftertheUShadratifiedtheConventionanddepositeditsinstrumentsofratificationwiththeUN在美国批准该条约并将该批准文书交存联合国个月后于年一月生效。AsofJuly,,thereweresixtytwoContractingStatestoCISGrepresentingtwothirdsoftheworld’stradeingoodsOthercountriesareexpectedtoratifyoradoptCISGinthenearfuture截至年一月日有个公约缔约国代表世界货物贸易。其他国家都希望在不久的将来批准或适用该条约。CISGwasdraftedbyUNCTRAL,andadoptedandopenedforsignatureandratificationbyaUNsponsoreddiplomaticconferenceheldatViennainCISG由联合国国际贸易法委员会起草在年联合国发起的维也纳外交会议上通过并开放供签署和批准。UNCTRALisnottheonlyinternationalorganizationcurrentlymakingproposalsfortheunificationandharmonizationofinternationallawTheUNIDROITheldadiplomaticconferenceinTorontointoadopttheConventiononInternationalLeaseFinancing联合国国际贸易法委员会并不是唯一一个为国际法的协调与发展提出建议的国际组织。国际统一私法协会与年在多伦多召开的外交会议上通过了关于国际融资租赁公约。Inaddition,UNIDROIThaspreparedandissuedinthePrincipleofInternationalCommercialContractsTheprinciplesofInternationalCommercialContractsareapplicabletoallcontracts,notjustsalesofgoods,andtheirprovisionsaresetforthinmoregeneralterms另外国际统一私法协会于年制定并发布了《国际商事合同通则》。《国际商事合同通则》适用与所有合同并不只限于货物买卖起其条文在更广泛的范围适用。TopicTheSphereofApplicationofCISG适用范围TopicTheSphereofApplicationofCISG适用范围CISGenteredintoforceonJanuary,,andtheUSwasoneofthetwelveoriginalContractingStatesThemainpurposeofCISGistoavoidconflictsoflawproblems,nottoaggravatethemCISG于年月日生效美国是十二个原始缔约国之一。主要目的是法律冲突而不是加重。ThefirstsixarticleofCISGdefineitssphereofapplicationArticlerequiresthatasaleofgoodscontractbeboth“international”andalsobearastatedrelationtoaContractingbytheConvention公约前六条界定了公约的适用范围。第一条(规定了公约的适用条件)货物买卖合同必须具有国际性同时买卖合同与(一个或一个以上)公约缔约国具有公约所规定的某种联系。如果根据某个非公约缔约国的国内法此时管辖销售合同的法律并不是那个缔约国的国内有关法律而应该是该公约。由此可见公约可能适用于非缔约国当事人之间达成的合同。Indeterminingwhether“acontractisfortheinternationalsaleofgoods,“,CISGdosenotdefine“contract”,“sale”,or“goods”,butArticledoesdefine“international”在界定一个合同是否是国际货物买卖合同时公约没有界定合同或者货物但第一条界定了“国际”。TheConventiondoesnot,however,governallcontractsfortheinternationalsaleofgoods,butonlythosecontractswhichhaveasubstantialrequirementthatis,Stateswhichratified,accepted,approved,oraccededtotheConventionsoastobecomepartiestotheConvention然而公约并不适用于所以国际货物买卖合同只有当这些买卖合同符合一些实质条件。也就是合同国家批准接受核准或加入该公约从而成为该公约的缔约国。TheUSdeclaredareservationunderArticlethatitwouldnotbeboundbyArticle()(b)Thus,theUSversionoftheConventionisthatitisnotapplicablewhenacontractisbetweenpartieshavingplacesofbusinessindifferentStatesandonlyoneStateisaContractingStates,eventhoughchoice–oflawrulesleadtotheapplicationofthelawoftheContractingStates美国根据该公约条对第一条第一款b项提出了保留。因此根据该公约的美国版本营业地位于不同国家的当事人之间的合同而只有一方营业地所在国家是缔约国该公约不适用即使根据国际私法规则(冲突规则)导致了缔约国法律的适用。也就是说货物买卖合同的当事人在不同缔约国有营业所才能适用。(thatmeansinAmerican,theconventionisonlyapplicablewhenacontractisbetweenpartieshavingplacesofbusinessindifferentcontractingstates)TopicChoiceofLawClauses法律选择条款TopicChoiceofLawClauses法律选择条款UnderCISGArticle,thepartiesmayexpresslydeterminenottobegovernedbytheConventionHowever,ifsuchadecisionismade,caremustbeusedindraftingsuchastatementofexclusion公约第六条规定当事人可明确表必须示不受该公约的约束。然而如果做出这种决定必须谨慎的起草排除适用声明。IfthepartiesdecidetoexcludetheConvention,itshouldbeexpresslyexcludedbylanguagewhichsatesthatitdoesnotapplyandalsostateswhatlawshallnotbegovernthecontract如果当事人决定排除公约的适用必须通过语言明示表明该合同不适用该公约(不适用该公约同时表明合同不适用什么法律。)TopicOtherScopeIssues其他合同领域的适用问题TopicOtherScopeIssues其他合同领域的适用问题CISGArticleexpresslyincludescontractsforthesaleofgoodsnotyetproduced,unlessthe“buyer”undertakestosupply“asubstantialpart“ofthenecessarymaterials公约第三条明确规定尚未生产的货物销售合同应视为货物销售合同除非制造或生产所需的大部分重要材料是由订购货物的当事人保证供应。Salesinvolvingacombinationofgoodsandservicesarealwaysapotentialproblem,andArticleincludessuchcontractsunless“thepreponderantpart”ofseller’sobligationconcerns“labourorotherservices”涉及商品和服务结合的销售总是一个潜在问题。第三条规定销售合同包括这种合同。除非供应货物一方的绝大部分义务在于供应劳力或其它服务的合同。TheConventiondoesnotdefine“goods”,butArticledoesexpresslyexcludecontractsforthesaleofcommercialpaper,investmentsecurities,ships,aircraft,andelectricity公约没有界定货物但是第二条明确排除了商业票据销售合同、投资证券销售合同船舶飞机销售合同和电力销售合同。Ontheotherhand,CISGArticleexpresslyexcludesinternationalsalesofgoodstoconsumers,sothattheConventionwouldnotconflictwithconsumersprotectionlaws,whichareoften“mandatorylaw”Executionsalesandauctionsarealsoexpresslyexcluded另一方面第二条排除了仅供消费的货物买卖合同因此该公约不会与消费者保护法冲突消费者保护法通常是强制性法律。根据法律执行令状或其他令状的销售以及拍卖业被排除在外。OnefurtherlimitationontheapplicationofCISGisthatitsprovisionsdonotgovernalloftheissueswhichmayariseunderacontractwhichistotheConvention适用该公约的另一现在是该公约的条款并不调整因该公约下合同所引起的所有问题。TheConventiondoesnotdefine“contractofsale,“sothatitsapplicationtosometypesoftransactionsisproblematicKnownproblemsinclude“consignments”公约并没有界定销售合同因此适用于某些类型的交易是有问题的。如寄售合同。CasesintheUSandabroadhaveheldthatCISGdoesnotapplyto“distribution”and“turnkeyproject”contracts美国案例及美国国内都认为公约不适用于经销合同及总承包项目合同。CISGmaycoverthesalesaspectofaconditionalsale,butnotitssecuredtransactionaspects公约可能调整附条件销售的销售方面的问题但不调整担保交易方面的问题。TopicGeneralProvisionsofCISG总则TopicGeneralProvisionsofCISG总则Articlecontainits“generalprinciples”规定总则。ArticleisdesignedtoassistininterpretationoftheConventionitself条的规定用于解释公约本身。CISGArticle()isintendedtoinhibitlocalcourtswhichdecidedisputesundertheConventionfromapplyinglocallawtotheseinternationaldisputes,ratherthantheConvention公约第七条第一款的规定意在限制本地法院在解决条约下的合同争议时通过适用本地法律而不是条约解决争议。Article()continuesthisapproachinregardtosupplementaryprinciplesoflaw,or“gapfillers”UnlikethecorrespondingprovisionintheUCC公约第条第二款通过法律补充原则的方法或填补漏洞的方法限制法院地法的适用。不同于美国统一商法典的相应条款的规定。Articleattemptstoestablishrulesforinterpretingthecontractitself,anditstermsItestablishesathreetierhierarchy第八条试图建立解释合同本身及其条款的规则建构了解释合同的三层等级方法。Article()allowsthepartiestoinclude“anyusage”towhichtheyhaveagreed九条一款允许当事人适用任何达成一致的惯例。Article()concernstheincorporationofusagesbyimplicationBothlessdevelopedcountries(LDCs)andnonmarketeconomics(NMEs)soughttolimittheapplicationbyimplicationofusage九条第二款涉及惯例的默示同意适用。最不发达国家以及非市场经济国家都试图限制惯例的运用。IftheArticlereservationhasbeendeclared,thepartiesmaynotagreeotherwiseunderArticle如果某国根据条宣布保留当事人可能不会同意条下的例外情况。Articleprovidesthatacontractfortheinternationalsaleofgoodsisenforceable,eventhoughitisnotwritten,andmaybeprovenbyanymeans通过仍和方式证明存在条规定书面或非书面形式的合同都是有效的。Articletosatisfythe“writing”requirement条规定书面形式的含义。Articleandonlymakeunenforceablethosecontractswhichare“otherthaninwriting”,andArticlethendefines“writing,”asusedinCISG,Toincludeatelexortelegram及条只是规定没有书面条界定书面形式包括电报或电传。TopicContractFormation合同的订立TopicContractFormation合同的订立Thecontractformationprovisions(Articles)formaseparatepartofCISGPartIIOffer,acceptanceandconsideration,thosethreeelementsofcontractsformationarenotpresentinotherlegalsystemsThus,itshouldnotbesurprisingtolearnthatCISGhasnorequirementsof“consideration”initscontractformationprovisions要约、承诺、对价是合同订立的三个基本要素。而在其他法律制度中是没有规定的。因此在CISG的合同订立条款中没有对价要求是正常的。InsummaryandincomparisontotheUCC,CISGreducestheflexibilityofthepartiesbyprohibitingsomeopenpriceterms在总结和比较美国统一商法典后公约通过禁止一些公开价格条款的方式降低当事人的灵活性。CISGexpandsthe“firmoffer”conceptandappliesittomoreoffersandinthebattleoftheforms,CISGmaydelaytheformationofacontractthroughthe“mirrorimage”rule,andmayusethe“lastshot”principletomaketheofferee’stermscontrolthetransaction公约扩展了实盘的概念将其适用于更多的要约。在条款之战中公约可能通过镜像规则(要求承诺严格地与要约相符否则将被视为反要约Therulerequiresthatanoffereerespondtoanofferwithanacceptancethatisdefiniteandunconditional,andthatmatchesthetermsoftheofferexactlyandunequivocally)延迟合同的成立。也可能运用最后一投原则(Theformsentlastintimewillprevailothersasthecontract)使得受要约人控制合同。However,onthelastpoints,boththecourtsandtheauthorswhohavewrittenonthesubjecthavesuggestedwaysofavoidingthistraditionalanalysis然而最终法院和对此问题有研究的学者都提出了避免这种传统分析的方法。TopicSeller’sObligations卖方义务TopicSeller’sObligations卖方义务UnderCISGArticlethesellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsandanyrelateddocumentsandtransferthegoodsandanyrelateddocumentsandtotransfer“thepropertyinthegoods”tothebuyerInaddition,thesellerisobligatedtodelivergoodswhichconformtothecontractastoquantity,qualityandtitle根据地条卖方有义务交付货物、所有与货物有关的单据移交货物、所有与货物有关的单据转移货物的所有权于买方。另外卖方有义务交付与合同确定的数量、质量、所有权相符的货物。Indeliverycontracts,sellermaybeobligatedtodeliverthegoodstobuyer’splace,ortoasubbuyer’splace,ortoanylocationspecified在交货合同中卖方可能有义务将货物于买方所在地或次买方所在地或任何特定地点交付。Inashipmentcontract,sellerhasnoobligationtodeliverthegoodstoanyparticularplace,butitisclearthattransportationofthegoodsbyanindependentthirdpartycarrierisinvolvedThecontractmayrequiresellertotakemorethanoneactiontoaccomplishitsobligationof“delivery”在装运合同中卖方没有义务与特定地点交付但是很明显涉及一个独立的第三方承运人对货物的运输。合同可能要求卖方为完成交付义务而采取多个行为。ThemajorunresolvedissueistheextenttowhichlocallawregulatingdisclaimerswillimpactontheinternationalcontractsgovernedbyCISG悬而未决的主要问题是当地法律在多大程度上规定免责条款会影响公约对国际合同的调整。Seller’sobligationunderCISGArticleconcerningtitletothegoodsunderCISGistodeliverthegoodsnotonlyfreefromanyencumbrancesontheirtitle,butalsofreefromanyclaimofathirdparty根据条卖方必须保证所交付的货物所有权不得有任何瑕疵任何第三方不得提出权利要求。所有权担保Inadditiontogoodtitle,sellerisobligatedtodeliverthegoodsfreefrompatent,trademarkandcopyrightclaimsassertableunderthelawofthe“buyer’splaceofbusiness”ortheplacewherebothpartiesexpectthegoodstobeusedorresold除了担保货物具有完整的所有权外卖方还须担保根据买方营业地或双方当事人预期货物的转售地或使用地的法律第三人不得提出任何专利商标或版权要求。TopicRemediesforSeller’sBreach卖方违约救济TopicRemediesforSeller’sBreach卖方违约救济Ifsellerbreachesanyofitsobligations,buyerhasthreebasictypesofremedies:Specificperformance实际履行avoidanceofthecontract宣告合同无效(解除合同)actionfordamages损害赔偿之诉Inaddition,thereisapotentialselfhelpremedyunderArticle条规定了潜在的自主救济。Astospecificperformance,CISGArticlegivesbuyerwhohasnotreceiveddeliveryarighttospecificperformanceAnypreferenceforthisremedymustarisefrombuyer’sperspective,notfromthecourt’s实际履行公约条赋予没有受到交付的当事人要求实际履行的权利。提只能由当事人提出实际履行的要求而不能有法院提出。Asto“avoidanceofthecontract,”whichiscomparableto“cancellationofthecontract”atcommonlawandunderUCC()宣布合同无效于普通法系及美国统一商法典的解除合同近似CISGpermitsbuyertousethisremedyonlyiftherehasbeena“fundamentalbreach”byseller,regardlessofwhenthebreachoccurs只有在卖方构成根本性违约的时公约才允许当事人用此救济而不考虑违约行为何时发生。CISGArticleprovidetheaggrievedbuyerwithanactionfordamagesThereisnorequirementthatbuyerprovesellerwasat“fault”赋予卖方提起损害赔偿之诉。不要求买方证明卖方的过错。Wheresimilargoodsmaybepurchasedinthemarket,themostusualmeasuresoftheaggrievedbuyer’sdamagesareeither:当市场上能购买到相似货物时买方最常用的救济方式就是损害赔偿之诉。()thedifferencebetweenthepriceofcoverandthecontractprice,or()thedifferencebetweenthemarketpriceforthegoodsandthecontractprice标价与合同价格的不同(thebuyercanrecoverfromthesellerthedifferencebetweenthecostofthesubstitutedgoodsandtheoriginalcontractprice)货物的市场价格与合同价格的不同。TopicRiskofLoss损失风险TopicRiskofLoss损失风险Thebasicrule,underCISGanddomesticlaw,isthatbuyerbearstheriskoflosstothegoodsduringtheirtransportationbyacarrier,unlessthecontractprovidesotherwise公约及国内法的一条基本规则是买方承担承运人运输过程中的风险除非合同另有约定。ThecontractwilloftencontainatermwhichexpresslyallocatestheriskoflossandsuchtermssupersedetheCISGprovisions合同常常包含一个条款明示风险的承担该条款优于公约条款适用。Inmostsituations,titleandriskaretreatedseparatelyThus,manipulationoftitlethroughtheuseofdocumentsoftitle,suchasnegotiablebillsoflading,isirrelevantandhasnoeffectonthepointoftransferofriskofloss多数情况下所有权和风险的承担是两个问题。因此通过所有权凭证的运用如可转让提单操作所有权与风险不相干的与风险的转移也是没有影响的。Justastitleandriskaretreatedseparately,soalsobreachandriskaretreatedseparately违约与风险承担也是两个问题。However,ifsellerdoescommitafundamentalbreachinshipmentcontract,furtherdamagetothegoodsduringtransitwillnotdeprivebuyerofitsrighttoavoidthecontractunderCISGArticle但是如果卖方在装运合同中根本违约货物在运输过程中的加重损害不能剥夺买方依据公约条享有宣告合同无效的权利。TopicRemediesforBuyer’sBreach买方违约TopicRemediesforBuyer’sBreach买方违约Thepreferredremedyforanaggrievedsellerisacauseofactionfortheprice,whichisseller’sfunctionalequivalentofanactionforspecificperformanceInaddition,sellermaywishtoreclaimthegoodsiftheyaredeliveredorobtainsomeprotectionforthemifthecontractisavoidedandtheyarerejected卖方常用的救济是提起支付价金之诉这是与要求卖方实际履行之诉功能上相同的。另外如果货物已经交付卖方可能要求返还货物或者如果合同被宣告无效而卖方反对卖方可能保全货物的权利。Astoseller’srecoveryoftheprice,CISGArticlegivetheselleranunqualifiedrighttorequirebuyertopaytheprice,butnoCISGArticleexpresslystatesthatthesellerhasacauseofactionforpaymentoftheprice卖方要求支付价金的请求公约条赋予卖方无可争辩的请求支付价金的权利但是公约没有任何条款明确规定卖方提起支付价金之诉的诉由。Astodamages,CISGArticleprovidetheunpaidsellerwithanactionfordamagesandthegeneralprinciplesarethesameasinthediscussionofbuyer’sremediesforseller’sbreach对于损害赔偿公约到条赋予未收到货款的卖方提起损害赔偿之诉与买方提起的损害赔偿之诉的一般原则是一致的。TopicTheUNDIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContracts国际统一私法协会的国际商事合同通则TopicTheUNDIDROITPrinciplesofInternationalCommercialContracts国际统一私法协会的国际商事合同通则TheUNDIDROITPrinciplesforInternationalCommercialContractsrepresentadifferentapproachtounificationandharmonizationofinternationalcommerciallaw国际统一私法协会的国际商事合同通则代表了一种不同的协调和统一国际商事法律的方式。IntransactionstowhichCISGisapplicable,thecourtswillusuallyapplytherulesofCISG在联合国货物销售公约可适用的交易中法院通常适用该公约。TheUNDIDROITPrinciplesareonesourceofsuchgeneralprinciple,whereCISGissilentorambiguous当联合国货物销售合同公约没有规定或规定不明时国际商事合同通则作为一般性原则。Topromotemaximizationoftheirpersuasivevalue,UNDIDROITassembledindividualexpertsandrequestedthattheydraftthePrinciplestoreflectcurrenttradepractices为了提升通则的说服力国际统一私法协会组织专家要求专家起草的通则要反应当今的贸易习惯做法。Theprinciplesweredraftedoveraperiodofyears,andwereadoptedbyUNDIDROIT’sGoverningCouncilinMay,TheyaremorecomprehensivethanCISG通则的起草历经年国际统一私法协会理事会于年月通过通则。通则比销售公约更完备。ThePrinciplesprovidetwodistinctlydifferentpathsforassertingexcusefromperformancebychangedcircumstancesOneislabelled“ForceMajeure”andtheotheris“Hardship”通则规定了两种独立的情势变更下的不履行的免责事由一种是不可抗力另一种是艰难情形。TopicCommercialTerms贸易术语TopicCommercialTerms贸易术语Incotermsgivesthepartiesmenuofthirteendifferentcommercialtermstodescribethediliveryobligationsofsellerandthereciprocalobligationsofthebuyertoaccommodatedelivery国际贸易术语解释通则提供了种不同的贸

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